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Papers and Documents Relating to the History and Genealogy of the 
Ancient and Noble House of 


of Ross-shire, Scotland, and its Descent from the Ancient Earls of Ross, 

together with the Descent of the Ancient and 

Historic Family of 


from Rede of Troughend, Reade of Barton Court, Berks, and Read of 
Delaware. Also some account of the 


of Meredith, Cadwalader, Carpenter, Pumpelly, Drake, Carron d'Allon- 
dans, Foras and Ward, and the New England and Mayflower 
Families of Allerton, Bradford, Cook, Cushman, Freeman, Marshall, 
Warren and Waterman, together with articles on Ancient Free- 
masonry, the Knights of the Amaranth and Knights of Albion. 

By Major Harmon Pumpelly Read, f. R. g. S., 

Member of the Historical Society of New York and the 
Archivio Storico Gentilizio of Italy. 

Being a compilation of Original Documents found in the Archives of the Late 
General John Meredith Read, Original Articles by the Author and Com- 
piler, and Articles already published, including the Descent of the Earls of 
Ross by the Late Francis Nevile Reid, Esq. 

ALBANY, N.Y., 1908. 



Two Couies 


FEB 20 


Copyrlfc-nt Entry 

CLASS al XXC, No, 
Z.-2-5 ! 2-tf 
COPY 8, 1 

Copyright, 1908 
By Harmon Pumpelly Read 

Press of 

The Argus Co., Printers, 

Albany, N. Y. 


Descendants of the Earls of Ross 
in Scotland. 


fRrs. iKargurritr iir (Harnm Erafc, 





Contents. xvii 


Arms of Ross Frontispiece 

Earl of Ross's March 6 

Balnagown Castle 9 

Ancient stone carving at Daan House 84 

Tusculum, seat of Hon. John Ross 168 

Residence of Hon. George Ross at Lancaster, Pa 169 

Troughend . 197 

Tablet in Elsdon Church 198 

Ancient Library of Merton College 200 

Elsdon Church 209 

Redesdale 203 

Elsdon Castle 211 

Ruins of Barton Court 237, 238 

Shipton Court 246 

Horn of Nigel, the Forester of Borstall 252 

Silver tankard of Colonel John Read ( 1688-1754) 266 

Gravestone of Colonel John Read ( 1688-1754) 267 

Reading table, candlesticks and chair of Colonel John Read (1688-1754) . . 268 

Sword of Gunning Bedford 269 

Silver service of Hon. George Read (1733-1798) 278 

Read Mansion on Delaware Bay 279 

Decoration of the Order of the Cincinnati 281 

Discovery of Alliance and Morris Islands by Commodore Thomas Read. 282 

U. S. frigate Alliance 283 

Silver service of Colonel James Read (1743-1822) , 284 

Residence of Hon. George Read. 2d (1765-1836) 292 

Heraldic achievement of General John Meredith Read as a Knight Grand 

Cross of the Redeemer 303 

Masonic jewel and eagle of the 33d degree 309 

Grand Cross of the Redeemer ^2g 

Castor, tankard, server and coffee pot of Reese Meredith 329 

Old Carpenter House, Philadelphia 340 

Harmon Pumpelly house at Owego, N. Y 365 

Keys to Masons' marks . " 391-3 

Early seal of Rosicrucian Masonry 399 

Decoration of the Order of Hie Amaranth 402 

PORTRAITS — (Steel). 

Ross, Rev. George, M. A. (1679-1754) 154 

Ross, Hon. George, the Sig ler ( 1730-1779) 168 

Read, Colonel John, of Delaware (1688-1756) 264 

xviii Contents. 

Read, Hon. George, the signer (1733-1798) -7« 

Read, Commodore, Thomas ( 1740- 1788) 280 

Read, Colonel James ( 1743-1822) 284 

Read. Hon. John ( 1769-1854) 206- - I 

Read, Chief Justice John Meredith (1797-1874 ) 3°o • 

Read, General John Meredith ( 1837-1896) 302 . ' 

Read, General John Meredith, in court costume 306 «- | 

Read, Mrs. John Meredith (18 -18 ) 31O" ' 

PORTRAITS — (Process). 

Duchess of Sutherland r 5° 

Ross, Hon. John (1714-1776) 166 

Ross, Hon. George, the Signer ( 1730- 1779> l ~ 2 

Gurney, Mrs. 1 tenry ( nee Catherine Ross ) i7' v 

Reade, Sir Compton (1626-1679), first Baronet of Shipton Court 254 

Penyston, Lady, daughter of Sir Compton Reade 255 

Reade, Sir Thomas (1684-1752). fourth Baronet of Shipton Court 256 

Reade, General George (1687-1756), grandson of Sir Compton Reade.... 257 

Read, Sir John (1691-1712). third and lasl Baronet of Brocket Hall 260 

Read. General Meredith (1837-1896). at the age of 23. as Adjutant-General 

of the State of New York 3°4 

Read. Major Harmon Pumpelly ( [860- ) 3H 

Read, Colonel John Meredith < 1869- ) 312 

Pumpelly. Hon. Harmon (170; iXSji 364 

Read. Mrs. Harmon Pumpelly 373 

Foras, Bartolbmeo di (1362) 37° 

Foras, Count Amedee 377 

CO ATS-OF- ARMS —(Steel). 

Read. General Meredith 1 [837- [896) 3 '4. 

Read, General Meredith (1837-1896), as Knight Grand Cross of the 

Redeem r 3 ' -' 

Pumpelly 35§ 

Carron d'Allondans, shown in 1> >< »k-plate }7- 

COATS-OF- ARMS — (Process). 

Ross Fn mtispiece. 

Ross of Shandwick 3 1 

King's Escutcheon, or Arm- of David II. of Scotland 83 

Ross, shown in ancient stone carving at Daan House 84 

Earls of Ross §5 

Alexander Stewart. Earl of Buchan 86 

Ross of Balnagown 88 

Ross, Hon. John I 1714-1776). shown in book-plate 167 

United States of America l 9 l 

Rede of Troughend. shown on tablet in Elsdon Church 198 

Read of Delaware, shown on gravestone of Colonel John Read 267 

Contents. xix 

Read, Hon. George, the Signer (1733-1798), shown in book-plate 276' 

Read, General Meredith (1837-1896). shown in heraldic achievement as 

Knight Grand Cross of the Redeemer 303 ■ 

Drake family 3^7 


Ross, Hon. John (1714-1776) 167 

Read, Hon. George (1733-1798) 276 

Read, General Meredith (1837- 1896), steel 31 2 

Read, Mrs. Harmon Pumpelly, steel 372 •> 


Earls of Ross, descendants of 2 - '■'. 

Ross, Rev. George, descendants of 159 • '> 

Ross, Hon. George, descendants of 169. x 

Baronets of Shipton Court 2 53«- 

Read, Colonel John, of Delaware, descendants of 269 

Mayflower and New England families 345 *>/ 

Marshall family 348* \ 

Pumpelly family 358 " \ 

Drake, Roberts and Learning families 366 

Ward family of Maryland 378 


THE descent of the Ross and Read families from the ancient Earls of 
Ross, as shown in the following pages, is derived from the Ross and 
Read muniments. The pedigree from Malcolm, first Earl of Ross, to 
David Ross of Balblair, ancestor of the American or Read Rosses, is largely 
from the very accurate and valuable account of the descendants of the Earls 
of Ross, published by the late Francis Nevile Reid, Esq., himself a descendant 
in the female line. This account of the family appeared, in 1889, 1890, 1891, 
1892 and 1893, in The Scottish Antiquary; or, Northern Notes and Queries. 
edited by the Rev. A. W. Cornelius Hallen, M. A., Edinburgh. In his intro- 
duction to the work, which was accompanied by a well-planned key chart, a 
copy of which appears herewith, Mr. Reid said : 

In these tables there are probably many omissions, and possibly many errors; it 
is, however, hoped that their publication will bring to light fresh material, and enable 
what is faulty to be corrected. A life passed chiefly abroad has rendered it impossible 
for me to consult authorities which are easily accessible to others. I am anxious to 
thank all those friends who have given me during many years of research so much 
valuable assistance. 

In later publications Mr. Reid noted many corrections, and these changes, 
as well as many corrections by the author, have been made in the account as 
printed here. 

Mr. Reid was the son of the late Mr. Nevile Reid of Runnymede, by his 
second wife, Caroline, third daughter of the seventh Lord Napier. He was 
born in 1827, and married in 1859 Sophia, youngest daughter of Sir Thomas 
Gibson Carmichael, seventh Baronet. He died on the 12th of July, 1892, at 
the ancient palace of Ravello, three miles from Amalfi. Mr. Reid purchased 
this historical residence many years ago. It covered several acres, and he 
retained the Tower, the Saracenic Court and a large portion of the main 
building, which became under the auspices of Mr. and Mrs. Reid, the home 
of elegant comfort and hospitality. " Mr. Reid," says The Scottish Antiquary, 
" threw himself into works of utility and beneficence. He brought water 
from the mountains to the village of Ravello, cultivated lemons, walnuts, 
olives and vines, introducing new species from France ; while luxuriant gar- 
dens descended towards the sea by many terraces. Much was done for the 
district ; a carriage road was made, whereas formerly only mules and por- 
tantinas could approach the house. The fragments of marble which had 
formed the beautiful gallery of the cathedral were recovered and replaced 
and the cathedral restored, for which Mr. Reid received the thanks of the 
Italian Government. Not only were the poor attended to, but young men 
were educated, and much employment given. He died beloved and respected 
by high and low. The record of such a life affords consolation to those 
from whom it has been taken." 

2 Rossiana. 

These few lines are scarcely an adequate tribute to one who, in addition 
to his public services, has placed under lasting obligations all the descendants 
of the Earls of Ross. 


I. 1 Malcolm, Earl of Ross, had a mandate from Malcolm, King of Scots, 
to protect the monks of Dunfermline, dated at Clackmannan A. D. 1153-65 
(Reg. de Dunfermlyn, p. 25). He was of the Celtic family of O'Bealan or 
Builton, as Sir Robert Gordon writes it (Hist, of Earls of Sutherland). 
There never was an Earl who bore the surname of Ross, but when the title 
passed to descendants in the female line, the Lairds of Balnagown assumed 
the name as male representatives of the Earls. Malcolm must have lived 
also during the reign of William the Lion, 1165-1214. 

2. Ferquhard, second Earl of Ross, founded the Abbey of Feme in the 
parish of Edderton in 1230, and, dying about 1251, was buried there; the 
stone effigy of a warrior is said to mark his grave. 2 The Abbey was not 
long after its foundation removed to a site a few miles distant; hence it 
was often called Abbacia de Nova Farina. In 1597 part of the Abbey 
lands was erected into the temporal lordship of the Barony of Geanies, 
and in 1607 the remaining lands were annexed by Act of Parliament 
to the Bishopric of Ross (Statist. Account of Scotland). In 1237 he was 
witness to an agreement between the Kings of England and Scotland, in 
presence of Odo, the Legate (Foedera i. 233), and in 1244 he was one of those 
who informed the Pope of the treaty of peace made with the King of Eng- 
land (Mat. Paris Chron. Maj. iv. 383). Earl Ferquhard had 

3. William, his successor. (See below.) 
209. Malcolm, mentioned in the writs of the Lovat estate, No. 77, con- 
firmation by Alexander III. of the donation made by Malcolm, 
son of Ferquhard, Earl of Ross, to William de Byseth of the 
lands of Craigarn, 24th December and 12 of reign (Ant. Notes, 
C. F. Macintosh, Inverness. 1865). 

(1.) Euphemia. married Walter de Moravia, Knight, Lord of Du.fus, 

(2.) Christina, said to have been third wife of Olaus, fifth King of Man 
and the Isles, who died 1237. 

3. William, third Earl of Ross. " Wm. son of Earl Ferquhard wit." 
Sept. 1232 (Cartulary of Moray). He obtained a grant of the Isles of Skye 

lumbers in black-face type refer to corresponding numbers in the Key Chart 

2 Mr. Skene (Celtic Scot. vol. i, p. 483, vol. iii, p. 78) ignores Earl Malcolm, and 
makes Ferquhard the first Earl of Ross. He states that the territory belonging to the 
Celtic monastery of Applecross, founded in the seventh century by the Irish Saint 
Maelrubha, lying between the district of Ross and the western sea, from Loch Carron 
to Loch Ewe and Loch Maree, had passed into the hands of a family of lay abbots, 
called Sagarts or Priests of Applecross. This Ferquhard Macinsagart, son of the lay 
possessor, was thus a powerful Highland Chief. When Alexander II., soon after his 
accession (1214-49), was forced to suppress an insurrection in Moray and Ross, Fer- 
quhard, siding with him, seized the insurgent leaders and beheaded them. He presented 
their heads to the King, 15th June, 1215, was knighted and created Earl of Ross, which 
thus became a feudal Earldom held of the Crown. Is Earl Malcolm a myth? 



1 George Ross 
Mary Bird 

George Ross (The " Signer")=ANN I<awler. 

C#V 2 James Ross^ J^^/^t OsyoeU 3 Mary Ross 

James Wilson 

4 An n Ro ss 5 Pat ton Ross 6 Win. Bird Ross 7 Gertrude Read Ross 8 Geo. W. Ross 
James Hopkins Elizabeth Witmer (Unmarried) (Unmarried) Mary Witmer 

18 George Ross 19 Mary Elizabeth 

/ Ross (I,ast descend- 

ant named Ross of 

13 Washington 14 William 15 George 16 James M. 17 Ann (&$\JUD George Ross, the 

= = .y-rwv "signer.") 




24 James 
22 William 23 Henry C. and 10 others (Unmarried.) 

30 Henry C. 
(11 children) 

31 Ralph 32 Isabel 

9 Tho3.R. Ross 10 Robert Coleman Ross 11 Caroline Ross 12 Eliza Juliana Ross 

Samuel D. Orrick Dr. Abraham Carpenter 

20 John Newton Orrick 

25 Caroline 

26 Anna Julia 27 Eliza Ross 28 Harriette Borrows 

John H. McMurdy Frank M. Taylor E. C. Stimson 

I I 

33 John H. McMurdy 31 David Paul 

Mary Frances Kaufman 

21 Caroline Orrick 
David G. Eshleman 

29 George Ross 
Elizabeth Spencer 









Designations of members of the Ross Family n 
reference to the Key Chart. 

Achnacloich, 130, 131, 132, 133, 131a. Ui!>, 134c 

Aldie, liii., liiii., Iv. 

Allan, Little. 141, 142, lxv. 

Allan, Easter Little, Ixvi., lxvii. 

Ankerville. 97, 98. 

Ardgay, 74. 

Balblair, 197a, 197/>. 

Balmachy, 191, 194. 195, 196a. 196(.. 

Kalnagown, 9, 10, 11, 12. 13. 14. 15, 10, 17. IS, 19, 20. 

Balon, 205. 

Brealangwell, 88. 

Cromarty, xix. 

Culnahall, 190. 

Cunlich, xiii., xvi., xviii., xix.. Ixxix., lxxx. 

Daan, Little, 110, 11C. 

Drugillie, 123. 

Drumgelly, 176. 

Easterfearn. 100, 102, 103, 105, 106. 107. 

Eye, lxvii., Ixviii. 

Gladfield, 91, 92. 

Invercharron, 74, 75. 76. 77. 79, SO, 81, 82, S3, 84. 

Inverchassley, 50, 51. 52, 53. 54. 55, 56. 57. 58. 59, 60. 61, 62. 

Kerse, 157, 158. 

Logie Easter, 181, 182, 1S3. 

Pitkerie, xii., xxii. 

Pitkerie, Nether, xxiiii.. xxv., xxvi. 

Pitmaduthie, 126. 

Priesthill, 136a, 13W, 136r, 136J, 136c 

Ranyes, 149. 

Rarichies, 8. 

Rosehill, lvii. 

Ross, Earl of, 1, 2. 3. 4, 5, 6. 

Shandwick, 143, 144. 143. 146, 152. 154. 155, 156, 157. 171. 

Skeldon, Berbice, 159. 

Tarrel, Little, i., ii., iii.. iiii., v., vi., vii. 

Tolly, 130. 

The connection of the following branches of ti 
. ^^ aa ■ amu y wim mi-- main stem is at present 
doubtful. Sometimes there are only two or three 
generations, and then the family disappears; some- 
times, as in ' Morangie,' there are many generations: 

i of Kindeace, 1st family. 



' Morangie. 



Inverchassley.lst family 
' Pitcalzeane. 

' Tutintarroch 

Ross of Risollis. 







Andrew, provost of 1 am 

William, bail! ' 

: of T 




Ancient Earls of Ross. 3 

and Lewis from Alexander III, and died at Earles Allane — May 1274 
( Kalender of Feme). 1 having married Jean, daughter of William Comyn, 
Earl of Buchan, by his first wife. He was succeeded by his son and heir 

4. William, fourth Earl of Ross. In 1283 he was one of the nobles who 
acknowledged the Maid of Norway as heir to the Crown (Acts of Parlia- 
ment). He sided alternately with the English and Scotch parties; did 
homage to Edward I, as overlord in a chapel at Berwick, 1st August 1251 
(Bain's Cal. Doc. Scot. ii. No. 508). He was one of the auditors elected by 
Bruce and Baliol at the trial before Edward I. in 1292 (Palgrave, Scot. Rec. 
No. 18, p. 52). His seal is attached to one of the writings deposited in the 
Exchequer concerning the fealty done by John Baliol to Edward (Bain's Cal. 
ii. No. 660). In 1292 his lands in Argyll were formed into the Sheriffdom 
of Skye (Acts of Parliament). In 1296 the Scottish army, under the Earls 
of Ross, Menteith, and Athole, made an incursion into England, devastating 
the country. They succeeded in occupying the important castle of Dunbar. 
Edward determined to recover it, and sending a strong force to attack the 
Scots, the armies met on the high ground above Dunbar, when the Scots were 
utterly defeated with a loss of 10.000 men and many prisoners. On the day 
after the battle, 21st April 1296, Edward came to Dunbar, when the castle 
surrendered at discretion. Among the numerous prisoners was the Earl of 
Ross, who was sent a prisoner to the Tower, where the Sheriffs were ordered 
to pay six-pence a day for his maintenance (Hist. Scot. Tytler, vol. i, p. 99, 
Stevenson's Hist. Doc. ii. 27). His eldest son Hugh obtained a safe conduct 
to visit him 28th August 1297 (Hist. Doc. Scot. vol. ii.). On or about 29th 
September 1303, an order for his escort and guard, with minute directions 
for his journey, was issued. He reached Perth 12th December, where he 
remained with the Prince of Wales until 3d February 1303-4, when he was 
sent home. In 1305 he was appointed Warden beyond the Spey. In 1306 
Bruce's Queen and daughter. Princess Marjory, on the advance of the English 
army, took refuge in the girth or immunity of St. Duthace at Tain, but the 
Earl, violating the sanctuary, delivered them up to the English ; they were 
sent prisoners to England, and not liberated until 1312 (Foedera). In 1308 
Bruce and the Earl were reconciled at Auldearn ; he did homage and was 
infeft in the lands of Dingwall and Ferncrosky (Acts of Pari. Rob. hid., 
p. 16, No. 17). In 1312 he sealed at Inverness an agreement between the 
^iogs of Scotland and Norway, and in 1320 he concurred in the baron's 

r) '-"" asserting the independence of Scotland (Acts of Parliament) . 
er to the j. 0y ^ 3th January ^322]^ (Kalender of Feme), having married 

uied at Delny, 2> a l ac b' w ^° warmly supported the English party. 

P lemia — __ w ' s imprisonment Edward granted her maintenance from 

,, ""^kfrshushiuad He left issue 

-5. Hugh, his heir. (See bclozv.) 
207. Sir John, who married Margaret Comyn, second daughter and 

co -heiress of John. Earl of Buchan. He had with her half of 

the Earl of Buchan's heritage in Scotland (Rob. hid. 2. 44) ; 

dying s. p., the lands passed to his nephew, William, Earl of Ross. 

a To the Rev. Dr. Joass I owe a most careful transcript of the Obit notices of the 
name of Ross, from the Kalender of Ferae MS. on parchment at Dunrobin Castle. — 
F. N. Reid. •%' 


4 Rossiana. 

208. Sir Walter, who was a scholar at Cambridge 1306, and 4th June 
1307 received a gift of 10 marks from King Edward (Cal. Doc. 
Scot. vol. ii). He was the dearly loved friend of Edward Bruce, 
and fell at Bannockburn 23d June 1314. 

" Sir Edward the King's brother 
Loved, and had in sik daintie 
That as himself him loved he." — Barbour. 

(1.) Isabella, obtained a dispensation from Pope John XXII., dated at 
Avignon 1st June 1317. to marry Edward Bruce, Earl of Carrick. 
conne:ted within third and fourth degrees of affinity. He fell 
at the battle of Dundalk, .?. p. /., 5th October 13 iS. being styled 
King of Ireland. The marriage probably never took place. The 
mother of his illegitimate son Alexander, afterwards Earl of Car- 
rick. was Isabel, sister of David de Strabolgi, Earl of Athole. 
(New Peerage, Note, G. Burnett.) 
(2.) Dorothea, married Torquil M'Leod, second Baron of Lewis P. 
5. Hugh, fifth Earl of Ross. By a somewhat questionable exercise of 
Prerogative. Robert I. gave to Sir Hugh de Ross, Knight, son and heir of 
William, Earl of Ross, the Vice-County and Burgh of Crumbathy, 5th 
December 1316 (Exch. Rolls, Scot. vol. i). He obtained by various charters 
from the King (Rob. Ind. 2, 56, 58, 59, 60) the lands of Skye, Strathglass, 
Strathconan. etc. At the battle of Halidon Hill, near Berwick, fought on St. 
Magdalen's Day. 20th February 1333-4. he led the reserve to attack the wing 
which Baliol commanded, was driven back and slain 1 ( Tytlcr. vol. ii, p. 29). 
The English found on his body the shirt of St. Duthace, supposed to possess 
miraculous powers, and restored it to the sanctuary at Tain. 2 He married 
first in 1308 Lady Maud Bruce, sister to the King (Chart. Rob. Ind. 2, 49), 
" Hugonis de Ros and Mauld, sister to the King, the lands of Name cum 
burgo." , By her he had 

6. William, his successor. (See below. ) 

7. John, son of late Hugh, Earl of Ross, died 27th May 1364 (Kalen- 

dcr of Feme). 

(1.) Marjory, married, as second wife, before 1334, Malise, Earl of 

Strathern. Caithness, and Orkney. The Earl was attainted in 

1335 and his honours forfeited. He died ^. p. m. before 1357- 

He granted to William, Earl of Ross, his brother-in-law, the 

marriage of his daughter, Isabel, declaring her heiress to the 

Earldom of Caithness. She was given in marriage to Sir William 

St. Clair, and was mother of Sir Henry St. Clair. Earl of Orkney 

(Lib. Ins. Miss. p. 43, Rob. Ind. New Peerage, G. E. C). 

The Earl married, secondly, Margaret, daughter of Sir David Graham of 

Old Montrose, dispensation granted at Avignon by Pope John XXII., 24th 

November 1329, on the discovery, long after they were married and had issue. 

'On 1st of May, 1362, Robert de Lawedis, Lord of Ouarelwood, founded a chapel 
in the cathedral of Moray for his own soul, and especially for the soul of the late 
Hugh. Earl of Ross, his lord (Cartul. of Moray). 

-Duthace, Bishop of Ross, was of noble birth, and dying 1249, was enrolled among 
the Saints Sth March (Keith's Bishops Scot.). 

Ancient Earls of Ross. 5 

of a canonical impediment, and legitimating the children (Note, G. Burnett). 
She obtained another dispensation, 13th April 1341. to marry John de Barclay, 
and thirdly, 21st November 1348, to marry John de Moravia. By her first 
husband she had 

8. Hugh of Rarichies, 1 of whom hereafter as first of Balnagown. 
(1.) Euphemia, married, first, John Randolph, third Earl of Moray, 
who fell at the Battle of Durham, s. p., 17th October, 1346. She 
married, secondly, as second wife, Robert, Earl of Strathern, 
afterwards King Robert II. Dispensation granted by Pope In- 
nocent VI., at Avignon, 2d May, 1355, for the third degree of 
affinity and the fourth of consanguinity. The affinity is clear, 
the Earl of Strathern and the Earl of Moray being descended in 
the third degree from the Earl and Countess of Carrick. The 
relationship by consanguinity has yet to be discovered. The 

King died 13th May, 1390, and the Queen , 1372. With 

daughters they left two sons, 

(1.) David Steward, Earl of Stratherne, created before Novem- 
ber, 1375, Earl of Caithness. He died before 1389, leav- 
ing an only daughter, Euphemia, Countess of Stratherne 
and Caithness. 
(2.) Walter Steward, on the resignation of his niece Euphemia, 
became Earl of Caithness, created about 1409 Earl of 
Athole. He married, before 19th October, 1378, Mar- 
garet, only daughter and heiress of Sir David de Barclay 
of Brechin, by whom he had two sons, David, who died 
in England, v. p., leaving a son Robert, who joined his 
grandfather in the murder of James I., at Perth, and 
was executed at Edinburgh, March, 1437, a few days 
before his grandfather. His second son was Alan, Earl 
of Caithness, who died unmarried, 1431. 
(2.) Janet, married, first, Monymusk of that Ilk, and secondly, Sir 
Alexander Murray of Abercairney ; an indenture was executed 
at Perth, 24th November, 1375, between Queen Euphemia and 
her son, Earl David of the one part, and Alexander Murray of 
Drumsergorth of the other part, agreeing that Alexander Murray 
should marry Lady Janet de Mony-Muske, sister of the Queen, 
who with the Earl promised to assist him in recovering his in- 
heritance, and that Walter Murray, brother of Alexander, should 
if he pleased, marry the elder daughter of Lady Janet. (Ander- 
son's Dip. Scot. p. lvii, Earldom af Strathern, Nicholas.) The 
seals of the Queen and of her son were affixed to the indenture. 

1 George Crawfurd, historiographer of Scotland, records that Hugh of Rarichies, first 
Laird of Balnagown, was the son of Hugh, fifth Earl of Ross, by his first wife, Lady 
Maud Bruce, sister of Robert II. Rev. Compton Reade, in his " Record of the Redes," 
makes the same claim, thus showing that the Line of Balnagown came direct from 
the Earls of Ross and the Royal house of Scotland. (See " Read Descent from the 
Royal House of Scotland," post.) 

6 Rossi an a. 

(3.) Lilias, married William Urquhart, heritable Sheriff of Cromarty, 
who succeeded 1314. (Titles of Urquharts of Cromarty, Antiq. 
Notes, C. F. Macintosh.) 

6. William, sixth Earl of Ross and Lord of Skye, Justiciar of Scotland 
north of the Forth, called in a charter of 1374 " frater regis," was in Norway 
when his father died, and did not take possession of his Earldom until 1336. 
In 1346 King David assembled an army at Perth to invade England, but the 
expedition began badly, for the Earl of Ross murdered Ronald of the Isles 
in the monastery of Elcho, and returned with his men to their mountains 
(Exch. Rolls Scot. vol. i.). The soldiers of the Isles also dispersed, and 
many of the Highlanders followed them. The King advanced into England, 
and, T~th October, 1346. the battle of Durham was fought, and he was taken 
prisoner and sent to the Tower. The King was liberated in 1357 and held 
a Parliament at Scone. Nine years later the northern lords had thrown off 
their allegiance, and refused to contribute their rate towards the payment 
of the King's ransom and other burdens. Among the principal leaders were 
the Earl of Ross and Hugh, his brother. The Earl remained absent from 
Parliament in 1366, 1367, but in 1368 was obliged to find security to keep the 
peace (Acts of Parliament ). and engaged within his territories to administer 
justice, and assist the officers in collecting the taxes. (Tytler, vol. ii., p. 51.) 

In 1350 the Earl, with the approval of his sister, Marjory, Countess of 
Caithness and Orkney, and on condition of obtaining the King's consent, 
appointed his brother Hugh his heir (Bain. Chart. Orig. par. Scot. vol. ii. 
pt. ii. p. 487). On the death of his uncle, Sir John de Ross, he inherited half 
of the lands of the Earldom of Buchan {Acts of Parliament ). King David 
favoured the marriage of the Earl's daughter. Euphemia. with Sir Walter 
de Lesley without her father's sanction, and in 1370, probably remembering 
the Earl's conduct at Elcho, compelled him to resign all his possessions for 
reinfeftment. Therefore, a new charter was granted of the Earldom of Ross 
and Lordship of Skye, and of all his lands, except those which belonged to 
the Earldom of Buchan. first, to the heirs-male of his body; whom failing, 
secondly, to Sir Walter de Lesley. Euphemia, his spouse, and their heirs; 
whom failing, thirdly, to his youngest daughter. Joanna or Janet, and her 
heirs. After his brother Hugh's death he addressed a Querimonia, dated 
24th June 1371 (Antiq. of Aberdeen, Jos. Robertson) to Robert II. in which 
he styles himself " humilis nepos," complaining of the way in which all his 
possessions, and also those of his brother Hugh, lying within Buchan, had 
been taken from him by force and fraud, and given by the late King to Sir 
Walter de Lesley. This complaint met with no result ; a few months later 
he died at Delny. 9th February 1371-72 (Kalender of Feme), his only son, 
William, having died before him. In 1354 his son was proposed as one of 
the hostages for the payment of the King's ransom (Acts of Parliament), 
but in August. 1357 he was too ill to travel to England, and must have died 
before the end of the year. Therefore, in virtue of the new charter, the 
Earl's two daughters became heirs-portioners. William, Earl of Ross, John 
de Berclay, Thomas de Moravia (brother of the grantor) and others were 
witnesses to a charter by John de Moravia, granting certain lands in the 
barony of Awath to his " consanguines," Andrew de Ros, son of the late 


Ancient Earls of Ross. 7 

William de Ros, "militis." In the old copy on parchment of the charter 
the date is wanting. 

(1.) Euphemia. (See below.) 

(2.) Joanna or Janet, who died before 1400. having married in 1375 

Sir Alexander Fraser of Cowie, who, 4th June 1375, obtained 

a charter from Sir Walter Lesley in favour of him and his wife 

of the lands of Philorth and others, in compensation for their 

lands in Ross (confirm. Robert III. 28th October 1405). Sir 

Alexander was ancestor of the Barons Saltoun. (See Lord 

Saltoun, Frasers of Philorth). 

(1.) Euphemia, Countess of Ross, married first, before 1365, Sir Walter, 

second son of Sir Andrew Lesley, assuming j'u. ux. the title of Earl of Ross ; 

he died about 1379. The Countess was forced to marry, secondly, Sir 

Alexander Stewart, " Wolf of Badenoch," fourth son of Robert II, by whom 

she had no issue; dying 24th July 1394, he was buried at Dunkeld. He 

received a royal charter of all his wife's lands, 22d July 1382, and, 24th 

July, another charter styles him Earl of Buchan. The Countess became 

Abbess of Elcho, and, dying about 1394, was buried at Fortrose. By her first 

husband she left, 

(1.) Alexander. (See below.) 

(2.) Margaret. (See post.) 

(1.) Alexander Lesley, Earl of Ross, married Isabel, eldest daughter of 

Robert Steward, Earl of Fife and Duke of Albany, Regent of Scotland, third 

son of Robert II. The Earl died at Dingwall, 1402, leaving an only daughter, 

Euphemia, Countess of Ross, who became a nun. She illegally resigned 

the Earldom to her maternal uncle, Sir John Steward, who thereupon 

styled himself Earl of Buchan and Ross. He fell at the battle of 

Verneuil, 17th August 1424. 

(2) Lady Margaret Lesley, on the resignation or death of her niece 

Euphemia, was the next heir to the Earldom. She had married Donald 

M'Donald, Lord of the Isles, who now claimed the Earldom in her right. 

This claim being refused, he protested against the injustice, and, gathering 

a numerous force, came through the northern mountains and descended 

into the flat country near Harlaw, where he met, 24th July 141 1, a small 

force under the Earl of Mar, illegitimate son of the " Wolf of Badenoch," 

by whom he was defeated, — a great gain to the Lowlanders, for, had he won 

the battle, he would have been Lord of about half of Scotland (Burton, 

. Hist. Scot. vol. iii. p. 100). He died at Isla about 1423; the Countess was 

imprisoned on the Island of Inchcolm, in the Firth of Forth, and died about 

1429, leaving, with other issue, 

(1.) Alexander. (See belozv.) 
(2.) Hugh, ancestor of Lord Macdonald. 

(3.) Celestine, ancestor of Lord Macdonnell and Arras. Extinct. 
(4.) Margaret, married John, eighth Earl of Sutherland. She was 
nearly drowned in crossing the ferry at Unes, and, being drawn 
on shore, was murdered, it is said, at the instigation of the 

8 Rossiana. 

" Laird of Balnagown his daughter," by whom the Earl had 
two illegitimate sons. 1 Her only daughter, Elizabeth, became 
Countess of Sutherland, jure sua. 
(i.) Alexander M'Donald. Earl of Ross and Lord of the Isles. In 1427 
the Highland chiefs were summoned to parliament ; among them were 
Alexander of the Isles and the Countess of Ross, his mother. On presenting 
themselves they were seized and imprisoned. Alexander was soon after 
liberated, and the first use he made of his liberty was to devastate the 
Crown lands with a numerous force. James I. defeated him at Lochaber. 
23d July 1429, and he, being driven from place to place, on 27th August 
presented himself before the high altar of the chapel of Holyrood in 
presence of the King, Queen, and Court, clad only in his shirt and drawers, 
and, giving up his sword, sought for mercy. The King spared his life, but 
confined him for some months in Tantallon, when his mother and he were 
released and his lands restored. He died at Dingwall 4th May, 1448, having 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Alexander Seton, Lord of Gordon and 
Huntly, and leaving, with other issue, 

(1.) John, Earl of Ross and last Lord of the Isles. In 1456 the King 
gave him the barony of Kyneward, which, owing to the Earl's 
minority, had been in the King's hands in ward for three years. 
(E.vcli. Rolls Scot. vol. vi.). Sasina Com. Rossii de t. de Kyned- 
ward. James II.. 1456 (Ibid. vol. ix.). In 1462, having made 
an independent treaty with Edward IV., he was deemed a 
traitor, and, to avoid forfeiture was forced to cede his lands 
and titles to the Crown. In the ninth parliament of James III., 
4th July 1476, Art. 71 " annexes till his Crown the Earldom of 
Ross with the pertinents to remain thereat forever * * * 
it sail not be leiful to his * * * Successors to make Aliena- 
tion of the said Earldom or any part thereof frae his 
Crown * * * Saiffand * * * to give the said Earldom 
till ane of his or their secunde sounes." He was then partially 
restored, with remainder to his illegitimate sons, being made a 
Lord of Parliament under the style of John de Isla. Lord of the 
Isles. This title he finally forfeited in 1494. when he retired to 
the Abbey of Paisley, where he died s. p. I. about 1498, having 
married Elizabeth, daughter of James, Lord Livingstone, con- 
cerning whom there is the following entry in the accounts of 
the- Lord High Treasurer, vol. i., " 1497, 26 Nov. for ane vnce 
of sewing silk to the Countess of Ross to the Kingis clathes iiijs." 


8. Hugh Ross of Rarichies, first of Balnagown. He obtained these and 
other lands by a grant from his brother. As indicated by the mullet on his 
seal, he was third son of Hugh, Earl of Ross, being eldest son of the Earl's 

1 Isobella, daughter of Alexander Ross, seventh of Balnagown, wife of George Munro 
of Foulis; her son Alexander Sutherland (the Bastard) opposed service of "brief" in 
favour of Lady Elizabeth Sutherland, then wife of Sir Adam Gordon, at the Court 
held at Inverness. 25th July, 1509. 

io Rossiana. 

second marriage with Margaret Graham (see ante). On 30th March 1351 
he granted the lands of Scatterby and Byth to "Karissimo awunculo nostro 
Petro de Grame " (Ch. of Conf. Frasers of Philorth, vol. ii. p. 232). On 
10th May 1333 Earl Hugh granted to his son Hugh the lands then in the 
hands of Margaret of Ross by reason of her tierce when it should happen, 
except certain lands in Aberdeenshire reserved for William his son and heir 
(Bain. Char. Orig. Par. Scot. vol. ii. pt. ii. p. 486). In 1341 he obtained from 
his brother, Earl William, the lands of Westray, in 1357 those of Eister Alane, 
On 1st July 1365 he is styled Lord of Philorth (Rob. Index), which lands 
he exchanged with the Earl for Wester Ross, Strathglass, and Ellandonan. 
He died before June 1371, having married Margaret de Barclay. Charter 
26th February 1369, David II. to Hugo de Ros and Margaret de Barclay. 
He had issue, 

9. William. (See belozv.) 
(1.) Jean, married Robert Munro, eighth Baron of Foulis, killed 

1369. P- 

9. William, second of Balnagown. Confirmation by Robert II. to William, 
Earl of Ross, of the gift of the lands of Balnagown and others to his late 
brother Hugh and his son and heir William. Given at Badenoch 1st 
August 1374 (Great Seal). Confirmation to William de Ross, son and heir 
of the late Hugh, of the lands of Balnagown, 22d October 1378 (Great Seal). 
He married Christian, daughter of Lord Livingstone ( Citron. Earls of Ross) ; 
she is said to have built the Kirk of Alness, or, according to another account, 
the Bridge of Alness ; their son and heir was, 

10. Walter, third of Balnagown, styled in 1398 Walter of Ross, Lord 
of Rarichies; he received from Alexander Lesley, Earl of Ross, part of 
Cullys (Bain. Chart.). He married Katherine, daughter of Paul M'Tyre, the 
freebooter; she received for her dowry the lands of Strathcarron, Strathoy- 
kell, and Westray. This levier of blackmail was great-grandson of Lady 
Christina and Olaus, King of Man (see ante) ; on 5th April 1366 Earl 
William granted him and his heirs by Mary de Grahame the lands of Gerloch, 
forming part of the Sheriffdom of Skye (Rob. Index) ; the grant was con- 
firmed by Robert II. (Great Seal). 1 They left issue, a son. 

11. Hugh, fourth of Balnagown, is said to have married Janet, daughter 
of the Earl of Sutherland by Helen Sinclair, daughter of the Earl of 
Orkney (Chron. of Earls of Ross). At Dunrobin there is no trace of this 
lady or of the marriage of Hugh Ross ; he had, 

12. John. (See belozv.) 

140. Hugh, named in the Chron. 

141. Mr. William of Little Allan. (See post.) 

206. Mr. Thomas, on the resignation of his brother Mr. William, became 
Sub-dean of Ross and Parson of Rosskeen. As Sub-dean of 
Ross and Rector of the collegiate church of Tain he witnessed 
a charter 1487 (Great Seal). 

x Mr. Skene (Celtic Scot. vol. iii, p. 355,) states that the chronicle mentioning the 
marriage of Olaus the Black and Christina, daughter of Earl Ferquhard, does not name 
their supposed three sons, Leod, Gunn and Leandres, that this filiation is certainly- 
spurious. Paul was related to William the sixth Earl, and in various pedigrees is 
called grandson of Leandres. 

Line of Balnagown. n 

12. John, fifth of Balnagown, precept by Alexander, Earl of Ross and 
Lord of the Isles for infefting him as heir to his father Hugh {Bain. Chart.). 
John of Ross, Laird of Balnagown, was party to a bond (Hist. MS. Rep.). 
The lands of Little Allan on his resignation were granted by James IV., 
18th October 1490, to David Ross, his grandson and apparent heir (Great 
Seal). He is said to have married Christian, daughter of Torquil Macleod 
of the Lewes ; he had. 

13. Alexander. (See below.) 
136a. Mr. Donald of Priesthill. (See post.) 

137. Malcolm, named in the Chron.; he was perhaps burgess of Tain 

and father of William, who died 4th March 1537 (Kal. of F.). 

138. Andrew, burgess of Tain (Old MS. Pea 1 .). 

139. John, who is said to have married Munro of Tain 

(Old MS. Ped.). 

13. Alexander, sixth of Balnagown, fell at Allt Charrais, with a con- 
siderable number of the clan, in a fight with the Sutherlands. The Kal. of 
Feme states, under date i486, June, " Ob Alexr. ross de balnagown, mgri 
wilhelmi ross, et Vilhelmi ross, angusii de terrel, alexr. terrel. etc. in die 
scti barnabi apti, aho dhi m°cccc°lxxxvi apud aide charwis undecimo 
huius." He married Dorothy, daughter of Alexander Sutherland of Duffus. 
In the MS. at Dunrobin it is stated that " she had the wyt of the field of 
Aldyharves," and had issue, 

14. David. (See below.) 

(1.) Isobel, married, as first wife, George Munro, tenth of Foulis; their 
only son, George, was killed with his father, 1452. 

14. Sir David, Knight, seventh of Balnagown, married first Helen Keith, 
daughter of the Laird of Inverugie, " ane guid woman." Charter to him and 
Helen Keith, his wife, of Wester Rarichies and Culleis 28th October 1490 

(Great Seal) ; she died May 1519 (Kal. of F.). He married secondly 

a daughter of the Duke of Albany, by whom he had no issue. He died 20th 
May 1527 (Kal. of F.). leaving by his first wife, 

15. Walter. (See below.) 

74. William of Ardgay. (See post.) 
130. Hugh of Achnacloich. (See post.) 

(1.) Agnes, who married William M'Culloch of Plaids, and died at Hil- 
ton, 24th April, 1572. (Kal. of Feme.) 

15. Walter, eighth of Balnagown, was slain at Tain 12th May 1528 (Kal. 
of F.), having married Marion, daughter of Sir John James Grant of Grant, 
by whom he had, 

16. Alexander. (See bclozv.) 
73. Hugh. (Old MS. Ped.) 

(1.) Katherine, married John Denune, third of Cadboll, bailie and bur- 
gess of Tain. 

(2.) Janet, married, as second wife, Hugh Fraser, fifth Lord Lovat, slain 
at Lochlochy 1545 — " Hugh Lord Lovat and Janet Ross his 
wife," 19 July 1536 (Great Seal). 

16. Alexander, ninth of Balnagown, on 5th April 1569, signed a bond to 
be faithful to James VI. and the Regent. He was confined in the Castle of 

12 Rossiana. 

Thomptalloun {Reg. P. Conn.). He died at Ardmore 25th October 1592, 
buried at Feme, having married, first, Janet, daughter of John, third Earl 
of Caithness. Charter to him and Janet Sinclair his wife of the lands of 
Eister Rarichies, 26th September 1546 (Great Seal). He had by her. 
1~- George. (See below.) 

(i) Katherine, "the witch" (see "Witchcraft in Scotland" page 147). 
she married, as second wife. Robert More Munro of Foulis. who 
died 4th November 1588, by whom she bad. with four daughters: 
1. Geo. Munro of Obsdale. 2. John of Meikill Davanch, who 
married Beatrix Ross. Sas. 24th Janusry 1607, relict, and now 
spouse to Andrew Ross of Shandwick. 
(2.) Agnes (perhaps by first wife), married Duncan Campbell of Boath. 
(3.) Christian (by first wife?), married Kenneth Mackenzie, third of 
Dochmaluak, who died 1617, buried at Beauly. 
He married, secondly, Katherine, daughter of Kenneth Mackenzie of Kin- 
tail ; she died at Daan 12th April. 1592. was buried at Feme, and, with 
various daughters, had. 

21. Nicholas, first of Pitcalnie. (See post.) 

72. Malcolm. In 1580 King James granted him the chaplainry of 

Cambuscurry for his education. Charter to him of the lands 

of Cambuscurry 8th August 1598 (Great Seal). Sas. 30th April 

1606 on precept from chancery to him for the mill of Morinsche. 

He died s. p. 

1". George, tenth of Balnagown. in May 1560 was infeft in the Lordship 

of Balnagown on charter by his father (Balnagowy Papers), in 1567 was a 

student at St. Andrews, had a charter of the lands of Wester Feme, Mul- 

derg, etc.. 7th June 1606 (Great Seal), died 14th February 1615-6 (Kal of P.), 

having married first Marion, daughter of Sir John Campbell, first of Calder, 

by whom he had, 

18. David. (See belozv.) 

(I.) Jean. "Lady of Kintail." died 12th May 1604 (Kal. of F.), having 
married Kenneth, first Lord Mackenzie of Kintail. who died 

March 161 1. P. 

(2.) Katherine. "Lady Maye." died 5th July 1603 (Kal. of F.), having 

married Sir William Sinclair of Mey. P. 
(3.) Muriella. married Duncan Grant. Sas. 26th November 1606 on 
charter of the church lands of Rothemurchus by Patrick Grant 
to his son and apparent heir Duncan and Muriella Ross. 
(4.) Isobell, married as second wife John Munro. first of Fearn. 
George Ross married, secondly, Isobell, second daughter of Angus 
M'Intosh of M'Tntosh. " Lady Balnagown." Sas. 9th March 1669. He had 
also a natural son Alexander (Reg. P. Conn. 3d June 1596)- He was suc- 
ceeded by his son and heir. 

18. David, eleventh of Balnagown. Sas. 1st May 1606. on charter by 
George Ross to David his son and apparent heir of Culcarne and other 
lands. Heir of his father in the lands of Wester Feme. Downie, Ranylome, 
Meikle Rany. Pitkerie and others. 8th September 1615 (Retours). He died 
20th November 1632, buried at Feme, having married first — contract pre- 

Line of Balnagown. 13 

served at Dunrobin dated 7th and 8th July 1584 — Lady Mary Gordon, 
second daughter of Alexander. Earl of Sutherland, " a vertuous and comely 
lady of ane excellent and quick witt " (Sir R. Gordon); she died s. p. at 
Overskibo in 1605, aet. 22, buried at Dornoch. By the aforesaid marriage 
contract it was also settled that should there be a failure of an heir-male 
to Balnagown, then John, Master of Sutherland, should marry Jean, eldest 
daughter of George. He married, secondly, Lady Annabella Murray, 
daughter of John, Earl of Tullibardine. Sas. 6th January 1607 on charter 
from George Ross of Balnagown to Annabella Murray, about to marry his 
apparent heir; he was succeeded by his only son, 

19. David, twelfth of Balnagown, " being 21 years complete." Sas. 22d 
October, 1640. On commission of war Ross-shire 1643-44-46 (Acts of Pari.). 
He fought at the Battle of Worcester, and, dying a prisoner in the Tower, 
was buried at Westminster 29th December 1653 (Kal. of F.), having married 
in 1635 Marie, eldest daughter of Hugh, Lord Fraser of Lovat, " and now 
spouse," Sas. 31st March 1636; she died at Ardmore 22d December 1646 
(Kal. of F.), leaving issue, 

20. David. (See below.) 

Alexander, born 13th September 1645, died s. p., April 1665. 

(1.) Isobell, married, 1659, James Innes of Lightnet (Stodart's Scottish 
Arms, ii, 288), brother to Sir Robert Innes of that Ilk, being 
relict of Colonel John Sutherland, brother to Lord Duffus. 

(2.) Katherine, married Mr. John Mackenzie, fourth of Inverlael, " his 
spouse." Sasine, 8th April 1670, P. 

20. David, thirteenth of Balnagown, son and heir to his father, 6th 
October 1657, in the lands of Strathoykell, Inverchasley, and others (Inq. 
spec. Ross ct Cram.), Commissioner of Supply, Ross-shire, 1678-85 (Acts of 
Parliament), M. P. Ross-shire, 1669-74, Sheriff, 1689. He obtained a charter 
to himself and Francis Stewart of the lands and barony of Balnagown, 20th 
July 1688 (Great Seal). Born 14th September 1644, he died 17th April 
1711, s. p. I., having married (sasine on marriage contract, 10th April 1666) 
Lady Anne Stewart, daughter of James, Earl of Moray; she died 1719. 

He left several illegitimate children, among them " George, son to David 
Ross of Balnagown," Sasine 18th November 1694. He settled part of the 
Drum of Fearn on John Ross, mason in Balnagown, and Margaret Ross his 
spouse, 6th May 1668. 

Various settlements were proposed for establishing the ■succession to the 
broad lands of Balnagown, which, by a document registered at Fortrose in 
1688, consisted of forty-eight properties. An interesting account is given 
of the extraordinary intrigues for gaining possession of the estate in 
Antiquarian Notes, Macintosh, Inverness, 1865, pp. 57-/0. Excluding the 
old family, it passed to Lieut.-General Charles Ross, from him to his 
nephew, Honourable Charles Ross, who fell at Fontenoy, 30th April 1745, 
when his father, George, thirteenth Lord Ross, succeeded. His son, William, 
Lord Ross, inherited, and, dying unmarried 19th August 1754, after some 
litigation, it passed to his cousin, Sir James Ross Lockhart, whose descendant 
is now the owner. 

14 Rossiana. 


21. Nicholas, first of Pitcalnie, eldest son of Alexander Ross, ninth of 
Balnagown, by his second wife, Katherine, daughter of Kenneth Mackenzie 
of Kintail. Pitcalnie was conveyed to them by Henry, Bishop of Ross (Hist. 
MSS. 6th Report, p. 715). In 1587 Nicholas obtained a charter from his 
father of Pitcalnie and other lands. In February 1591 engaged with his father 
and half brother George (17) in assisting the fugitive Earl of Bothwell in 
the north (Reg. Priv. Conn.). Charter to him and David, his son and heir, 

of the third part of Arkboll. He died July 161 1 (Kalender of Feme), 

having married (contract dated at Arkboll. 24th June 1587) Margaret, 
daughter of Hugh Munro of Assynt, and widow of Alexander Ross, second 
of Little Tarrell. She had, 

22. David. (See below.) 

(1.) Christian, married Donald Macleod, seventh of Assynt. Sasine 
30th June 1624. 

22. David, second of Pitcalnie, heir of Malcolm Ross (72) of Cambus- 
curry, 27th October 1618 (Inq. spec. Ross ct Crom.). He died 14th October 
1646, buried at Feme, having married Jean, daughter of Alexander Dunbar 
of Munness (sasine 15th December 1640), leaving 

23. David. (See below.) 

40. Mr. Nicholas, " second son, wit." Sasine 15th December 1640 

41. Malcolm, first of Kindeace. (See post.) 

23. David, third of Pitcalnie, apparent of Pitcalnie, Sasine 26th October 
1639, appointed tutor to David, twelfth of Balnagown, being nearest paternal 
kinsman (Inqitis. de tutela). Commissioner of war, Ross-shire. 1648-9, of 
excise 1661, fined £720 (Acts of Parliament) . He married, first. Margaret, 
second daughter of Alexander Mackenzie of Kilcoy (sasine 15th December 
1646), by whom he had 

(1) Margaret, married Hector Douglas of Mulderg. Sasine on mar- 
riage contract 4th March. 1670. 
(2.) Katherine, married Robert Munro of Achnagairt. Marriage con- 
tract dated 30th August, 1679. 
He married, secondly, Christinia, daughter of Colonel J. Munro of Obsdale, 
widow of Captain James M'Culloch of Kindace ; she married, thirdly, John 
Munro of Fyrish. She had by her second husband, 

24. Alexander. (See below.) 

(1.) Issobel. only daughter, married Mr. James, eldest son of Angus 
M'Culloch of Pitnillie. Sasine on marriage contract 29th Sep- 
tember 1682. 
24. Alexander, fourth of Pitcalnie, in 1685 commissioner of supply Ross- 
shire (Acts of Parliament), in 1695-6 tenant of the bishopric of Ross (Rent 
Roll). He married Agnes, eldest daughter of Hugh Ross of Balmackie 
(sasine on marriage contract 12th February 1684), and had, 

25. Malcolm. (See below.) 

32. George, " brother of Malcolm." Sasine 15th April 1710. 

33. William, fourth son to Alexander, fourth of Pitcalnie. Sasine 

15th April 1710. Captain in the army, went to Antrim in 1741, 

Line of Pitcalnie. 15 

and died 18th October 1763, having married Elizabeth Brussack, 
widow of W. Whitly. They had, with two daughters, an onlv son 

34. Alexander, who married Honora Burke, and had, with three 

daughters, an only son. 

35. James. (See below.) 

(1.) Margaret, who died nth January 1730, having married Mr. David 
Ross, minister of Tarbat. who died 18th October 1748. 

25. Malcolm, fifth of Pitcalnie, who on the death of his cousin David, 
thirteenth of Balnagown (20) s. p. /., became the male representative of the 
Earls of Ross of the old creation, and chief of the family. In 1706 he was 
commissioner of supply, on 12th March 1708 he had a charter of adjudica- 
tion and resignation of his lands (Great Seal) ; by sasine, 23d August 1720, 
Alexander Forrester of Culnald ceded to him the quarter-lands of Annate 
in the parish of Nigg; in 1721 he is styled Burgess of Tain. He married 
first, in 1706. Jean, eldest daughter of Mr. J^mes M'Culloch of Piltoun, by 
whom he had, 

26. Alexander, eldest son of Malcolm R. and Jean M'Culloch. Sasine 

15th April 1710. (See below.) 

29. James. 

30. Charles, third son. Sasine 22d September 1730. 

31. Angus, fourth son. Sasine 22d September 1730. 

(1.) Anne, (2) Christian, (3) Isabel, (4) Katherine, who, with their 
brothers were alive in 1733. 1 
Malcolm married, second, Agnes, daughter of Hugh Wallace of Igliston 
and widow of George Munro. first of Culrain, by whom he had no issue. 
He was succeeded by his eldest son. 

26. Alexander, sixth of Pitcalnie, who died at Avoch, nth September 
1758 (Gents. Mag.), having married, first, Jean, second daughter of George 
Munro of Newmore, by Margaret, sister of the Lord President Forbes 
(contract dated at Arboll nth January 1729, sasine on it 22d September 
1730) ; by her he had. 

27. Malcolm, ob. v. p. s. p. m. In 1745 he was at College at Aberdeen, 

and, joining Prince Charles Edward, was attainted. He mar- 
ried Susanna, daughter of John Dunbar of Burgie; she died, his 

relict, 1794, and left an only surviving child Jean, who died in 

her thirty-first year, 23d September, 1788, having married Alex- 
ander Macpherson, Writer, Inverness. (Scots Mag.) 
Alexander married, secondly, Isobel. daughter of David M'Culloch of 
Piltoun. He married, thirdly, Naomi, daughter of John Dunbar of Burgie, 
Advocate (contract dated 12th December 1753) ; by her he had an only son, 

28. Munro. 

28. Munro, seventh of Pitcalnie, who settled the lands of Pitcalnie as 
follows, sasine 14th June 1760, on royal charter in favour of himself and his 
heirs-male, whom failing to Captain William Ross (33) of the Royal Regi- 
ment in Dublin and his heirs-male, whom failing to Duncan Ross of Kin- 

1 What became of all these sons and daughters, and of the second and third sons 
of Alexander, fourth of Pitcalnie? Did none of the sons leave issue? 

1 6 Rossi a n a. 

deace (-4-4) and his heirs-male, whom failing to David Ross (51) of 
Inverchasley and his heirs-male, whom all failing to the nearest heirs-male 
of the late Alexander, sixth (26). In 1778 he claimed the title of Earl of 
Ross, and his petition was presented to the House of Lords. Dying unmar- 
ried 2d March 1810, according to the terms of the settlement he was succeeded 
by his cousin James (35), only son of Alexander Ross (34). 

35. James, eighth of Pitcalnie, was served heir to his cousin 12th July 
1810. and died 31st March 1817. leaving by his wife Sarah, daughter of 
G. Johnston of Skerrins. Co. Dublin (she died 1816), 

36. James, ninth of Pitcalnie, served heir of Pitcalnie 23d August 1821, 

and died unmarried 12th April 1829. 

37. George, succeeded his brother. (Sec below.) 

38. Henry, died unmarried 1830. 

39. William Munro, died in Jamaica 1839, leaving a son William, who 

died unmarried in 1872. 
Blenerhassett died unmarried in Jamaica 1840. 
(1.) Sarah, married Donald Williamson, and had, with a daughter 
Sarah, married, first, John Ross, who died s. p., and, secondly, 
1862, Arthur Thompson, P. ; a son, John Hugh Ross Williamson, 

born May, 1S37, wno died , having married , 

leaving a son. 
George Ross Williamson, now of Pitcalnie. 
37. George, tenth of Pitcalnie, born 3d September 1803, married, 1st June 
1837, Katherine, daughter of Dugald Gilchrist of Ospisdale; she died 9th 
May 1888, and he having died 29th August 1884, s. p., was succeeded by his 
sister's grandson as above. 


41. Malcolm Ross, first of Kindeace, third son of David Ross, second of 
Pitcalnie, described as "in Gany " (Sasine 19th July 1624), then "in Mid- 
ganies " (Sasine 23d April 1627), obtained a charter from John Corbat of 
Little Ranie of part of the lands of Midganies in the Abbacy of Feme in 
favour of himself and Katherine Corbat his spouse (Sasine on the same 30th 
May 1649), and also a charter (Sasine 8th Augst 1651), from John Ross of 
Little Tarrel to him and his spouse of the town and lands of Tuttintarroch, 
called East and West Turnakis. In 1661 he is styled " of Knockan ; " in 
April of the same year he made a contract of wadset with David M'Culloch 
of Kindeace, and, 2d March 1667, obtained a disposition from Sir George 
M*Kenzie of Tarbat of the town and lands of Meikle Kindeace. parish of 
Nigg (Sasine 18th August 1683). In 1662 he was fined £600, was Justice of 
Peace, Ross-shire, 1663, and Commissioner of Supply 1667 (Acts of Par- 
liament). Circa 1672 he received a grant of Arms, " gu. 3 Lyoncells ramp, 
arg. within a bordure counter compound of the 2d and 1st. Crest, a fox 
passant proper. Motto, Caute non astute" (Lyon Off.). He died before 
8th May 1695, having had by his first wife, Katherine Corbat, 

42. William, younger of Kindeace, burgess of Tain 1680, infefted by 
his father in Kindeace 25th September 1684 (Kindeace Writs), 
who also, 2d February 1682, had disposed of the lands of Inver- 

Line of Kindeace. ij 

chasley in favour of him and his " apparent spouse Jean Dunbar," 
daughter of Sir Pat. Dunbar of Sidera, Sutherland. She married 
secondly, before 19th April 1712 (Sasine), Hugh M'Kay of 
Scourie. In 1688 William Ross was murdered by James, second 
Lord Duffus, his debtor, who had been asked for payment. As 
they were walking together between Balnagown and the ferry of 
Inverbreakie, Lord Duffus fell on him and ran him through with 
his sword ; he fled to England, and remained there until his friends 
purchased a remission from the Crown (Kindeace Papers). He 
was son-in-law to Lady Seaforth, who, writing to him from 
Chanori (Fortrose), 8th April 1688, says: "Many a man has 
fallen in such ane accident worse than your circumstances was, 
yet has been at peace with God and all the world, and lived very 
happily for all that." (Soc. Life in Form. Days, Dunbar, vol. i, 
p. 105). William Ross left 

43. David, heir to his grandfather. (See below.) 
— . William, brother to David (Sasine 4th May 1706). 
(1.) Katherine (marriage contract dated 17th March 1706), mar- 
ried Geo. M'Kay of Bighouse. She married, secondly, 
Robert Sinclair, of Geise, by whom she had one son and 
four daughters. 
50. David. (See post.) 

63. Malcolm, " merch. Inverness" (Sasine 16th May 1695), "brother 

of David" (18th October 1695), "son to Kindeis " (10th Feb- 
ruary 1697). 

64. Thomas. (See post.) 

(1.) Christian, married first William Ross, seventh of Invercharron, 
secondly John Ross, " of Gruinards." 
Malcolm, first of Kindeace, married secondly Jean, daughter of Thomas 
M'Culloch of Kindeace, provost of Tain, by Isobel, daughter of James David- 
son, provost of Dundee; they had (Sasine 16th May 1695) three sons, 

69. Alexander, born in Ross-shire 1661, Joined his uncle Robert M'Cul- 

loch, a merchant in Copenhagen, where he probably settled. He 
obtained a " bore brieve " setting forth his " honourable descent " 
for many generations. 

70. Nicholas, alive 1695. 

71. John, died before 16th May 1695. 

43. David, second of Kindeace, burgess of Tain 1709, of Dingwall 1732. 
Appointed chamberlain and receiver of the revenues of the Earldom of Ross 
14th November 1728, succeeded his grandfather in an embarrassed estate, 
having for guardian his uncle David of Inverchasley, Tutor of Kindeace. He 
married (contract dated 21st April 1709, Sasine on it 19th April 1712) 
Griselda, seventh daughter of Duncan Forbes of Culloden. They had, 
44. Duncan Forbes. (See below.) 
49. John, baptized at Tain 5th October 1722. 

(1.) Mary Innes (Sasine 26th June 1740), married Bernard M'Kenzie 
of Kinnoch. P. 

1 8 Rossi a ii a. 

(2.) Jean Dunbar, married Donald M'Kenzie of Orloch Hill. 
(3.) Katherine, married Provost Rose of Fortrose. P. 
44. Duncan Forbes, third of Kindeace, burgess of Nairn 1726. Charter 
of resignation and concession of the lands of Meikle Kindeace as heir general 

of his late father David, 6th August 1756 {Great Seal). He died 

November 1769, having married Jean, daughter of Hugh Rose, thirteenth 
baron of Kilravock. She died 1776, leaving, 

45. David, fourth of Kindeace, who died .>-. p. in 1S00, having about 

1788 sold the property to John M'Kenzie, Commander of the 
Prince Kaunits who changed the name to Bayfield. 

46. Hugh, Lieutenant of Marines 1776. 

*7. John, styled of Kindeace. {See below.) 

(1.) Jean Rose, married Mr. Joseph Taylor, minister of Carnbee, Fife. 
They had four sons and three daughters, of whom the second, 
Elizabeth Dunbar, married John Goodsir. 1 
(2.) Anne Munro, died unmarried 1837. 
(3.) Grace, died unmarried. 
(4.) Caroline, died unmarried. 
47. John, fifth of Kindeace, Lieutenant-Colonel 42d Highlanders, died at 

Lath 1819. having married, 30th April 1798, Honourable Letitia 

Browne, fourth daughter of first Lord Kilmaine. She died 30th December 
1809, leaving, 

48. James Caulfield Innes Munro, styled of Kindeace, Lieutenant in 

the army. Died unmarried in India 1834. 

(1.) Letitia, died young. 
(2.) Anna, died young. 


50. David Ross, first of Inverchasley, second son of Malcolm Ross, first 
of Kindeace, by his first wife Katherine Corbat. David Ross, thirteenth of 
Balnagown, granted a charter of the lands of Inverchasley to the aforesaid 
Malcolm ( Sasine 27th September 1671), who built a house there. David Ross, 
after the murder of his eldest brother, was appointed "Tutor of Kindeace," 
he was a writer in Edinburgh, 1692, commissioner of supply, Sutherlandshire, 
1695, 1704 (Acts of Parliament), sheriff-depute of Ross (Sasine 9th June 

1708). He died at Tarlogie January 1723, having married as first wife 

Mary, daughter of Hugh Munro, second of Newmore, 2 and relict of Roderick 
Macleod of Cambuscurrie, by whom, with other children, he had, 

51. David. (See below.) 

62. Malcolm, "son to Inverchasley" (Suit Roll, Tain, 1721). 
He married secondly, at Tain, without banns, 20th January 1718, Mary, 
daughter of Andrew Ross, sixth of Shandwick, and widow of William 
M'Intosh of Balnespeck, by whom he had an only daughter Mary, who mar- 

J To Robert Anstruther Goodsir, M. D., their son, I am indebted for much valuable 
assistance, and for copies of the Kindeace Writs. F. N. R. 

2 By this marriage, on the death of William Ross of Aldie (lviii.), 9th December 
1803. the estate of Newmore passed to David Ross, Lord Ankerville (52). 

Br audi of Inverchasley. 19 

ricd Grant of Balintoune. She had a son John, Lieutenant 42d 


51. David, second of Inverchasley, when examined as a witness in 1755, 
declared his age to be 55 (Antiquarian Notes). He acquired the lands of 
Easter and Wester Morangie from George Ross of Morangie (Sasine 3d May 
1726), and Dibidale in Kincardine (Sasine 14th October 1726). He died at 
Tarlogie 14th February 1764 (Scots Mag.), having married first (contract 
dated 30th July 1728), Elspat, daughter of James Sutherland of Clynes (Reg. 
of Tain), and secondly Anna Ross (Sasine 5th March 1745), to whom he 
disponed in liferent the lands of Meikle Ranyes. He had, 

52. David. (See beloiv.) 

59. Charles, Colonel of the Manchester Regiment of Foot, General in 

the army. He became owner of Invercharron, and died 

60. James, in the Scots Fusileers, died unmarried. 

61. John, by second wife, died at Madras unmarried. 
(1.) Ann, married William Ross, tenth of Invercharron. 

(2.) , married M'Culloch. Perhaps Jean, daughter of 

Inverchasley and Elspat Sutherland, baptized at Tain 25th Feb- 
ruary 1726. 

(3.) Mary Ann, youngest daughter, by second wife, married Captain 

Charles Munro, fifth of Culrain. He died at Madras 1782. 

Their grandson became Sir Charles Munro, Baronet. 

52. David, third of Inverchasley, was appointed in 1756 Stewart-depute 
of Kirkcudbright, in 1763 one of the principal clerks of Session, and in 1776 
was raised to the bench by the title of Lord Ankerville. When in 1786 he 
sold, for £17,600, the estates of Shandwick, Culliss, and Ankerville to William 
Ross, grandson of Andrew Ross, seventh of Shandwick, he retained Tarlogie 

and Morangie. Born 1727, he died at Tarlogie 16th August 1805, 

having married (contract dated 7th August 1755) Margaret, only child of 
John Cochrane of Ravelrig (Scots Mag.). She died 31st May 1812 (Ed. An. 
Reg.), leaving, 

53. David. (See below.) 
57. Charles. (See post.) 

(1.) Margaret, eldest daughter, married, circa 1783, James, son of 
William Baillie of Ardmore, and Captain 7th Fusileers. She left 
three daughters. 

(2.) Elizabeth, died unmarried. 

(3.) Jane, died unmarried. 

53. David. In 1777 he entered the house of Messrs. Coutts and Drum- 
mond. He married, , Marian, daughter to Colonel Gall, military sec- 
retary to Warren Hastings. She married secondly, 2d April 1809, the 8th 
Lord Reay, and died 2d July 1865. By her first husband she had, 

51. David, Colonel Bengal army. 

55. Charles, Lieutenant-Colonel Bengal army, married Marian, daughter 

of General Maxwell, and died s. p. 

56. Laurence, Lieutenant Bengal army, died unmarried. 

20 Russia n a. 

(i.) Margaret Ankerville, married, at Malta, ist March 1820, Colonel 

Shone, R. A., .y. p. v. 
(2.) Marian, married, at Malta, 12th November 1828, Colonel Cramer 
Roberts, and had two sons, of whom John, the eldest, is heir of 
line of Inverchasley. 
(3.) Jane, died unmarried. 
57. Charles, of Invercharron, advocate, Edinburgh, and judge in the con- 
sistorial court. The estate of Invercharron was entailed on him and on his 
heirs, male and female, by his uncle, General Charles Ross. He was born 

5th August 1768, and died 1836, being the last male representative of 

David Ross, second of Inverchasley. He married, , Margaret, daughter 

of James Borrowman, by whom he had, 
— . Charles, died unmarried. 
58. Robert Ferguson, who succeeded to Invercharron, and died s. p. 

10th January 1875. 
— . Ronald Crawford Ferguson, died unmarried. 

(1.) Margaret Ankerville, who. in virtue of the entail, inherited Inver- 
charron on her brother's death, having married, 1834, 

Captain Joseph John Grove, 25th Foot, who assumed the name 

of Ross. 1 They had, 

— . Joseph Charles, Captain 43d regiment, who died 8th May 

1889, having married, i860, Emily Henrietta Hay, 

daughter of William Erskine, fifth son of David Erskine, 
of Cardross. P. 
(1.) Harriet Goldie. 

(2.) Amelia Donald Ankerville, married i860, John Sen- 
house Goldie Taubman, her cousin. P. 
(2.) Mary Ferguson. 
(3.) Elizabeth. 
The entail of Invercharron was broken a few years ago, and the property 



64. Thomas Ross, ultimately first of Calrossie, was fourth son of Malcolm 
Ross, first of Kindeace, by his first wife Katherine Corbat; in 1665 was styled 
'* in Knockan ; " he obtained these lands and others 8th October 1695 ; by 
charter under Great Seal the lands of Easter and Wester Letters (Sasine 
25th May 1708) ; and by disposition from Mr. David Poison of Kinmylies 
(Sasine nth July 1709). "the J / 2 davoch lands of Calrossie in the parish of 
Logie Easter in favour of Thos. Ross of Knockan." These lands he disposed 
in liferent (Sasine 5th June 1716) to his wife Katherine Ross, by whom 
he had, 

1 Under Grove-Ross of Invercharron (Burke, Landed Gentry, 1879) it is stated that 

David Ross, second of Inverchasley, married , daughter of Ronald Craufurd of 

Restalrig, sister of the Countess of Dumfries, and that she was mother of David, Lord 
Ankerville. Margaret, second daughter of Patrick Craufurd of Achmanes, by his first 

wife, Gordon, married John Cochrane of Ravelrig; her half-brother, Ronald 

Craufurd of Restalrig, W. S., by Katherine Forbes, his wife, was father of Margaret, 
Countess of Dumfries, who was, therefore, cousin to Lord Ankerville's wife. 

Line of Invercharron. 21 

65. Thomas, second of Calrossie. On the Suit Roll of Tain 1730, town 
treasurer 1736, Sheriff-substitute of Ross 1750; in 1730 styled "of Knockan," 

in 1738 " of Calrossie." He died 1754, having married Isobel, daughter 

of William Ross, fifth of Easterfearn. He disposed of the lands of Pitneileis 
in the parish of Tain in her favour 21st October 1749, Thomas, their eldest 
son, being witness. The}- had, 

66. Thomas, younger of Calrossie, an officer in the army, killed on the 

heights of Abraham (Quebec) 12th September 1759. 

67. Alexander. (See belozv.) 

68. John, poisoned at Cork, circa 1781, by having a dose of arsenic 

administered to him by mistake for magnesia. Perhaps he was 
the elder brother of Alexander (67), for in two old letters there 
are the following notices : " Calrossie, recruiting in this town 
(Tain), 1776, most unluckily, and without intention, killed one of 
the town guard, for which he was try'd and acquitted at the last 
Inverness assizes." "Jack Ross (Calrossie) brought 11 recruits 
to be attested for Calrossie." 

(1.) Elizabeth, died unmarried. 

(2.) Katherine, died at Newton Ross, nth May 1757, ast. 25 (Scots. 

.Mag.), having married John Munro, second of Culcairn, who 

made a provision for her on his estates (Sasine 3d March 1753). 

Their great-grandson was the late Geo. Wm. Holmes Ross of 


67. Alexander, third of Calrossie, unmarried in 1790, and styled 



74. William Ross of Ardgay, afterwards first of Invercharron, second 
son of Sir David Ross, Knt., seventh of Balnagown, and Helen Keith his 
wife. In 1528 James v. granted to him, styled " brother of deceased Walter, 
eighth of Balnagown," lands in Strathoickell (Orig. Par. Scot. vol. ii, part ii, 

p. 690). He married , daughter of Alexander M'Kenzie, first of 

Davochmaluak, and had, 

75. Alexander. (See belozv.) 

128. Hugh. 

129. John. 

(1.) Effie, married Mr. Hector Munro, minister of Edderton, first of 
Daan (Sasines 22d August 1626 and 30 April 1629), lands of 
Little Daan. They had three sons, William, Alexander, John. 

75. Alexander, second of Invercharron, with other Rosses, harried the 
lands of Vaus of Lochslyne, 26th September 1610 (Reg. Priv. Conn.). He 
died 15th September 1619 (Kal. of F.), having married first Margaret, 

daughter of ■ Innes of Calrossie; charter to him and his spouse of the 

lands of Invercharron 17th May 1593 (Great Seal). He married secondly 
Isobel, daughter of William Ross of Priesthill. She married again Alexan- 
der, son of Thomas Ross in Tutintarroch (Sasine 30th July 1632). By his 
first wife he is said to have had seven sons and six daughters, and by his 

22 Rossi a ii a. 

second wife a numerous family (MS. Pcd.). At present it is impossible to 
decide on the maternal descent of all of the following sons: — 

76. William, son and heir. (See below.) 

121. Nicholas in Dalhome, brother to George Ross in Pitmadury 

(Sasine 2ist June 1626). 

122. David. 

123. Alexander " in Drumgillie." some time in Balnagown 1627, son of 

deceased Alexander of Invercharron (Sasine 20th October 1647), 
"of Drumgillie" (Sasine 5th April 1642). Died before Decem- 
ber 1668, having married Agnes M'Culloch (Sasine 30th May 

124. George in Pitmaduthie. 1 "heir of Alexander Ross of Invercharron, 

his father" (Inq. gen. 25th July 1638). probably eldest son of 

second marriage. He married , and had, with a 

natural son John (Sasine 1641), 

125. Alexander, 28th December 1652 (Kindeace Writs'). 

126. Walter. 

127. Thomas, "son of Alexander of Invercharron" (Sasine 26th 

November 1606). 
1276. Donald, "son of deceased Alexander" (Sasine 30th July 1632). 

76. William, third of Invercharron "apparent of" (Sasine 1st May 
1606). died 13th October 1622. buried at Kincardine (Kal. of F.), having 
married Katherine, daughter of Hugh Munro of Assynt. He had. 

77. Walter. I See below. ) 

93. Hugh. 

94. Robert. (See post.) 

120. Alexander. His father granted him a charter of the west half 
of Wester Feme, dated 19th November, 1620. Hugh, his 
brother, witnessed the sasine. 

( 1.) Ada, married William Ross of Priesthill. 

77. Walter, fourth of Invercharron, "son of late William" (Sasine 9th 
February 1630). On commission of war Ross and Cromarty 164S (Acts of 
Parliament). He married first Issobel, relict of James Innes, third of 
Calrossie, and daughter of Andrew Munro, fifth of Milntown (Sasines 9th 
June and 6th September 1625). married secondly Margaret, daughter of 
David Munro of Culnauld (Sasine 9th February 1630). He had, 

78. Sir David of Broadfoord. Knt. of Malta, " apparent of Inver- 

charron " (Sasine 5th June 1638). 

79. William. (Sec below.) 

(1.) Janet, married first Thomas Ross of Priesthill (Sasine 15th 
October 1639), and secondly, as second wife, Kenneth M'Kenzie, 
first of Scatwell, "relict of" (Sasine 12th May 1682), by whom 
she had two sons, Alexander and Kenneth, fourth of Scatwell, 
created Bart. Nova Scotia 1703. 

1 \\'illiam Ross in Pitmaduthie. witness (Sasine 8th June 1648), married Katherine 
Ross, " his relict " (Sasine 31st June 1698), by whom he had Andrew and William, 
" only sons," both in Pitmaduthie. 

Line of Invercharron. 23 

(2.) Christian, married Hugh Macleod of Cambuscurrie (son of Don- 
ald Macleod, seventh of Assynt, by Christian, daughter of 
Nicholas Ross of Pitcalnie) (Sasine 9th March 1650), by whom 
she had three sons, Roderick, /Eneas of Cadboll, Alexander 
of Sallchy. 
79. William, fifth of Invercharron, styled previously " of Grunzeard " 
(Sasine 4th August 1652). Commissioner of supply 1655 (Acts of Parlia- 
ment). Charter to his son and heir Walter, and his spouse Alary Gray 
(Sasine 30th December 1661). He married Janet, daughter of Walter Innes 
of Inverbreaky, "his spouse" (Sasine nth August 1652), and had, 

80. Walter, sixth of Invercharron, married Margaret Gray, widow of 

George Murray of Calrossie (Sasine 10th April 1666), and 
died .?. p. 

81. William, succeeded his brother. (See below.) 

88. Hugh of Brealangwell (see post), "'brother of Invercharron" 

(Sasine 6th August 1687). 
88b. David in Leakdavak, lawful son of William (Sasine 28th April 

(1.) Isobel (marriage-contract dated 13th April 1660), married Andrew 

Ross of Shandwick. 
(2.) Janet, married George Baillie of the family of Dunscan (MS. 


81. William, seventh of Invercharron, "son to deceased William" 
(Sasine 1st March 1676). He died before February 1693, having married 
Christian, "his spouse" (Sasine 31st June 1680), daughter of Malcolm Ross 
of Kindeace (marriage-contract dated 9th June 1677, registered at Fortrose 
6th June, 1678). She married secondly, John Ross of Gruinards. By her 
first husband she had, with another daughter, 

82. William. (See below.) 

(1.) Katharine, eldest daughter (Sasine on marriage-contract 14th 
September 1703), married Bailie John M'Culloch of Tain, brother 
to Mr. James M'Culloch of Piltoun. 

82. William, eighth, " now of Invercharron, eldest son of William, 
eldest brother to deceased Walter" (Sasine 7th August 1708), commissioner 
of supply 1685, 1689, 1704 (Acts of Parliament), died before 1721 (Tain 
Regr.), having married (Sasine on contract 9th August 1708), Helen, 
second daughter of Hugh Ross of Brealangwell, "his spouse" (Sasine 29th 
October 1719), by whom he had, with other children, 

83. David. (See bclozv.) 

87. George, Lieutenant in General Marjorybanks' Regt. 1758. 
(1.) Janet, married Angus Sutherland. 

(2.) Katherine, married John M'Culloch, Bailie of Tain, and had Ann, 
baptized at Tain 18th June 1721, David, baptized there 7th 
September 1722. 

83. David, ninth of Invercharron (Sasine 29th November 1736 on 
charter by George, Earl of Cromarty, to David, now of Invercharron, 
eldest son and heir of deceased William of Invercharron. in the parish of 
Kincardine). Buried 2d September 1758, having married, before 1727, Isobel, 

24 Rossiana. 

daughter of Hugh Ross of Achnacloich. She married, secondly, Robert 
Munro in Invercharron. By her first husband she had, 

84. William. (See below.) 

84&. David, died unmarried at Baltimore in America, 
(i.) Hannah. 

(2.) Margaret Janet, married John Munro, ship's carpenter, London. 
(3.) Hughina. 
84. William, tenth of Invercharron, married (Post-nup. cont.) Ann, 
daughter of David Ross, second of Inverchasley, and had, 

85. David, Captain, 1st Foot, d. s. p. 

86. Charles, soldier in India, 1783, d. s. p. 

(1.) Helen, married David M'Caw, accountant of Excise, Edinburgh. 
(2.) Elizabeth. 


88. Hugh Ross, first of Brealangwell, younger son of William Ross, fifth 
of Invercharron, and brother to deceased William, seventh of Invercharron 
(Sasine 25th February 1693), married Helen, daughter of David Dunbar of 
Dumphail, and had, 

88b. Hugh. (See below.) 

(1.) Anna, eldest daughter, married (contract dated 21st July 1707, 

Sasine on it 24th January 1711 ), John Gordon of Carroll. 
(2.) Helen, second daughter (Sasine on marriage-contract 9th August 
1708), married her cousin, William Ross, eighth of Invercharron. 

886. Hugh, second of Brealangwell, married first , by whom 

he had, 

89. Walter, styled " of Greenyards, younger of Brealangwell," " only 

son," 1720, married Helen Macleod (Sasine 7th May 1747), 
daughter of Roderick Macleod of Cambuscurrie, by Mary, 
daughter of Hugh Munro of Newmore, and had a daugh- 
ter , married circa 1748. The marriage-contract 

between Walter Ross and Helen, youngest daughter of the late 
Rosie Macleod of Cambuscurrie, with consent of Mr. yEneas 
Macleod of Cadboll, her uncle, and of .Eneas Macleod of 
Cambuscurrie, her brother, was signed at Invercharron 19th 
February 1715. David Ross of Inverchasley and Charles Ross 
of Eye, witnesses. (Gen. Reg. Deeds, M'Kenzie Office, vol. 161.) 
Hugh married, secondly, Elizabeth, daughter of William Ross of Aldie, 

by Sibla M'Kenzie his wife (Sasine 1st April 1725). Aldie was eventually 

settled on the sons of this marriage. 

90. William, " their son," 1725. 

91. Simon, of Gladfield before 1758, " son of the late Hugh, commonly 

called of Brealangwell" 1766, married Anne, daughter of Wil- 
liam Munro, third of Achany, and had, 

92. Hugh of Gladfield and Aldie, married Katherine, daughter of 

William Baillie of Knockbreak, d. s. p. 
(1.) Elizabeth, married, December 1780, John Davidson of Buchies. P. 

Branches of Ankerville and Easterfearn. 25. 

(2.) Isabella, married, December 1780, Robert M'Kay, Lieutenant, 

Sutherland Fencibles. S. P. 
(3.) Anne, married George Mackie, Rector of the Grammar School 

of Tain. F. 
(4.) Margaret, married Lieutenant George Munro. P. 
(5.) Mary, married John, son of Bailie Rose of Nairn. P. 
(6.) Georgina, married Rev. John M'Donald, D. D. P. 
(7.) Sibella, married George Ross of Midfearn, afterwards of Glen- 

canish in Assynt. P. 


94. Robert Ross, second son of William Ross, third of Invercharron,. 

who died 13th October 1622, had by two sons (MS. Ped.), 

96. William. (See below.) 

100. Alexander. (See post.) 

96. William had a son, 

97. Alexander, first of Ankerville (Sasine 3d January 1721, on charter 
under Great Seal in favour of Alexander Ross, late merchant at Cracow, 
of the lands of Easter Kindeace, now called Ankerville). He died between 
1743 and 1750, having married Sophia French (Sasine 26th January 1733)^ 
and had, 

98. Alexander, eldest son (Sasine 3d January 1728). 

99. David, second son (Sasine 1733). 

" The above Alexander, first of Ankerville, was in the service of Augustus, 
King of Poland, and being the only person who could bear more liquor 
than his Majesty, got to be a Commissary, came away with the plunder of 
churches in the war about the Crown of Poland, purchased this estate of 
iioo a year, built and lived too greatly for it, . . . and died much 
reduced." (Pocock's Tour through Scotland, Letter xxxiv. ). 

100. Alexander, first of Easterfearn, second son of the above Robert 
Ross (94), had by two sons, 

101. William. (See below.) 

119. Walter in Easterfearn, " brother-german to William" (Sasine 
12th January 1625). 

101. William, second of Easterfearn, died 9th April 1625 (Kal. of F.), 
having married Issobella Ross (Sasine 7th May 1630 on charter to her as 
" relict of William," by George Munro of Tarlogie, of liferent of part of 
Tarlogie). They had, 

102. Hugh. (See below.) 

118. William, "a prudent young man, brother-german to Hugh 
(Sasine 1st May 1726). 

102. Hugh, third of Easterfearn, " fear of Easterfearn," son of William 
and Issobell (Sasine 12th January 1625), "of Easterfearn" (Sasine 1st May 
1626), married Isobell, eldest daughter of Walter Ross of Morangie, and had, 

103. Hugh, fourth of Easterfearn, " son and heir of deceased Hugh 
Ross of Easterfearn" (Sasine 15th May 1651) ; living in 1676. He married 
, and had, 

104. Thomas, eldest son, d. s. p. and 

26 Rossiana. 

105. Alexander, fifth of Easterfearn, heir of Thomas, eldest son of Hugh 
Ross of Easterfearn, his brother-german (Rctour, 15th August 1694), "of 
Easterfearn" (Sasine 29th March 1687). Charter to him of the quarter 
lands of Kirkskaith (Sasine 23d April 1686). Commissioner of supply 
1685, 1689, 1690 (Acts of Parliament). He died before 30th January 1699, 
having married Janet, daughter of Gilbert Robertson, second of Kindeace 
(Inventory of goods of deceased Janet, 24th January 1700). They had, 

106. William. (See below.) 

110. Alexander of Little Daan, W. S., Edinburgh, and Solicitor of 
Appeals, London. Sasine 26th March 1736 on disposition granted 
by Robert Ross his brother of the lands of Little Daan. He 
died in Gray's Inn. London, 4th March 1753, having married 

, by whom he had, 

111. David, the famous tragedian, born 1st May 1728. When 
a boy at Westminster he offended his father, who dis- 
inherited him, leaving him a shilling to be paid yearly 
by his sister (if he claimed it) on May 1st, to remind 
him that he had better not have been born. He died 
14th September 1790. buried in St. James Churchyard, 
Piccadilly, having married the actress Fanny Murray, 
who died 2d April 1778. (Notice of him, Scot's Mag. 
( 1. ) Elizabeth, married Hugh Ross of Kerse. 
112. Robert (see post), heir of conquest to deceased Captain David 
Ross, his immediate younger brother (Sasine 4th March 1736). 
110. David of Little Daan, Captain in Lord Strathnaver's Regiment, 
and then factor to the Duke of Sutherland. Died unmarried 
before September 1735. 
117. Walter, "son lawful to Alexander Ross of Easterfearn" (Sasine 

26th August 1687). 
(1.) Janet, "spouse" to Mr. Arthur Sutherland, minister at Edderton 
(Sasine 7th June 1699), "relict" (5th April 1716). P. 

106. William, fifth of Easterfearn, ''eldest son and heir of late Alex- 
ander" (Sasine 31st October 1700). Commissary clerk of Ross 1706. Com- 
missioner of supply 1695, 1704 (Acts of Parliament). Principal Bailie of 
Tain. Purchased Tarlogie and Calrossie from David M'Lendris, 1 died 

1712, leaving his affairs in confusion, having married , 

by whom he had, 

107. Alexander. (See below.) 

108. Edward, merchant, Inverness (Sasine 15th December 1726). 

109. Walter, killed in Kintail 2d October, 1721, buried in Beauly 

Priory. After the rising in 1715. commissioners were 

'David M'Lendris, eldest son of Finlay M'Lendris, who died 25th November 1675, 
by his wife Isobel Fearn, only sister to David Fearn of Tarlogie, who died .y. p., was 
retoured heir of line to his uncle. He ceded the above-named lands to William Ross, 
17th August 1704, and with his consent gave a Sasine (Partic. Reg. Inverness, vol. vi.), 
14th June 1708, to David Ross of Inverchasley, who eventually became owner of 

Line of Tolly and Achnacloich. 27 

appointed to collect the rents of the forfeited estates. But in 
the vast territory of the Earl of Seaforth the government failed 
in obtaining payment, the rents being regularly sent by a faithful 
retainer to the Earl in Paris. William Ross and his brother, 
Bailie Robert, aided by a few soldiers and armed servants, 
rashly undertook to collect them ; meeting the Kintail men in 
force on the heights of Strathglass, Easterfearn, his son, and a 
son of 3ailie Robert's, were wounded. His son died next day. 
He gave up his papers, and bound himself not to act again on 
the Seaforth estates. (Hist, of Tain, Taylor, 1882.) 
(1.) Christian, eldest daughter. 

(2.) Isobel, died October 1766, having married Thomas Ross 

of Calrossie. 
107. Alexander, sixth of Easterfearn (Sasine 8th April 1726). Com- 
missary clerk for Ross. The estate of Easterfearn was sequestered 1735. 
He married Sarah Robertson (Dornoch Reg.), and left a son John, living 
1793, and a daughter Isabella Mary Margaret, baptized at Dornoch 4th 
November 1735. 
To return to — 

112. Robert, Bailie of Tain. He married Janet, daughter of Alexander 
Ross of Little Tarrell, and had, with others, two daughters, who were living 
at Tain 1745, and a son, a silversmith in Jamaica, 

113. William, who married , and had a son Robert. 

Lieutenant-Colonel, whose widow was living 1803, and four 
daughters : Elizabeth, married Carruthers ; Jane, mar- 
ried Miller ; Jean and Charlotte, unmarried 1793. Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Ross had four daughters : I. Maria Ann, who 
married, 9th May 1793, Major Joseph Wade, E. I. C. S. and was 
mother of Sir Claude Martin Wade, C. B. 2. Helen, married 
Denis O'Callaghan. 3. Amelia, married John Hilton, E. I, C. S. 
4. Charlotte, unmarried 1803. 
114:. David, in E. I. C. M. S., mate in the Dorrington 1745, married 
in London, — April 1746, Susan Hume, niece of Mr. Hume, 
M. P. and E. I. Director. 
115. W T alter, died unmarried on board the ship Calmar, circa 1743. 
(1.) Jannet, widow, 1745, of John M'Kenzie, "ship-master, Cromarty" 
(Sasine 1736). 


130. Hugh Ross, first of Tolly, younger son of Sir David Ross, Knight, 
seventh of Balnagown, laird of Achnacloich 1538, received these lands from 
James v. for an annual payment of £12. The name of his first wife is 
unknown ; he married, secondly, as third husband, Barbara, daughter of 
Alexander Tullock, and had by her an only surviving son, Robert. (Retonr 
of her in her tierce, Sheriff Court Books, Inverness, 19th October 1575.) 
By her first husband, Alexander Kinnaird of Culbin, she had a daughter, 
Issobel, who married Thomas Ross, commendator of Feme. "Ane honorabil 
man," who died 13th January, 1574 (Kal. of F.), and had, with a daughter, 

28 Rossiana. 

Janet, married in 1594, as first wife, to Walter Ross, first of Morangie, cora- 
mendator of Feme, a son, 

131. Hugh, second of Tolly, Sheriff Depute of Inverness (Sasine 18th 
October 1617), " vir vera pietatis imagine," died 10th September 1621, buried 
at Feme, having married Isabel, third daughter of George Munro, fourth 
of Miltoun. She died 24th December 1594, also buried at Feme. He mar- 
ried, secondly, Euphemia Munro, living 1607. He had, 

(1.) Hugh. (See below.) 
(2.) George, to whom his father granted a charter of donation of the 
lands of Pitkerie. He was also portioner of Inverchasley. (See 
first family so styled.) He disponed Pitkerie to the sons of 
Ross of Little Tarrell ; it finally passed into the hands of one 
son, who thus became " of Pitkerie." He married Margaret, 
daughter of William Ross of Priesthill. (See Priesthill.) 
(1.) Hugh, 1 designed of Breakauche, "apparent of Tollie," 24th April 
1592, complaint against him for seizing a certain John Ross, and carrying 
him prisoner to Balnagown (Reg, Priv. Conn.). He died in his apparency, 
circa 1610, having married Margaret, daughter of John Gordon of Embo, 
by whom he had, 

132. Hugh. (See below.) 
(1.) Eleanor. 

132. Hugh, third of Tolly, " heir of Hugh Ross of Achnacloich, his 
father," 1st October 1622 (/»<7. Gen.). Heir male of Hugh Ross of Tollie, 
his grandfather, in the lands of Tollie. (Same date. Ret ours Inq. spec. 
Ross et Cromarty.) David Ross, eleventh of Balnagown, granted to him, 
designed of Achnacloich, and to Hugh, his eldest son, the office of Forestry of 
the Forest of Friwater, and to him designed of Tollie, and to Hugh, his eldest 
son, the office of Bailiary of the lands and barony of Strathockell (Charters 
dated 27th February 1637, Sasines 22d October 1640). Also on the same 
day a letter of Forestry for 19 years, granting them free water, wood, 
timber, hart, hynd, doe * * * in the barony of Balnagown (Gen. Reg. 
Deeds Ed., vol. 532, 8th February 1640, " Hugh of Tollie," etc., top of p. 62). 
" Hugh of Tollie, wt twa of his servandis, died suddenlie in the Castell of 
Cromartie," buried at Feme 2d February 1643, having married Agnes, 
daughter of John M'Kenzie, first of Inverlael, sub-dean of Ross. They had, 

133. Hugh. Died young. 

135. John. (See below 134«) ; "son to Hugh, late of Tollie" (Sasine 
16th Xovember 1652). Disposition to him of the chaplainry of 
Alnes by Alexander Louis, merchant of Edinburgh (Gen. Reg. 
Deeds Ed. vol. 532). George, younger brother of John, was 
living 1663. 

(1.) Margaret (Sasine 30th May, 1649), married Walter Ross of Bella- 
muckie. P. 

J I have to thank Miss Gilchrist for her kindness in giving me much valuable 
information, and especially for having pointed out the omission of Hugh Ross of 
Breakauche from the notes on Achnacloich, as previously printed. F. N. R. 

In 153S James V. granted to Hugh Ross for five years, three marklands of 
" Brckauche," and five marklands of "Auchneclaych." — (Reg. See. Sig., vol. xi, fol. 93.) 

Branch of Priest hill. 29 

134a. John, fourth "of Achnacloich " (Sasine 22d October 1686), son 
and heir to deceased Hugh Ross of Tollie (Sasine 15th August, 1671) ; the 
disposition made to him 10th September 1641, of the chaplainry of Alnes 
and its revenues was made " with the consent of Hugh Ross of Tollie (his 
father), for himself, and the heirs of the late Hugh of Tollie, his father, and 
of the deceased Hugh of Tollie, his guidsir." He died before 1687, having 
married Margaret, daughter of Colin M'Kenzie, first of Kincraig, and widow 
of Gilbert Robertson, second of Kindeace, and had, 

134b. John, fifth of Achnacloich, commissioner of supply Ross 1690, and 
1704 (Acts of Parliament), Sheriff-deputy of Ross 5th July 1700, M. P. for 

Tain. Born , 1660, marriage-contract dated 1687; he died 

1716. He married Margaret Barbour, heir of line to James Barbour, 

merchant, Inverness, her brother (Inq. gen., 10th May 1700, I. 236). They 
had, with two daughters, Janet and Jean, the latter married to Arthur Ross 
of Priesthill, 

134c. Hugh. (See below.) 
134c Robert. (See post.) 
(1.) Christian, "eldest daughter of deceased John." Sasine on mar- 
riage-contract 25th November 1737, dated 19th April 1715. She 
died 1st January 1770, having married Mr. Hugh Munro of 
Kiltearn, minister of Tain. He died 16th May 1744. P. (Regs, 
of Tain.) 
134c. Hugh, sixth of Achnacloich (Sasine 2d July, 1717), on disposition 
by John Ross of Achnacloich in favour of Hugh of Tolly, his eldest son, 
of the lands of Tolly and others in the parish of Rosskeen. In 1715 he 
headed the men of Tain on the Hanoverian side. Killed in a duel with 
Bailie Hugh Ross, afterwards of Kerse, 13th June 1721. He married Jannet, 
sister to Sir William Gordon of Invergordon, Bart. (Sasine 2d July, 1717), 
:and left, 

134d. John, seventh of Achnacloich (Sasine 29th May 1721). He died 

unmarried, 1727 

(1.) Isobel, married, before 1727, first David Ross of Invercharron, 
who died 1758, secondly Robert Munro in Invercharron. 
134c. Robert, eighth of Achnacloich, succeeded his nephew John, died 
before October 1739, having married (Sasine on marriage-contract 19th 
March 1747), Katherine, daughter of John M'Kenzie, second of Highfield, 
and had, with an only daughter Margaret, who married, 7th December 1770, 
John Gilchrist, a son, 

134f. John, ninth of Achnacloich, captain in the army, August 1784. 
Sasine 7th October 1759, on precept of Chancery to John Ross, now of Achna- 
cloich, eldest son and heir of deceased Robert, of the lands of Wester 
■Cadboll, now called Ballintore. 


136«. Mr. Donald Ross, first of Priesthill, Dean of Caithness, second 
;son of John Ross, fifth of Balnagown, died 7th October 1487 (Kal. of F.). 
JFrom him descended, 

30 Rossiana. 

136b. Donald of Priesthill, who died 9th June 1571 (Kal. of F.), being 
probably father of, 

136c. William of Priesthill. Caution for him 28th June 1588 (Reg. Priv. 
Coun.). Sasine on charter 30th June 1606 by William Ross ''of Priesthill, 
Donald apparent of P. wit." He is said to have married Ada, daughter 
of William Ross, third of Invercharron, leaving, with a natural son John 
(Reg. Priv. Coun. 25th July i59 ol )> 
136tf. Donald. (See below.) 
136f. Hugh. Charter of concess. to him as second son of William of 
Priesthill of the lands of Easterfearn, 9th December 1617 
(Great Seal). 
136{7. William (Sasine 15th October 1639), "son to deceased William 
Ross of Priesthill." In 1649 obtained reversion of the church 
lands of Ulladail. 
(1.) Margaret (Sasine on charter 21st May 1607), "about to marry" 

George Ross of Pitkery. 
(2.) Isobel, married, as second wife, Alexander Ross, second of Inver- 
charron, who died 1619. She married, secondly, Alexander, son 
of Thomas Ross of Tuttintarroch (Sasine 30th July 1632). 
136<7. Donald of Priesthill, "deceased" (Sasine 8th December 1636), 

having married , and leaving, 

136c. Thomas, commissioner of loan and tax Inverness and Cromarty 
1643. Cited for refusing to keep the peace 1649 (Acts of Parliament). He 
died 31st January 1650 (Reg. Acts and Decreets, Edin., vol. 567, fol. 341), 
having married Janet, eldest daughter of Walter Ross of Invercharron, 
" his spouse," 22d April 1641. She married secondly, as second wife, Ken- 
neth M'Kenzie of Scatwell, " his relict," 1664. 

The daughters of 136</, Donald of Priesthill, were — 
(1.) Margaret, married John Fraser in Kinkell. 
(2.) Issobell, married Alexander Cattanach in Delnies. 
(3.) Helline, unmarried 1652. 
(4.) Katherine, married William Innes. 
(5.) Barbara, married Donald Ross in Hiltoun (Dingwall). 
The above ladies, on the death of their brother Thomas, became heirs 
of line, " Hugh Ross in Easterfearn and William Ross in Ardmore heirs of 
taillie," to him. At the instance of Mr. William Ross of Shandwick, who 
had become surety for his deceased cousin of Priesthill. the davoch lands of 
Invercharron and others were appryzed from the said heirs in payment to 
him of 4500 marks. Sasine 30th December 1652 on charter (Great Seal) 
in his favour. He obtained a further decreet against the heirs 10th July 1655. 

1 Colin M'Kenzie of Kintail became caution in £2000 for William Ross of Priesthill, 
that when released from the Tolbooth he should remain in Edinburgh till he find security 
for the entry of himself and of John Ross his bastard son before the Justice Treasurer for 
crimes specified in the letters raised against him by David Munro of Nig. . . . On 5th 
August, Walter Rollok of Pitmedie became caution for David of Nig that he will not 
harm William Ross, who was released 15th August. 

Line of Shandzvick. 



141. William Ross of Little Allan, third son of Hugh Ross (11), fourth of 
Balnagown, was Sub-dean of Ross and Parson of Rosskeen. These ecclesiast- 
ical charges he resigned in favour of his youngest brother Mr. Thomas (206) , 
on what understanding with his bishop does not appear. Angus Mackay 
having been slain at Tarbat by the Rosses, his son induced the Sutherlands 
to assist him in invading Strathoickell and Strathcarron. The Rosses met 
the Sutherlands and Mackays at Allt Charrais, where William of Little 
Allan fell with his chief and many of his clan, nth June i486 (Kal. of F.). 
By Grizel M'Donald, called niece of the Lord of the Isles, he had two sons, 

142. Alexander of Little Allan, who 

married , and died , 

.?. p. m. and, 

143. Walter, first of Shandwick. who 
died 10th June, 1531, being buried in an 
aisle at Feme Abbey, built at his ex- 
pense. He had a wadset from the King 
of the lands of Meikle Allan, and also of 
the town and chaplainry of Dunskaith. 
He married many wives, Janet Tulloch, 
Agnes M'Culloch, Elizabeth Hay, Chris- 
tian Chisholm, Janet Munro. Janet Tul- 
loch is said to have been mother of the 
following four sons, 

Donald. (See below.) 
William of Culnahall, who 
married Margaret Muirsone, 
" wife of William Ross of 
Culnyhay." She died nth 
March 1555. (Kal. of F.). 
Hugh of Balmachy. (See 
Nicholas of Balon. 



Arms of Ross of Shandwick. 


144. Donald. 

Arms — Argent, three lions rampant 

gules, langued and armed sable. 

Crest — A de'mi-lion rampant gules, 

sprnnrl nf langued and armed sable. Motto — 

or uavid, second ol Nobilis est ira leonis. 

Shandwick, married first Janet Simp- 
son, secondly, , daughter of Clunes, who is said 

to have been mother of, 

145. Andrew. (See below.) 

151. Mr. Robert. (See post.) 
145. Andrew, third of Shandwick, died 6th August 1641, having married, 

first, . daughter of Voss of Lochslin, and secondly, 

Beatrix Ross, " relict of John Munro of Meikell Davauch, and now 
spouse" (charter dated 13th August 1603, Sasine 24th July 1607). On nth 
July 1624 a charter was granted by Patrick, bishop of Ross, to Andrew 
Ross of Shandwick and Donald his eldest son. of the lands of Shandwick. 
Sasine thereon nth July 1624, Witnesses, Mr. David Ross, minister of Logie, 
Mr. William Ross, minister of Kincardine, Mr. Robert Ross, minister of 
Alnes, and others. By his first wife he had, 

32 Rossiana. 

146. Donald. (See below.) 

150. William, "son of late Andrew of Shandwick " (Sasine ist 

December 1641). 

146. Donald, fourth of Shandwick, " eldest son of deceased Andrew," 

7th April 1642, sold the estate of Shandwick to his cousin Mr. William Ross. 

He became of Meikle Ranyes, 1 having obtained from Gilbert Paip a charter 

■of half the davoch lands. By his first wife, Christian Urquhart, he had, 

147. Walter, "in little Ranyes" (Sasine 14th November 1639). "Eldest 

son" (Sasine 16th February 1653). 
He married, secondly. Christian Corbat, "his spouse" (Sasine 2d May 
1654), and had, 

148. James, " eldest son." 1654, 01 Maikle Ranyes, 1660 and 1687, heir of 

late Donald (Sasine 16th February 1672). He married 

, and had a son, 

149. John, "son of deceased James" (Sasine 10th March, 1701). 

151. Mr. Robert, " of Keandloch," second son of Donald Ross, second 
of Shandwick, minister of Alness 1583, built the manse and west end of the 
church, and was living in 1630. He married , and had, 

152. Mr. William. (See below.) 

178. John, " brother-german of Mr. William Ross of Shandwick " (wit- 

ness. Sasine 13th February 1649). 

179. Mr. Thomas, "a singularly pious man," minister at Kincardine, 

"son of Mr. Robert" (Sasine 22d June 1626). Laureated at 
Aberdeen 1634, transferred from Alness to Kincardine 1655, 
deprived by Privy Council ist October 1662, accused of keeping 
conventicles, imprisoned, first at Nairn, 1675, then at Tain, liber- 
ated October 1677, and died at his house in Tain 13th January 

1679, having married , by whom he had a 

daughter. (Fast. Ecc. Scot.) 

180. Mr. Andrew, minister at Corton, "son of Mr. Robert" (Sasine 

9th July. 1625). 

181. Mr. David, minister at Logie. (See post.) 

(1.) Esther, married, as second wife, Hugh, fourth son of Hector 
Munro, first of Fyrish. 

152. Mr. William became fifth of Shandwick, having, in 1626, purchased 
the property from his cousin. Donald Ross, who by charter infefted him ; 
he also purchased Balon. Having imprudently become cautioner for his 
relative, Thomas Ross of Priesthill, he became involved in numerous law- 
suits which eventually ruined his family. Son and heir of Mr. Robert Ross 
in the town and lands of Keandloch, 16th August 1653 (Inq. Spec. Ross, etc.). 
Minister of Kincardine circa 1624-30, at Nigg 1634, and for a time at Fearn. 

'Grant of lands by Thomas Ross, Commendator of Feme, to Donald Ross in Little 
Rany and his heirs, confirmed by King James VI; 15S7. Donald Ross in Mekell Ram- 
died 30th May 1593, buried at Feme. David Ross, of Little Rany, Grissell Dunbar, 
" his relict," 1596 (Reg. Priv. Coun.). Robert Ross in Little Rany, 20th June 1598 
(Reg. Priv. Coun.). David Ross in Rainie, 14th November 1639. John Ross in Mikle 
Ranie, 9th December 1651. Donald, son of Hugh Ross, in Mikle Ranie, 17th March 
1653. Robert Ross in Meikle Rainy, 15th March 1695. James Ross in Little Rainy, 
18th August 1708. William Ross in Meikle Rainy, 20th September 1714. 

Line of Shandwick. 33 

Born 1593. he died at Shandwick, parish of Fearn, 20th April 1663, 

having married, first, Elizabeth, daughter of William Campbell of Delnies, 
near Nairn, by whom he had, 

153. David. Sasine on charter to him by Donald Ross of Balon or 

Bellone and his wife of the town and lands, 13th February 1649. 
Murdered in the wood of Invereshie in 165 1 on his way to Stir- 
ling, where all the heritors of Scotland were summoned to assist 
Charles II. in an invasion of England. 1 

154. Andrew. (See belozv.) 

177. Alexander, " brother-german to Andrew" (Sasine 2d April 1672). 
(1.) Katherine, married James Fraser of Pitkellyan, "his spouse" 
(Sasine 14th June 1683). They had three sons, William, Alex- 
ander, George. 
Mr. William Ross married, secondly (contract dated nth November 
1639), Isobel, daughter of Hector Douglas of Mulderg. She married, sec- 
ondly, Andrew Fearn, portioner of Pitkellyan. Life rent to her of Shandwick 
16th February 1653. By her first husband she had three daughters, who had 
each 3,000 marks of tocher, 

(1.) Janet (contract dated 7th November 1666, signed at Tain and 

Priesthill), married David Ross, Dean of Guild and merchant in 

Tain, second son of Bailie Alexander. He died before 1689. 

(2.) Isobel, died before 1780, having married in 1680 Alexander Munro, 

fifth of Teannaird, by whom she had an only daughter. Christian, 

married John Munro of Ketwall. 

(3.) Elizabeth, " one of the three heirs portioners of Mr. William " 

(contract dated 8th December 1680), married William Ross in 

Shandwick, who died before 1695, and she before September 

1708, leaving , her son, a minGr and pupil of 

Ross of Aldie. 
154. Andrew, sixth of Shandwick, "apparent of" (Sasine 22d September 

1651). He died October 1675, having married, first, Isobell, daughter 

of William Ross, fifth of Invercharron (contract dated 13th April 1660). 
Sasine 6th June 1660, on charter by William Ross of Shandwick to Isobell, 
daughter of William Ross of Invercharron, future spouse to Andrew, his 
apparent heir in the lands of Bellone and part of Pitmaduthie. They had, 

155. Andrew. (See belozv.) 
175. Hugh, died before 1680. 

(1.) Elizabeth, married P. Aikman. They had a daughter, Elizabeth, 
married Malcolm Macgregor of Marchfield, by whom she had 

1 "Yr was a charge to all heritours, lyfe-renters, etc., to nich night and day to 
Stirlin to King Charles ye 2ds camp, under ye payne of lyfe and fortoune, and David 
his son being but lately com from Edrh, has fayr and relaons could not get him 
persuaded to stay at home, but goe with ye rest of the heritours (tho their was a 
pretty man with horse and armes weill mounted ready to go for him), and all ye 
heritours and gentlemen taking their journey the hiland way, Pitcalny, being a 
corporate heavie man, changed horse with ye sd young Sandwick, and going through 
the wood of Invershie with a mystic rainie day, falling a little behind to help the 
horse graith, murtherers fell on him and murdered him and killed the baggage men 
and cast them in the Loch near by." — MS. Account. 

34 Rossiana. 

two sons, Gregor Drummond or Macgregor, Adjutant to the 
Middlesex Militia 1766, and John, youngest son. 
Andrew married, secondly (contract dated 15th August 1671), Lillias, 
eldest daughter of John Dallas, Dean of Ross, and widow of Alexander 
Urquhart of Craighall ; in virtue of her marriage contract she gained posses- 
sion of Shandwick. She had by her second husband, 

176. William. " fear of Drumgelly," son to deceased Andrew of Shand- 
wick (Sasine 13th August 1691). Born before 1673, he died 

October 1693, having disponed Drumgelly to his uterine 

brother, Urquhart or Craigton. 
(1.) Mary, only daughter of the second marriage, married, first, Wil- 
liam Mackintosh of Baluespick, P. ; secondly, David Ross, first 
of Inverchasley, P., as his second wife. 
155. Andrew, seventh of Shandwick, " son and heir of deceased Andrew " 
(Sasine 19th May 1689). His property having passed to his stepmother, he 
was able to retain only the small estate of Midfearn. David Ross, first of 
Inverchasley, having bought up the claims against Drumgelly, and those of 
the heirs of the second marriage of Mr. William Ross (152) against Shand- 
wick, these properties terminated with him in 1708. He died October 

1733, having married Christian, daughter of William Ross of Gladfield or 
Ardgay, by whom he had a very numerous family. 

156. William, who still styled himself of Shandwick, a Writer of Edin- 

burgh, where he was trying to retrieve the fallen fortunes of his 
family. He purchased the estates of Kerse and Skeldon in 
Ayrshire in 1728 (Sasine 17th July), half of the davoch lands of 
Drumgelly, and in 1732 John Cruickshank, merchant, London, 
disponed to him the town and lands of Balblair (Sasine 3d 

October). Born 1694, he was drowned April 

!739. between Peterhead and Orkney, unmarried. The lands of 
Kerse were finally ceded to William Ross by disposition dated 
at Melsetter, 30th September, 1737, from Christina Craufurd of 
Kerse, relict of Captain James Moodie of Melsetter. She had 
also made a disposition to him, dated at Melsetter, 8th September, 
T-733, of the lands of Nether Skeldon for 18,000 marks. Wit- 
nesses, Hugh Ross, governor to Benjamin Moodie of Melsetter, 
and David Ross, writer of the deed (both registered 3d Novem- 
ber, 1737, M'Kcnzie Office, vol. 161). 

157. Hugh, Bailie of Tain. He had the misfortune to kill in a duel at 

Tain, 13th June 1721, Hugh Ross, sixth of Achnacloich. He 
retired to Gottenburg in Sweden, where he became a merchant, 
and afterwards at St. Mary Axe in London. On his brother's 
death he succeeded to Kerse and Skeldon and some other prop- 
ties in Rossshire. Born 1695, and dying 13th April 

1775, he was buried under the altar in the church of St. Andrew 
Undershaft. London, having married in Gray's Inn Chapel, 24th 
August 1749, Elizabeth, only daughter of Alexander Ross of 
Little Daan (which property she inherited), W. S., Edinburgh, 

Line of Shandwick. 35 

and Solicitor of Appeals, London. She was buried by her hus- 
band 30th July 1793. They had three sons, 

[158.] Hugh, third of Kerse and Skeldon who died 20th Janu- 
ary 1818, aet. 66, buried in the Greyfriars, Edinburgh, 
having married Janet Campbell, who died 14th Novem- 
ber 1823, having had, with three daughters who died 
unmarried (of whom the second, Jane Campbell, died 
2d July 1859, the third, Elizabeth Anne, died 23d March 
1855, aet. 47, both being buried in the Greyfriars), three 
sons, of whom the eldest, 

(159.) William of Skeldon, Berbice, British Guiana, 
born about 1788, died at Berbice 19th Febru- 
ary 1840, having married Helen Gordon, sister 
to Colonel Gordon (she married, secondly, 
Captain Charles Metcalfe, Royal Navy), 
by whom, with two other sons and two 
daughters, he had, 

(160.) William Munro (born 29th October, 
1832), merchant in London, who 
married, 5th September, 1857, Miss 
A. F. Hill; she died his widow, 28th 
September, 1890. John Cameron, 
brother of the above William, was 
born 25th May, 1835 
(161.) Hugh, second son, Lieutenant-Colonel E. I. 
C. S., died at Cawnpore 1838, hav- 
ing married Eliza, daughter of 

Major Watson, by whom he had four sons 
and two daughters, of whom, 

. Hugh, eldest son, died unmarried. 

. Campbell Claye Grant, second son, a 

distinguished officer, created K. C. B. 
1880, Major-General 1881. Born in 

India 1824, married 

1856, Matilda, daughter of M. E. 
Elderton. P. 
(162.) George, third son. 
[163.] Alexander, second son of Bailie Hugh, died an infant 

[164.] Andrew William, third son, a merchant, died unmarried, 
buried in St. Andrew Undershaft. 
165. Andrew, third son of Shandwick, Bailie of Tain and Dean of 
Guild 1726, was drowned in crossing a stream in India 1739. 
He married (contract dated 6th November, 1724) Margaret, 
daughter of Colin Campbell of Delnies, near Nairn. She mar- 
ried, secondly, 1742, Hugh Ross, merchant, Tain, and died his 
widow about 1775. By her first husband she had 

36 Rossi on a. 

[166.] Andrew, Captain E. I. C. M., commanded the Prince 
George and Ankerwyke. Born 21st May, 1728, dying 
21st April, 1793, s. p., was buried at Buntingford, 
Herts, having married, about 1768, Miss Fanny Webbe, 
who died 18th August. 1840. 
[167.] William, died unmarried before 1765. 
[168.] Hugh, died young, before 1749. 

(1.) Mary, baptized at Tain, 19th September, 1725, she died 

there 20th September, 1808, having married , 

1748, John Reid, Bailie of Tain, who died 4th January, 
1779. P. On the death of Christina Ross of Shand- 
wick the representative of Mary Ross or Reid became 
one of the two heir-portioners of Shandwick. 1 
(2.) Christian, baptized at Tain, 30th October, 1726, died un- 
married February, 1791. 

(3.) Katherine, born circa 1730-31, died at Tain 12th June, 

1793, buried at Ferae, having married, November, 

1751, David M'Lendris or M'Gilendris, who assumed 
the name of Ross ; he was commissary-clerk of Ross, 
sheriff-substitute. They had, 

Li.] David, Lieutenant 1st Regiment of Foot, under 
General Burgoyne in America, Captain 98th 
Regiment. Registered Arms 5th December, 
1795. 2 Purchased the estate of Milncraig. 
Born 25th September, 1755, died at Tain 25th 
December, 1799. having married, 16th July, 1798, 
Anne, eldest daughter of Sir Alexander Purves, 
Baronet. She died 8th August. 1844, buried at 
Brompton Cemetery. They had, 
(1.) David, an advocate, born 4th May, 1799, 
baptized at Tain, died unmarried 1st 
June. 1848. 
(2.) Katherine. born 16th September, 1800. 
died at Shandwick. 9th December, 1855, 
having married, at New St. Pancras 
Church, London, 22d March. 1832, John 
Duncan, solicitor, who died 17th De- 
cember, 1856. Her representative be- 
came the second heir-portioner of 
[2.] Andrew, born 1757, died an infant. 
[3.] Hugh. Lieutenant 8th Battalion Native Infantry, 
Bombay. Born 17th November, 1764, became 

1 Mary Ross was living with her mother's first cousin, Anna Duff, widow of Lachlan 
M'Intosh Captain of Clan Chattan (Sasine 4th June 1T32), on the eve of Culloden, 
and she fringed out the plaid the Prince wore at the battle. 

3 Gu., 3 Lyons ramp, arg., and on a chief or, 3 legs conjoined at the centre at the 
upper part of the thigh, and flexed in triangle azure. Crest — A Lymphad, her oars in 
action roper. Flagged gules. Motto — Pro Patria. 

Line of Shandwick. $" 

Brigade Major, killed in action 24th December, 
1791, unmarried. 

(1.) Margaret, born , November, 1753; married 

27th July, 1779, Alexander, eldest son of Dr. 
Rose of Aberdeen, Lieutenant 42d Regiment, 

then in H. E. I. C. S. ; died at Madras, 

May, 1787. Their only surviving child, Kath- 

erine, married , 1800, Dugald Gilchrist 

of Ospisdale, Sutherlandshire ; their third 
daughter, Katherine, married George Ross, last 
of Pitcalnie, and d. s. p. 

(2.) Mary, born June, 1761 ; died at Tain, un- 
married, June, 1838. 

(3.) Katherine, born June, 1763, died at Evelix, 

Sutherlandshire, March, 1843, having mar- 
ried, 13th October, 1783, William, second son 
of Hugh Munro of Achany, Sutherlandshire. 
He died , 1825. P. 

(4.) Elizabeth, baptized at Tain 16th December, 1769. 

169. Alexander, fourth son of Shandwick, sometime merchant at Got- 

tenburg, born at Midfearn, , 1704; died at Skeldon House, 

Ayr, unmarried, rst April, 1775. 

170. David, fifth son of Shandwick, Ensign in the Master of Ross's 

Independent Company, raised to suppress the rising of 1745, was 
a prisoner at Nairn. Became tenant of Midfearn, which belonged 

to his eldest brother Hugh. Born , 1705, dying 21 May, 1768, 

was buried at Kincardine. He married, first (contract dated 23d 
October, 1727), Esther, daughter of George Munro of Culrain ; 
she died in Orkney, s. p., 1740. He married, secondly, in Edin- 
burgh, 29th July, 1745, Jean, daughter of George Law of Dud- 
dingstone, widow of David Byres of Elie, Fife. She died 19th 
August, 1776, leaving, 
[171.] William, born 21st January, 1753. Fell in a duel on 
Blackheath, nth May, 1790, unmarried; buried in Feme 
Abbey. He went to India, and returning with a for- 
tune, was able to repurchase from David Ross. Lord 
Ankerville, third of Inverchasley, Shandwick, Culliss, 
Ankerville, and other lands, which he entailed on his 
nieces and their heirs, whom failing, on other relatives. 
(1.) Christian, born before 1748, died nth December, 1814, 

having married, June, 1767, George, son of Thomas 

Ross of Tain, by whom she had, with three sons who 
died young, 

[1.] Jean. (See below.) 

[2.] Wilhelmina, born December, 1774; died, un- 
married, 10th January, 1849, having, in virtue of 
the entail, inherited Shandwick on the death of 
her nephew Charles. 

38 Rossiana. 

Li.] Jean, born , 1769; burnt to death in Edinburgh, 3d 

February, 1829; buried at St. Cuthbert's; married, , 

1786, John Cockburn of Rowchester, Berwickshire, 

W. S., who died at Shandwick, , 1827 ; buried in 

Feme Abbey. On his wife inheriting her brother's 
property, he assumed the name of Ross in addition to 
his own. They had, with several children who did not 
survive them, 

(1.) Charles, inherited Shandwick on his mother's 
death, born 12th December, 1796; died unmar- 
ried, 21st May, 1839; buried at St. Cuthbert's, 
(2.) Christina, born circa 1792, inherited Shandwick 
on the death of her aunt Wilhelmina, and died 
unmarried 16th May, 1872, when the succession 
opened to the entailer's heirs whatsoever. (See 
"Line of Shandwick," page 97.) 
172. George, sixth son of Shandwick, merchant at Gottenburg, died 
there 20th June, 1783, having married Dorothea Schwitzer, by 
whom he had, with four other children who died young, 
[173.] Andrew, E. I. C. Marine, commanded the ship Louisa, 

and was lost in her May, 17S9, unmarried. 

[174.] Benjamin, E. I. C. Military Service; died unmarried at 

Dinapore. January, 1790. 

Andrew, seventh of Shandwick. had also with three daughters who died 

(1.) Isabella, married Robert M'Culloch, merchant in Tain, and had, 
with other children. Andrew, merchant in Gottenburg and 
(2.) Margaret, second daughter (contract dated 29th March, 1717), mar- 
ried Bailie Donald Ross of Tain; she died 4th March. 1753; 
buried by her husband in Feme Abbey. With several children 
who died young, they left, 

[1.] Andrew, merchant at Madras, baptized at Tain 23d January, 
1721 ; died in India, leaving a recognised daughter, 
Amelia, who married Charles Runnington, Sergeant- 
[2.] Janet, baptized at Tain 14th May, 1722; died unmarried 
circa 1788. 
(3.) Katherine. died before 1768, having married in St. Paul's Cathedral, 
London, 29th September. 1743, George, eldest son of Bailie Wil- 
liam Ross of Tain; he died , 1788, leaving an only daughter, 

Elizabeth, who married Captain John Sharp, E. I. C. Marine. 

(4.) Christina, died in Tain, March, 1746, having married . 

1730. John, eldest son of Duncan Ross of Tain. They had, 
[1.] Duncan, who died young. 

[2.] Andrew, in 1757 Ensign in Lord George Beauclerk's regi- 
ment of foot. 

Branch of Logic Easter. 39 


181. Mr. David, younger son of Mr. Robert Ross (151), A. M. Edin- 
burgh, 27th July 1609, member of Assembly 12th August 1639, and continued 
28th August 1650 (Fast. Ecc. Scot.), "minister at Logie Easter, and brother 
of Mr. William of Shandwick " (Sasine 2d February 1633). Obtained a char- 
ter from Mr. Thomas Ross of Logie of the lands of Logie Easter (Sasine 
4th May 1630). He married, first, Margaret Morrison, "his spouse" (Sasine 
24th June 1628), and secondly, Janet Munro, relict of Alexander Ross of 
Pitkerie (contract dated 18th April 1655) ; she is infeft in the easter quarter 
of Newnakil by her son Hugh (Sasine 7th June 1655). By his first wife 
he had, 

182. Mr. Robert. (See below.) 

188. Andrew, "son of late Mr. David" (Sasine 6th March 1668), 

"uncle to John Munro" (Sasine 6th May 1700), married 

, and had, 

[189.] George, "his son," 1702. 

(1.) Margaret, married John Munro of Logie, eldest son of John 
Munro, second of Fearn ; they had John Munro in Inverbreakie, 
who married Margaret Ross, "his spouse" (Sasine 6th May 

(2.) Ellen, married William Munro of Culcraggie. 1 

182. Mr. Robert, second of Logie Easter, in 1665 translated from Urqu- 
hart and Logie Wester, to Tain, deposed by Presbytery 28th June 1699, 
"possessed in the ministry about thirty or forty years" (Fasti). He 
obtained a charter from his father of the lands of Logie Easter (Sasine 5th 
August 1657), and from David Ross of Balnagown of the lands of Ballone, 
9th March 1669. He married Barbara, daughter of Mr. George Munro, 
Chancellor of Ross, and gave her a liferent of the lands of Logie Easter and 
of part of Drumgellie. They had, 

183. Robert. (See below.) 

186. James, "lawful son" (Sasine 22d September 1710). 

187. Alexander, "third son," merchant, burgess of Tain (Sasine 16th 

March 1702). 
(1.) Jean, married Walter Ross, town clerk of Dornoch and provost 

of Tain 1693. 
(2.) Hannah, married (contract dated 8th August 1705, registered at 

Tain), Andrew, second son of R. Munro of Lemlair (Sasine 1st 

May 1708). 

183. Mr. Robert, third of Logie Easter, writer, Edinburgh, " eldest son " 
(Sasine nth July 1700), married , and had, 

184. John, fourth of Logie Easter, writer, Edinburgh, " son and heir of 
deceased Mr. Robert of Logie Easter" (Sasine 30th August 1722), ana 
grandson to deceased Mr. Robert. He married Elizabeth Fleming, " relict," 
4th June 1738, and had, with a daughter Jean, 

185. Robert, fifth of Logie Easter, nearest heir to deceased Mr. Robert, 
his grandfather, and eldest son to deceased John Ross, writer (Sasine 17th 
July 1728). 

1 To the kindness of Mr. Alexander Ross of Alness I am greatly indebted for various 
Munro marriages, and for other information. F. N. R. 

40 Rossiana. 


(The Read Rosses.) 

191. Hugh, first of Balmachy, or Ballamuckie, a younger son of Walter 
Ross, first of Shandwick, was father of, 

192. Donald. (See below.) 

201. Alexander, "son of Hugh," died at Balmachy i8th October, 1571 

(Kal. of F.). 

192. Donald, second of Balmachy. Charter of concession to Donald, son 
of Hugh, 10th May, 1587 (Great Seal), James VI. confirms grant made by 
Thomas Ross, Commendator of Feme, to him of the lands of Ballamuckie 
resigned by Alexander Ross of Balnagown "Deceased" (Sasine 30th June, 
1606). He died 10th July, 1603 (Kal. of Feme), his relict being Margaret 
Innes, mother of James and John, who, in 1612, is styled " in Gany." He had, 

193. Walter. (See belozv.) 

202. Donald, "brother of Walter," 17th May, 1593. (Great Seal.) 
202o. Thomas, son of late Donald Ross of Ballamuckie (Sasine 31st 

August, 1618). 

203. James, "lawful son" of deceased Donald (Sasine 1606). 
(1.) Agnes, married Walter Ross of Fychie. 

(2.) Mary, married Andrew Munro, third of Allan. 

193. Walter, third of Balmachy, " apparent of, cautioner for Walter Ross 
of Morangie," 2d September, 1594 (Reg. Priv. Coun.), "of Balmachy" (wit- 
ness, Sasine 16th June, 1607), " deceased " (Sasine 20th June, 1625). He 
married, as second wife, Jean Douglas, living 1603 (Acts and Decreets, vol. 
214, p. 142). 

191. Hugh. (See below.) 

200. David (Sasine 20th June, 1625) obtained concession of half of the 

mill of Morrach, and also of part of the town and lands of Meikle 
Meddat or Meddat Moir, barony of Delnie. He married Mary 
Urquhart. *■[ ^ 

201. George, in Miltoun, " son of deceased Walter " (Sasine 1st March, 

1625). Walter Ross, now of Miltoun, was son and heir of the 
deceased George Ross, son of the late Walter of Ballamuckie, 
24th January, 1654 (Register of Acts and Decreets, Edinburgh, 
vol. 567, fol. 62). _ 

194. Hugh, fourth of Balmachy. Charter of concession to Walter Aand 
Hugh, his eldest son, of the lands of Balmachy, 8th July, 1605 (Great Seal). 
" In 1618, his spouse was Katherin Macleod, Neilson. She received from 
her husband, in liferent, part of the lands of Ballamuckie. On 15th Decem- 
ber 1618, there is a reversion, by Andrew Munro of Culnald, to Hugh Ross 
of the lands of Ballamuckie, redeemable for 3000 merks ; David Ross, his 
brother, in Mekle Meddat, witness. At Leith, 12th June 1621, Hugh assigned 
to his brother, George Ross, a reversion by the same Andrew Munro over 
Midganie for 3000 merks, which, by deed dated at Tain 27th June 1621, 
George Ross in Miltoun intimated to Andrew Munro. From bonds regis- 
tered, Hay Office, Edinburgh, in 1622, it would appear that his affairs were 
in a bad way. 

Branch of Balmachy. 41 

"Hugh Ross (194) was employed for many years by Charles 1. as his 
agent at Dunkirk, for obtaining the freedom of British subjects imprisoned 
in Flanders by the King of Spain. In this service he had expended large 
sums of his own money, for which he had received no return, besides 
becoming indebted to others. On 19th March 1640-1, he prayed the King 
to grant him relief, who ordered the petition to be referred to the Lords in 
Parliament to report thereon. It appears that nothing was done (Hist. MSS. 
Report, iv. 58, House of Lords, MSS.). In 1642 there was a further petition 
from him, asking for protection from arrest until his business was settled 
(Ibid. v. 66). One of his debtors was Sir Arthur Gorges, Knight, brother 
to Edward Lord Gorges, who, at the suit of Hugh Ross, was imprisoned for 
debt in the King's Bench; 1st July 1641, Ross petitioned that Gorges 'should 
not be allowed to walk abroad at his pleasure, so that he will never be likely 
to pay his debt.' In the same month judgment was given (Ibid. iv. 81, 86), 
and he was condemned to pay ii6o debt, and £40 costs. Ross was so well 
satisfied with the decision that he gave Gorges no further trouble (Petition 
of Gorges, 8th June 1660; Ibid. v. 94). Some years after the death of Hugh 
Ross, Katherine Ross, as administratrix, set up a claim for the same debt and 
costs ; petitioner then prayed for relief for himself and his tenants. 

" Hugh Ross made a will dated 19th June 1649. He was then living in 
Farmer's Lane, Westminster. He desires to be buried in St. Margaret's 
Church. He declares his estate to consist of a reversion of lands in Scot- 
land, which are in the possession of his brother's son by right of wadset, and 
of great sums of money owing him by the States of the Kingdom of Scot- 
land and England, for his services towards the relief of the subjects of those 
Kingdoms, as will more clearly appear by his papers, petitions, and actions. 
He bequeaths his real and personal estate to his son George, executor. He 
wills that David Ross, General Major Robert Munro, and Dr. Alexander 
Ross, nearest relatives on his father's and mother's side, shall aid his son 
in acquiring his just right and possession. Will dated 19th June 1649, and 
proved 3rd July. 

" Letters of adminstration dated 4th May 1653, were granted to Robert 
Ross, nephew to the late Hugh, of goods unadministered by George Ross, 
executor, deceased. Again 27th October 1654, administration was granted 
to Katherine Ross, curatrix assigned to Margaret Ross, a minor, next-of-kin 
to Hugh Ross, to administer to the use of the said Margaret during her 
minority. On the same day other letters were granted to Katherine, as 
aunt and curatrix of Margaret, to administer the goods of the late George 
Ross, and lastly to administer the goods of Robert Ross, deceased, father of 
the said Margaret. 

" Robert Ross, styled of the Charter House, London, by his will, dated 
16th September 1654, and proved 27th October (executor, Master Austen; 
overseer, Master William Ross), after payment of debts, leaves the residue 
' towards the bringing up ' of his daughter. By a codicil he desires his 
father's papers to be given to Sir David Cunigom, 1 and ' that he take care 
of the widow and children according to my father's will, and take up £50 

ISir David Coningham, knighted by Charles I. at Royston, 1st April, 1604. 

42 Rossiana. 

of Sir Henry Newton of Charleton, to give to my daughter Margrett at 
her marriage, or when she is sixteen, according to her grandfather's desire 
in his last will.' Robert Ross became one of the ' brothers ' of the Charter 
House, 19th December 1652, and died there 8th October 1654 (Archives, 
Charter House). 

" Hugh Ross, as previously stated, appointed three of his near relatives 
to assist his son in forwarding his claims upon the Government. David 
Ross, the first named, was his brother. General Major Robert Munro, a 
relation on his mother's side, was the author of ' The Expedition with 
the Scots Regt. (called MacKeyes Regt.), which served under the King of 
Denmark during his wars against the Emperor, afterwards under the King 
of Sweden, and then under the Chancellor Oxensterne.' Published in Lon- 
don, 1637. This regiment was raised in August 1626, and reduced to one 
Company in September 1634, at Wormes in the Paltz. 

"At Part 1. p. 17, he says, ' The sixth duety discharged of our expedition 
by water from Wismer to Heligenhoven, and of our service at Oldenburg. 
At our going to the passe, the enemies Cannon played continually on the 
Colours ; which were torne with the Cannon. Also to my griefe, my Came- 
rade Lieutenant Hugh Rosse, was the first that felt the smart of the Cannon 
Bullet, being shot in the leg, who falling, not fainting at his losse, did call 
couragiously, " Go on bravely, Camerades, and I wish I had a Treene, or a 
woodden leg for your sakes; " in this instant of time, and as I believe, with 
one Bullet, the leg was also shot from David Rosse, sonne to Rosse of 

"At Part 11. p. 17. The army under the King of Sweden was commanded 
to beleaguer Dameine, and it marched thither from Letts on February 14 
(presumably 1630, for the work is wanting in dates) and he says, At our 
first drawing up in battell a worthy gent, called Robt. Ross, one of our Regt., 
was killed with the Cannon, being blowing of Tobacco before the Regt., died 
instantly, and was transported to Letts, where he was honourably buried in 
the church, whose last words were " Lord, receive my soule." ' 

" The third named was Dr. Alexander Ross. There was living at that 
time Alexander Ross, D. D., who may have been a relative through the 
Munro family. Born at Aberdeen, 1st January 1590, through the influence 
of Archbishop Laud he became chaplain to Charles 1., vicar of Carisbrook. 
master of the Free School at Southampton, where he also held the living of 
All Saints'. He was a voluminous writer, one of his works on all Religions 
in the world, etc., went through many editions, and was translated into Ger- 
man, French, and Dutch. His name is commemorated in Hudibras. The 
best account of his life is given in Lives of Eminent Men of Aberdeen, by 
James Bruce, 1841. It, however, states that nothing is known of his parent- 
age. Towards the end of his life he lived at Bramshill with his friend, Mr., 
afterwards Sir Andrew, Henley, to whom he left his pictures and books. 

Dying there, February 1654, he was buried in the Lady Chapel of 

Eversley Church (Charles Kingsley's church), where, in his lifetime, he had 
prepared his sepulchre, placing over it the following punning epitaph on his 
name. At each corner of the stone there is a shield bearing, not the lions of 

Branch of Balmachy. 43 

the Earls, but the chevron cheeky, azure and argent, between three water 
bougets, sable. 

"Alexandri Rosaei de Seipso epigraphe. 

" Hospes siste gradum cineresq. hos aspice disces 

Quid sum Quid fueram, quidq. futurus ero 
Ros fueram nunc sum Pulvis mox umbra futurus 

Ros abiit Pulvis spargitur Umbra fugit 
Quid Tute es disce hinc quid cuncta humana quid audi 

Sunt quod ego Pulvis Ros cinis Umbra nihil.' 

" In the Register at Eversley there was formerly the following translation 
of the above Epitaph : — 

" Stop stranger, view this dust, and taught, you'll see 

What I am now, what have been, what shall be. 
I have been dew, and dust, shall be a shade, 

The dew is gone, dust scattered, fled the shade. 
What thyself art hence learn, what all things are, 

What are all things in human nature hear, 
That they are all what I now am, be taught 

They're dust, are dew, are ashes, shadow, nought." 

"His will was proved at Westminster, 19th April 1654; by it he leaves 
considerable sums in legacies to Aberdeen, Southampton, etc., and many 
mourning rings. Among these, one of the value of £5, to Mr. Rosse, attorney 
in the Inner Temple, another of £2, to Mr. Robert Ross, of the Charter 
House; then follow legacies to Marion Ross, his uncle's daughter, in Aber- 
deen, to his two brothers, his nephew and nieces." 
Hugh Ross (194), fourth of Balmachy, had, 
195. George. (See belozv.) 

199. William, " brother of George " (Sasine 10th December, 1628), died 
22d March, 1643; buried at Tain (Kal. of F.). 
195. George, fifth "of Balmachy" (Sasine 3d December, 1627; also 
Valuation Roll. Sheriffdom of Ross, 1644), died 12th September, .1647; buried 
at Feme, having married Margaret M'Culloch (Sasine 30th May, 1649). 
George, fifth of Balmachy, was half-brother and not son to Hugh Ross, fourth 
of Balmachy (whose only son, George, died s. p.), having acquired the property 
by right of wadset from the above Hugh, in or before 1627. Between 1627 
and 1642 the name of George Ross frequently appears in the Inverness 
Sasines, without stating his paternity. He had, 
196a. Walter. (See below.) 

197a. Andrew, " son of deceased George " (witness, Sasine 30th May, 

1649), "in Balmachy" (witness, 1st February 1658). (See post.) 

198. David (Sasine 1st October, 1668). 

196a. Walter, sixth of Balmachy, " son and heir of deceased George," 

28th December, 1647 (Inq. spec. Ross et Crom.), "of Balmachy" (witness. 

Sasine 8th April, 1680), married Margaret, daughter of late Hugh Ross of 

Tollie (Sasine 30th May, 1649 1 ). Helen, his third daughter, married George, 

son to John Graham, merchant at Florboose. Contract dated 9th September, 

1671, registered at Tain 4th June, 1680. 

'Mr. John Ross " of Bellamuckie " is named in Sasine 17th October 1682 

44 Rossi a n a. 

196b. Hugh, probably son of the above and seventh " of Balmachy " 
(Sasine nth July, 1695), tenant of the Bishopric of Ross 1695-6. In 1709 
Margaret Dunbar was his spouse. 

(1.) Agnes, eldest daughter, married Alexander Ross, fourth of Pit- 
calnie (Sasine on marriage-contract, 12th February, 1684). 

Note. — While General Meredith Reade was the guest of the Duke and Duchess of 
Sutherland at Dunrobin Castle in 1877, through the kindness of the Duke he received 
the following valuable memorandum concerning the descendants of the house of 
Balmachy from which his Ross ancestors sprung: 

Letter From the Rev. James M. Jones to H. G. the Duke of Sutherland. 

The Manse, Golspie, 

September 29th, 1S77. 

My Lord Duke. — I have the honour to enclose an extract from the manuscript at 
Dunrobin in which General Meredith Reade is interested. On comparing the manu- 
script with the Balnagowan Chronicle which has been printed, I find the former much 
fuller. I shall be glad if your Grace wishes to copy any further notice of General 
Reade's family if I find such on examining the manuscript. 

I am, Your Grace, 

Most respectfully, 

James M. Jones. 

Extract from the MS. at Dunrobin Castle Known as the Deuchar MS. and 
Named "A Brieff of the Chronicle of the Earles of Ross." Undated. 
" follows the daugrs of Donald Ross of Balmuchy and whereon they were marryed. 

The said Donald Ross his Eldest Daugr got on his first wife Issobel Innes was 
married on Donald Monro in the wards of Mickle Allan, Son to Wm Monro of Mickle 
Allan who buire him diverse bairnes viz Andrew George, David, Isobell and Jannet. 
The sa Donald Ross his second daugr called Marion begotten on the first Isobell Innes 
was married on John Keil McAuroy in Scatwell who buire him diverse bairnes viz 
Androw and the sd Donald his 3rd daugr married on Donald Ross Allexr's son in 
Rarichies who was called Narrg Ross who buire to the sd Donald Diverse bairns 
viz Isobel, Mary, the sd Donald his fourth Daugr called Mary begotten also on the 
sd Isobell Innes marryed on Mr. Walter Ross in Balacherry who buire to him diverse 
bairnes viz Allexander Donald Isobel Findzoil Janet, the 21 of Aprile 1594, ther was ane 
Lad baptized to the sd Mr. Walter called David. 

The Daugr's of Wm Ross Huchon some time Dwell and in Balmuchy. 

An maryed on Alexr McVitkenald called Janet who lived at Delnie who buire him 
diverse bairns Walter Hucho Janet and ane uther daugr of the sd William Ross 
married on ane husband man in fleshcarchie called Alexr McAndrew Cay who buire 
him Diverse bairns John Androw the sd Wm Huchons Eldest son called finlay Ross 
was marryed on ane Rich burgess Daugr In Tayne called Donald Taylor alias Reid 
the womans name Agness Reid who buire him Diverse bairnes. 

The Daugrss of Alexr Ross 3rd son to Huchon Ross of Belluchy an daugr of 
them called Katherine marryed upon John McDonald vie malk in Ballmuchy who buire 
to him diverse bairnes." 

The foregoing does not appear in the Balnagowan MS., and has so far as I know 
never been printed. 

J. M. Tones. 
Sep. 29th, 1877. 


Balblair in 1666 belonged to James Dallas of Balblair, and Grissel Ross, his 
spouse. In a letter of 1664 Ross of Balblair is described as " Cadit of the 
decayed house of Balmachy." 

197a. Andrew, younger son of George Ross, fifth of Balmachy, became 
Andrew, first " of Balblair," who was father of 

1976. David, second of Balblair, parish of Fearn, "notary" (Sasine 15th 
April. 1678), married Margaret Stronach, "his spouse" (Sasine 8th July, 
1681), "relict" (13th April, 1710). They had, 
197c. Andrew. (See below.) 

Line of Little Tarrell. 45 

197e. Rev. George, the dent for the present at Balblair, and second son 
of David (Sasines 3d September, 1698, and 19th April, 1710). 
In 1700 he took his degree of M. A. at Edinburgh, and became 
tutor to the son cf the Laird of Mey. He afterwards served as 
chaplain in the royal navy, and in 1705 settled in America, 
where he became rector of an Episcopal church at New Castle, 
Delaware. His father, by disposition, dated 8th March, 1707, 
settled Balblair on his grandchild, Arnold, eldest son of his 
eldest son, Arnold, and his heirs, male, whom failing, on the 
heirs, male, of his eldest son, Arnold, whom failing, on his 
second son, Mr. George, etc., whom failing, on his third son, 
Hugh etc. 
197#. Hugh, " third son," who was probably father to David, " son to 
Hugh in Balblair " (Sasine 19th August, 1701). 
(1.) Elizabeth, married David Munro, sixth of Allan, and had a son 
David, W. S., Edinburgh who in 1765 left his estate to his 
nephew Charles, son of Margaret Munro and Charles M'Kenzie, 
who assumed the name of Munro. 
197c. Andrew, third of Balblair, " eldest son of David " (Sasine 8th 
March, 1710), writer, Edinburgh. He died before 1764, having married Mar- 
garet Gallie, " his spouse," 1710. They had an only son, 

197d. Andrew, fourth of Balblair, M. D. at Kingston, Jamaica, died s. p. 
■" Grandchild of dec. David of Balblair, eldest son of Andrew, eldest son of 
David" (Sasine 19th April, 1710). In 1730 he, being then styled surgeon in 
London, made a disposition in favour of John Cruickshank, merchant, London, 
of the town and lands of Balblair. 


i. Alexander Ross, first of Little Tarrell, was the legitimated son of 
Walter Ross, eighth of Balnagown (15), letters of legitimation having been 
granted 4th March 1546-7: — " Preceptum legitimationis, Alexri Ros de Littil 
Allan filii quond Waited Ros apparentis heredis Davidis Ros de Ballegoun 
militis in comuni forma, etc. Apud Edinburgh vicesimo quarto Marcii anno 
domini j m v c xlvi t0 " (Reg. Sec. Sig. lib. xx. f. 92). He built the house of 
Little Tarrell 1559, and died there 4th Jan. 1567-8 (Chron. Earls of Ross). 
Having married Sarah, daughter of Thomas Ross of Greenhill (Old MS. 
Ped.), he had, 

ii. Alexander. (See below.) 
iii. Mr. John. (See below.) 
lxiil. David. (See post.) 
lxv. Walter. (See post.) 
lxxix. Nicholas. (See post.) 
ii- Alexander, second of Little Tarrell, " eldest son " (Sasine 25th April 
1617), married, first, Elizabeth Ross, widow of Angus M'Culloch of Meikle 
Tarrell. In 1570, James vi. granted to her, being then wife of the said Alex- 
ander, styled of Little Allan, a crown charter of one-third of Meikle Tarrell. 
Alexander and his wife obtained one-third of the town and lands of Arkboll 
(precept of sasine confirmed by Queen Mary 24th February 1562, and after- 

46 Rossi an a. 

wards by charter under the Great Seal, 7th December 1569. In 1579, George 
Ross, tenth of Balnagown, sold them certain lands, and a yearly revenue 
from the lands of Little Allan. Alexander was served heir-general to his 
father in Little Tarrell (Retour 8th April 1578, Sheriff Court, Inverness, vol. 
i. fol. 84), and, 26th June 1580, in the lands of Arkboll Langwell, etc. (lb. 
vol. i. fol. 107). By his wife Elizabeth he had three daughters, 
(1.) Marjory. 
(2.) Cristina. 
(3.) Isobella. 
On 20th March 1582-3, Mr. Walter Ross (Ixv) was served curator to them, 
as nearest kinsman on their father's side (Sheriff Court. Inverness, vol. i. fol. 
114). On 24th June 1582, Mr. John Ross of Hilton (iii), their uncle, re- 
ceived a gift of the nonentry of one-half of Little Allan, of one-third of Ark- 
boll and Estboll, since the death of their father, with the marriage of the 
said Marjory, Cristina, and Isobella (Reg. Sec. Sig. xlix. f. 7), who were 
served heirs-portioners to their father in one-third of the lands of Little Tar- 
rell and others, 31st July 1596 (Retours, D 62 and 64). Alexander died before 
1582, having married, secondly, Margaret, daughter of Hector Munro of 
Assynt; in 1584 she obtained a charter from James vi. of the liferent of the 
western third of Arkboli. She married, secondly, Nicholas Ross, first of Pit- 
calnie, contract dated at Arkboll, 23d January 1587. 

iii. Mr. John, brother of the above Alexander, became third of Little Tar- 
rell. He was presented to the vicarage of Kilmuir and Suddy 10th Decem- 
ber 1573 (Reg. Sec. Sig. xii. f. 126) ; translated from Tain, 25th April 1581, 
to the vicarage of Logie Easter, in succession to Mr. Thomas Hay, abbot of 
Glenluce (lb. xlvii. f. 115). In 1587-8, Mr. John and his brother David "in 
Drunnneddeth," with about 400 armed men. went to the place where the mem- 
bers of the Baillie Court of the earldom of Ross were sitting in judgment, and 
declaring they would be revenged for a wrong done to Andrew Munro of 
Newmore. compelled the court to rise (Reg. Priv. Coun. vol. iv.). In vol. v. 
of the same register there is a complaint made by a certain John Ross that 
he was carried off from the Chanoury of Ross a prisoner to Balnagown by 
Mr. John and many others. It does not appear what became of Mr. John's 
nieces, portioners of Little Tarrell. He obtained a charter, dated at Leith 
16th March 1608, from David, bishop of Ross, to him, his heirs and assignees, 
of the lands of Little Tarrell, with tower, fortalice, manor, mill, etc., in feu 
ferme and heritage, for the yearly rent of 42s., with 14s. of grassum, and cer- 
tain payments in kind. Confirmed 14th July 1610 (Great Seal, 46, 233). He 
died 22d October 1616 {Fasti Ecc. Scot.'), having married Christian, daughter 
of Hugh Munro of Assynt (Sasine 25th March 161 1), " goodwife of Little 
Tarrell " (Sasine 1st February 1652), and had, 
iv. Hugh. (See below.) 

xi. David, son of Mr. John (witness, Sasine 14th September 1607). 
xii. Alexander. (See post.) 
xxii. George, "lawful son" (Sasine 25th March 161 1). (See post.) 
xxx. Nicholas. (See post.) 

William, " son of Mr. John, sometime minister at Logy " (Sasine 

2d April 1670). 

Branch of Pitkerie. 47 

iv. Hugh, fourth of Little Tarrell, "apparent" (Sasine 31st August 1609), 
served heir to his father in the lands of Esbolg in Invercharron (Inq. spec. 
Ross et Crom.), on commission of war Sutherland and Inverness, 1643, 1644, 
1646, 1647 (Acts of Parliament), married, — March 1611 (Sasine 27th March), 
Margaret, daughter of Hugh Fraser of Belladrum, and had, 
v. John. (See below.) 

— Hugh, " brother of John of Little Tarrell " (Sasine 27th Septem- 
ber 1671). 


(2.) Isobel, " second daughter," liferent to her in the davoch lands of 
Meikle Allan (Sasine 5th April 1642). 
v. John, fifth of Little Tarrell, "eldest son" (Sasine 15th February 1641), 
on commission of war 1649 (Acts of Parliament), married Janet, daughter of 
Colonel John Munro of Obisdale (Sasine as above), and had, 

vi. Alexander, sixth of Little Tarrell ; fifth in the entail of Balnagown 
made in 1685 ; " son of John " (Sasine 6th March 1665) ; Commissioner of 
Supply Ross-shire 1685, 1689, 1690 (Acts of Parliament) ; married Margaret, 
daughter of Alexander Munro of Daan, " his spouse " (Sasine 29th July 1708 
and 20th June 1715). They had, 

vii. Hugh, in sasine on marriage contract, dated August 1700, is styled 
"second lawful son"; in sasine 20th January 1715, "eldest son 
and fiar of Little Tarrell." (See belozv.) 
viii. Alexander (MS. pedigree). 

ix. John i 

> (witnesses, Sasine 25th November 1701). 
x. George ) 

(1.) Janet, married Robert Ross, bailie of Tain, son of Alexander Ross 

of Easterfearn. P. (See Appendix D.) 
(2.) Margaret, married 29th November 1714, George, second son of Mr. 
Bernard Mackenzie of Sandilands (Cromarty Reg.). P. 
vii. Hugh, seventh of Little Tarrell, is infefted in the town and lands of 
Little Tarrell by his father (Sasine 29th December 1701), on his marriage 
with Christian, eldest daughter of Alexander Mackenzie of Lochsline. Com- 
missioner of Supply 1706 (Acts o,f Parliament). He died before 23d July 



xii. Alexander Ross, first of Pitkerie, " lawful son to Mr. John," third of 
Little Tarrell (witness to Sasine 4th March 1608), "portioner of Pitkerie, 
and Jonet Monro his spouse" (Sasine 20th September 1648). He died 1st 
February 1649, and was buried at Tain (Kal. of Feme), having married 
Janet, youngest daughter of Andrew Munro of Limorn. She married, sec- 
ondly, Mr. David Ross of Logie (Sasine on marriage contract 7th June 1655).. 
By her first husband she had, 

xiii. Hugh of Cunlich, " nearest lawful heir to deceased Alexander 
of Pitkerie" (Sasine 5th August 1657). He was served and 
retoured as son and heir in half the davoch lands of Quin- 

lichmore (Sasine 15th June 1654). He married 

, and left a son, 

xiv. Andrew (Sasine 5th August 1668). 

48 Rossiatia. 

xv. Mr. Andrew. (See below.) 

xxi. Robert, " lawful son of deceased Alexander of Pitkerie " 
(Sasine gth December 1651), "in Pitkerie," 1st February 
xv. Mr. Andrew, second of Pitkerie, A.M. degree, Aberdeen 1647, minister 

of Tarbat 1654. He died 1692, aged about 65 (Fasti Ecc. Scot.), 

having married Elizabeth Bruce, "his spouse" (Sasine 7th January 1658, and 
25th March 1714). They had, 

xvi. Mr. Alexander. (See below.) 

xx. Benjamin, "son of Mr. Andrew, minister at Tarbat" (witness, 
Sasine 15th August 1682). 
xvi. Mr. Alexander, third of Pitkerie, " eldest son and heir to late Mr. 
Andrew" (Sasine 15th November 1722). "Served and retoured " (Sasine 
25th March 1714). Married ■ . daughter of Major William Cock- 
burn (MS. Ped.), and left, 

xvii. Benjamin, "eldest son of Mr. Alexander" (Sasine 1st July 

1703, and 24th May 1717). 
xviii. Andrew. (See below.) 
xviii. Andrew, fourth of Pitkerie, " son to Mr. Alexander " (witness, 
Sasine 1st March 171 7). Obtained from the Lyon Office the following grant 
of Arms : — " Gu. 3 Lyoncells ramp. arg. within a bordure compound or and 
of the first." No crest mentioned. Motto : — " Non opus sed ingenium." 
He married Katherine, daughter of Duncan Fraser of Achnagairn. She 
married, secondly, George Gray, seventh of Skibo. By her first husband 
she had, 

xix. George. (See below.) 

(1.) Jean, married, 6th March 1747 (Dornoch Reg.), as second wife, 

Mr. Robert Kirke, minister of Dornoch 1713-38. Their 

eldest daughter, Jean, married Duncan Munro, third of 


xix. George, fifth of Pitkerie, and first of Cromarty by purchase in 1772; 

Army agent; M.P. Cromartyshire 1780-4; for the Wick Burghs 15th March 

1786. He died s.p. 7th April 1786. Will proved in London. George Gray, 

son of his half-brother Alexander Gray of Skibo, inherited Cromarty, and 

assumed the name of Ross. He died unmarried, when the estate passed to 

Katherine Munro of Culcairn, daughter of Jean Kirke, niece of the above 

George Ross. She married, as second wife, Hugh Ross of Glastullich, who 

assumed the name of Ross, and had by her, 

George William Holmes Ross of Cromarty, who died 19th November 
1883, having married, 20th April 1849, Adelaide Lucy, daughter of Dun- 
can Davidson, fourth of Tulloch, by whom he had 3 sons and 4 


xxii. George Ross, " brother of Alexander of Pitkerie, younger son of 
deceased Mr. John of Little Tarrel " (Sasine 19th July 1624), " portioner of 
Pitkerie" (Sasine 4th October 1648). He married Katherine, daughter of 
Thomas Ross (MS. Ped.), and had, 

Branch of Nicholas Ross, Dyer in Tain. 49 

xxiii. Mr. Thomas, "minister of Kincardine" (witness, Sasine 16th 
August 1656), "eldest son of George, and cautioner to Mr. John" (Sasine 
on bond 9th December 1651). He married Lilias Dunbar (MS. Pcd.), 
and had, 

xxiv. Mr. Alexander. (See below.) 
xxviii. Mr. George. (See post.) 

xxiv. Mr. Alexander of Nether Pitkerie (Sasine on disposition 28th July 
1669, "by Mr. Thomas Ross, portioner of Pitkerie, in favour of Mr. Alex- 
ander, minister at Fearne, and Jean Munro, his spouse, of the Easter and 
Nether quarters of Pitkerie)." His wife was daughter of Mr. George Munro, 
minister of Rosemarkie, and third of Pithendie, chancellor of Ross ; " relict 
of Mr. Alexander" (Sasine 4th October 1700). They had, 

xxv. Alexander of Nether Pitkerie, " son of deceased Mr. Alexander and 

Jean Munro" (Sasine as above). He married Anne, daughter of 

Fraser of Achnagairn (MS. Pcd.), and had, 

xxvi. George of Nether Pitkerie, "writer, Edinburgh" (Sasine 14th 
December 1736, on charter under Great Seal of the lands of Annat and 
others in the parish of Nigg). In Sasine 5th June 1753 on Crown Charter 
of Easter and Wester Kinmylies, in the regality of Spynie, he is styled 
" solicitor in London." He married , and had a son, 

xxvii. Charles, who married . 

xxviii. Mr. George (see ante), son of Mr. Thomas Ross, was minister of 
Kincardine 1671, died — February 1683, aged about 47 (Fasti Ecc. Scot.), 
having married Katherine Ross, "his spouse" (disposition in her favour, 
Sasine 12th February 1683, of the lands of Easter and Wester Calrichies). 
They had, 

xxix. Mr. David, " schoolmaster at Tain " (witness, Sasine 20th Novem- 
ber 1694), "minister at Tarbat, eldest son to deceased Mr. George (Sasine 
nth December 1709). He took his degree at St. Andrews, and was ordained 
1707. He died 18th October 1748, having married Margaret, daughter of 
Alexander Ross, fifth of Pitcalnie. She died nth January 1730. 


xxx. Nicholas Ross (sec ante), son of Mr. John Ross, "dyer and burgess 
of Tain" (Sasine 30th June 1624), "brother of George" (Sasine 28th July 
1638). He married Katherine, daughter of William Ross of Balkeith (MS. 
Ped.), and had, 

xxxi. John of Newtown, Provost of Tain. 
xxxii. Alexander. (See bclozv.) 
1L Thomas, M.D., Barbadoes. 
lii. David. 
xxxii. Alexander, "burgess of Tain, brother of John" (Sasine 18th April 
1696). He married Isobell M'Culloch (MS. Ped.), and had, 
xxxiii. Nicholas, who married Jean Sutherland. 
xxxviii. Thomas. (See below.) 
xxxix. Walter. (See post.) 
xxxviii. Thomas, bailie of Tain, married Abigail, daughter of Thomas 
M'Culloch of Kindeace (MS. Ped.). and had. 

50 Rossiana. 

xxxiv. David. 

xxxv. Nicholas. (See beloiv.) By an error in the Key-Chart David 
and Nicholas appear as sons of (xxxiii) Nicholas. 
xxxv. Nicholas, merchant at Tain, married Jannet, daughter of Mr. Colin 
Mackenzie (MS. Pcd.), and had, 
xxxvi. Thomas. 
xxxvii. Colin. 
xxxix. Walter (see ante), Town Clerk of Dornoch, Provost of Tain 1693, 
married Jean, daughter of Mr. Robert ,Ross of Logie, by Barbara, daughter 
of Mr. George Munro, Chancellor of Ross. They had, 
xl. Thomas, Dean of Guild of Dornoch. 
xli. Alexander. (See belozc.) 
xli. Alexander, Sheriff Clerk Deputy of Ross (Sasine 3d February 1730). 

Sheriff Clerk (Sasine 29th January 1734). Born 1700. died 

1762, having married 17-29, Margaret, daughter of Mr. Hugh Munro 

of Kiltearn, minister of Tain (Sasine of renunciation, 7th August 1747, by 
her to her husband of £100 out of the lands of Culrain, and afterwards of 
the same sum out of Culcairn). They had, 
xiii. George, died young. 
xliii. William Sutherland. (See below.) 
(1.) Katherine, died unmarried. 
(2.) Christian, died unmarried. 
xliii. William Sutherland, born 19th March 1740, died 27th January 1816, 
having married, 9th August 1770, Hannah Margaretta Owen. They had, 
with other five children who died young, 

xliv. William Sutherland, born 10th July 1771, married, 1802, 

Catherine Tinker, and died s.p. 1845. 

xlv. Edward Dalhousie. (See below.) 

— . Henry John, born 1787, died unmarried 1830. 

(1.) Margaretta Susannah, died 1801. having married Andrew 

Burnside in 1793. P. 

(2.) Elizabeth Anne, died unmarried 1823. 

(3.) Laurencia Dorothea, married 1804, Francis Robertson 

of Chilcote Hall, Ashby-de-la-Zouche, and died 1848, 

having had nine children. 

(4.) Amelia, died unmarried 1859. 

(5.) Anna Sophia, married, 181 1, Col. Mundy Wood, and 

died 1825. P. 

(6.) Gilbertha, married, , John Durand, and died s.p. 


xlv. Edward Dalhousie, born 27th May 1784, died 1842, having 

married, 16th October 1806, Euphemia Louisa, daughter of David Fell of 
Caversham Grove, Oxon. She died 1862, having had, with other chil- 
dren who died young. 

xlvi. William Hunter, born 21st September 1807, died 1844, 

having married, 16th May 1843, Frances Petersen; he left 
an only daughter Williamina. 
xlvii. Henry Francis, born 24th July 1819. 

Branch of Aldie. 51 

xlviii. Owen Charles Dalhousie, born 8th January 1823. 
xlix. Fitzgerald Edward Turton, born 1st January 1824. 

1. George Arthur Emilius. (See below.) 
(1.) Louisa Euphemia. 
(2.) Ellen Catherine Margaretta, married, 15th May 1832, William 

Stuart Day, and died 1837, leaving an only daughter. 

(3.) Julia Elizabeth, married, 1847, Rev. D. S. Halkett, Rector 

of Little Bookham, and died 1849, leaving an only 

daughter, Katherine Euphemia. 
(4.) Cecilia Louisa Annette, died unmarried, 20th May 1886. 
(5.) Emily Bertha. 
1. George Arthur Emilius, born 28th May 1828, died — November 1876, 

having married, 1859, Sibella Mary, daughter of Venerable James 

Wilson, Archdeacon of Christchurch, New Zealand, and had, 

— . Edward James, born 29th January i860, married, 24th January 
1889, Jane Wilson, daughter of Alfred Cox of Merrivale, 
New Zealand. 
— . George Henry Dunbar, born 21st March 1862. 
— . Charles Frederick Mackenzie, born 6th December 1864. 
— . Philip Hedgeland, born 4th July 1876. 
(1.) Sibella Euphemia. 
(2.) Cecilia Elizabeth. 
(3.) Margaret Louisa. 
(4.) Rachel Lucy. 

liii. John Ross, first of Aldie, burgess of Tain (see ante) (witness, Sasine 
19th July 1624. Sasine 19th November 1628, on charter to him by Robert 
Munro of the croft lands and mill of Aldie. Also confirmation of charter 
under the Great Seal 3d July 1637, by John, bishop of Ross, to the same effect). 
"John Ross of Aldie, sometime styllit Bone, uncle of Hugh Ross of Cunlich" 
(Sasine 4th May 1654). He married Bessie, daughter of John Ferguson, 
baillie of Tain, "his spouse," 31st October 1626. They had, 
liv. John. (See below.) 
lxiv. Andrew, "son of John of Aldie, student in Tain" (Sasine 4th 
January and 8th March 1654). 
liv. John, second of Aldie, burgess of Tain, son and heir of his father in 
the lands of Aldie, 22d July 1656 (Inq. spec. Ross et Crom.), married Mar- 
garet, daughter of William, son of Andrew Ross, Provost of Tain {MS. 
Ped.). They had, 

lv. William. (See bcloiv.) 

lxiii. John, "brother to William Ross, now of Aldie" (Sasine 8th 

January 1717). 

lv. William, third of Aldie (Sasine 15th August 1682), Commissioner of 

Supply 1689-90 (Acts of Parliament), tenant of the bishopric of Ross 1695-96, 

heir of John, his grandfather, 22d May 1700 (Inq. Gen. xlix. 71). Charter 

to him and Sibilla Mackenzie his spouse in liferent, John their eldest son, 

and his heirs-male in fee; to Thomas their second son, etc.; whom failing, 

52 Rossiana. 

to Simon their third son, etc., of the half davoch lands of Balnagal, resigned 
by George Ross of Morinchie, confirmed 9th March 1703 (Great Seal). 
Sibilla was daughter of Kenneth Mackenzie of Coul, first Bart. (Sasine 22d 
November 1721). They had, 

lvi. John, died unmarried vit. pat., " jun. of Aldie " (Sasine 29th 
May 1708, on charter under Great Seal to him of the 
superiority of part of Little Allan). 
— . Thomas, died unmarried. 
lvii. Simon. (See below.) 

lxii. David, "son to William" (Sasine 25th March 1714, and 1st 
April 1725), M.D. London, Physician at Bristol. He mar- 
ried Rebecca, daughter of Dr. John Middleton, and had issue 
a son, John Middleton, who died young. Dr. Ross's will 
was dated 14th September 1756, and proved in London 29th 
August 1759. 
(1.) Sibilla. 

(2.) Elizabeth, married Hugh Ross of Brealangwell. 
(3.) Ann, married John Sutherland of Little Torboll. 
lvii. Simon of Rosehill, fourth of Aldie. ''son of William" (Sasine 8th 
January 1717). Commissary Depute of Ross 1739. Settlement of Aldie 
(Sasine 1st April 1725. ) 1 He married Ann, second daughter of George 
Munro of Newmore. They had, 

lviii. William, inherited Newmore by virtue of an entail made by his 
uncle, Lieut.-Colonel John Munro, 8th December 1747, on 
himself and his heirs whatsoever; on his eldest sister, Mary, 
wife of Gustavus Munro of Culrain ; on his second sister, 
Ann, wife of Simon Ross of Aldie; on his third sister, 
Isobel, wife of George Gray of Skibo; and the heirs-male of 
their bodies: whom failing, on their heirs-female; whom all 
failing, on David Ross of Inverchasely. Colonel Munro 

died s.f>. 1/49, also his eldest sister Mary in 1763, 

when the above William became " apparent heir of tailzie and 
provision." He died s.p. 9th December 1803, when David 
Ross, Lord Ankerville, inherited Newmore. (Memorial of 
Quarics for Lord Ankerville, 1804.) 
lix. Duncan. 
lx. Robert. 
lxi. David. ) 

They are thus given in a MS. Fed., but in the entail of 
Newmore they stand, George, Robert, Duncan. George died 

^Particular Register of Sasines, Inverness, vol. viii. fol. 216. Entail of Aldie, under 
Great Seal, in favour of Simon Ross of Rosehill, son of William Ross of Aldie; of 
David Ross, son of William; of William, son of Hugh Ross of Brealangwell and 
Elizabeth his wife; whom failing, to the other heirs-male of William and Elizabeth 
Ross; whom failing, to William, son of John Sutherland of Little Torboll, and the 
heirs-male of his body; to the heirs-male of Sibilla Ross, eldest daughter; whom all 
failing, to the heirs and assignees whomsoever of the said William Ross of the lands 
and mill of Aldie. Dated at Edinburgh, 26th July 1723. 

Br audi of Nonnakiln. 53- 

unmarried before 1764. Robert, Ensign in Colonel Amherst's 
Regiment, executor to Dr. Ross's will 1759, died unmarried. 
Duncan, also unmarried, died — December 1764. When his 
eldest and only surviving brother succeeded to Newmore he 
claimed the estate of Aldie {Petition, 21st February 1764), 
but dying before his claim was allowed, his cousin, John 
Middleton, son of David Ross, M.D., carried on the suit. 1 


lxiii. David Ross of Noon Hill, Newnakill or Nonnakiln {see ante), 
styled "in Drummeddeth, brother to Mr. John Ross" {Reg. P. C. 1587-8), 
"late portioner of Nonnakiln, deceased" (Sasine 5th November 1630). He 

married , and left a son, George. In 1586 James vi. confirmed a 

charter by the late John, bishop of Ross, granting to Alexander Ross of 
Little Tarrell, eldest brother of the above David, and Isobell, his wife, the 
lands of Newnakill {Reg. Sec. Sig. vol. liv. f. 17). 2 


lxv. Mr. Walter Ross, " sometime of Little Allan " styled " of Fychie " 
in MS. Pedigree, "of Eister Little Allan" (Sasine 30th April 1608), brother 
of deceased Alexander, younger of Little Tarrell {Reg. P. C). He married 
Agnes, daughter of David Ross of Balmachie, and had, 
lxvi. Alexander. {See below.) 

lxxii. Donald, married Bessie, daughter of John Ferguson, baillie of 
Tain. They had. 

lxxiii. John, who married , daughter of 

Alexander Ross, baillie of Tain, and had, 

lxxiv. Donald, who married , daughter 

of Alexander Munro of Daan, and had, 
lxxv. Donald. 

lxxvi. George, married Janet , and had, 

lxxvii. Alexander, who married , and had, 

Ixxviii. Charles. 
lxvi. Alexander, "son of Mr. Walter" (Sasine 25th March 1611), por- 
tioner of Little Allan (Sasine 30th June 1624), styled "of Eye" {MS. Ped.). 
He married Agnes, daughter of Alexander Sutherland of Little Torboll, and 
gave a charter to her of part of the lands of Eister Little Allan, in the barony 
of Balnagown, dated 17th May 1624. Alexander " of the Yie " died 5th April 
1659, and was buried at Feme {Kal. of F.). He left, 
lxvii. James. {See below.) 

1 Captain Simon Mackenzie, second son of Kenneth Mackenzie, second of Langwell, 
eventually inherited Aldie, and added the name of Ross to his own. 

2 John Ross, portioner of Newnakill (Sasine 1st April 1625 and 10th July 1626), 
granted a charter of part of Newnakill to Nicol Ross of Cunlich and Alexander his 
eldest son. On 19th March 1639 he granted another portion to Hector Munro in 
Tarlogie and Jean Munro, his spouse. Thomas Ross, notary, was portioner of Newnakill 
7th July 1641 (Gen. Reg. of Deeds, vol. 532). In 1652 Hugh Ross was served heir to 
his father, Alexander of Pitkerie, in the three oxgang? of the lands of Newnakill 

54 Rossiana. 

lxxi. Alexander, went abroad and married (MS. Pcd.). 
lxvii. James, "of Eister Little Allan and Eye" (Sasine 5th August 1671). 
He married Jean, daughter of Colin Mackenzie of Kincraig, " his spouse " 
(Sasine 18th October 1700). They had, 

Angus. (5.) David. (6.) John. (7.) Simon. (MS. Pcd.) 
lxviii. Charles. (See below.) 

lxx. Hugh "son of James" (Sasine 2d September 1698). He mar- 
ried Jean, daughter of Thomas Bain, and had a numerous 
family — (1.) James. (2.) Thomas. (3.) Charles. (4.) 
lxviii. Charles, "their eldest son" (Sasine 18th October 1700); "servitor 
to William Brody of Whytwray, Advocate;" "writer in Edinburgh." 1703; 
"of Ey " (witness Sasine 3d May 1726). He obtained a charter from Sir 
David Ross of Balnagown of the half davoch lands of Eister Little Allan 

(Sasine on it 21st January 1701). He married , daughter of 

Rory Macleod of Cambuscurry, leaving. 

Ixix. David, "eldest son of deceased Charles Ross of Eye" (Sasine 
4th May 1731). 


lxxix. Nicholas Ross (sec ante). "portioner of Cunlichmoir " (witness, 
Sasine 25th March 1611). Charter by Nicol Ross of Cunlichmoir to Alex- 
ander his son and apparent heir of the half davoch lands of Newnakill 
(Sasine on it 1st April 1625). "Of Cunlich " (Sasine 10th July 1626). He 
married first Katherine. daughter of Hugh Ross of Achnacloich (MS. Pcd.), 
and had. 

lxxx. Alexander. (See below.) 
lxxxii. Hugh. (See post.) 
He married, secondly, Margaret, second daughter of Alexander Mackenzie, 
fifth of Gairloch, " his spouse " (Sasine 20th January 1627, on charter by 
Patrick, bishop of Ross, to him, to his wife, to Alexander his son and 
apparent heir, of part of Newnakill, and Sasine 1st April 1625 on charter by 
Patrick, bishop of Ross, to him, to his wife, to Alexander his son and 
apparent heir, of part of Newnakill, and Sasine 1st April 1625 on charter by 
Alexander Mackenzie, fear of Gairloch, to the said Alexander, of half of the 
lands of Cunlichmoir in the barony of Delnie). They had, 

lxxxvi. Mr. David, "their eldest son" (Sasine 15th October 1624), 

"sometime schoolmaster at Alness" (witness, Sasine 8th 

March 1649). 

lxxx. Alexander, "apparent of Cunlich and of Cunlichmoir" (Sasine 10th 

July 1626), "of Cunlich." 4th May 1632. He obtained part of Wester Gany, 

and died 9th June 1648 (Kal of Feme), having married , by 

whom he had, 

lxxxi. Alexander, " fear of Cunlich." 1635. 
lxxxii. Hugh (see ante), "second son of Nicol, portioner of Cunlich- 
moir" (Sasine 12th June 1629). In the old MS. Pedigree he is styled "of 

Ciulich." He married Margaret, daughter of Sutherland of Forbon, 

and had. 

Ross of Little Allan and Muldarg. 55 

lxxxiii. Walter. (See belozv.) 

lxxxiv. Robert, married , daughter of John Sutherland of 

Innerlaine and had, 
lxxxv. John Ross, " the master mason." 
lxxxiii. Walter, Provost of Tain, mentioned in numerous Sasines 1682- 
1702, possibly "Walter Ross of Cowillich, 1689" (Acts of Parliament). He 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Ross of Morangie, " his spouse " 
(Sasine 15th August 1682), and had, 

Elizabeth, " daughter and heiress to the deceased Walter Ross, 
and spouse to Captain Donald Macleod of Geanies " (Sasine 
3d May 1626); "relict" (Sasine 27th April 1638). P. 


1. John Ross of Little Allan, obtained a charter from Thomas Ross, com- 
mendator of Feme, " his relative," of the lands of Muldarg and Knockandrow, 
dated at Elgin, 1st January 1582, and confirmed by James vi., 10th May 1587 
(Great Seal). On 13th June 1598, Robert Ross in Little Rany gives caution 
not to harm John Ross of Muldarg (Reg. P. Conn.). He resigned to George 
Ross of Balnagown (17) part of the lands of Little Allan, called Bellinger, 
who granted them to William Innes of Calrossie, and Elizabeth Gordon, his 
spouse (Sasine 24th July 1607). 1 He married , and had, 

2. Hugh. (See below.) 
[1.] Janet, married John M'Culloch of Kindeace, provost of Tain 
(Bore-brieve of Alexander Ross (69)). In the Kalender of 
Feme it is stated that Margaret Ross, wife of John M'Culloch, 
died 7th December 1629, and was buried at Ferae. 

2. Hugh Ross "apparent of Muldarg," in 1598 (Reg. P. Court.). He is 
said to have had a daughter Jean, who married Thomas Munro. third of 
Kilmorack (Hist, of Munro. Celtic Mag.). The lands of Muldarg must have 
soon passed away from the Ross family, for, in 1638, Hector Douglas is 
styled " of Muldarg," his wife being Janet Ross. His grandson, also Hector 
Douglas of Muldarg, served and retoured to the deceased Hector of Muldarg, 
his uncle, became of Meikle Ranie, and had for wife Margaret Ross. Their 
eldest son, Hector Douglas of Muldarg, sergeant in the third regiment of 
foot guards, disposed of part of Little Ranie and other lands to David 
M'Culloch (whose mother was Isobel Ross), from whom by charter of 
adjudication under the Great Seal the town and lands of Muldarg and others 
passed to David Ross in Milntown, eldest son and heir of the late Robert 
Ross in Fearn (Sasine 24th January 1751). 


1624, June 6th, William Ross " of Annat " was drowned in the water of 
Oikel, and was buried at Feme (Kalender). William Ross "of Annat" was 
witness to Sasine 30th June 1624, and again 31st January 1628. 

throughout the whole of this work the notices of Sasines (unless otherwise stated) 
refer to the Secretary's Register of Sasines, Inverness, in two volumes, commencing 
about 1606, and then to the Particular Register of Sasines, Inverness, from about 1624. 

56 Rossiana. 

In volume 45 of Edinburgh Testaments, under the date 3d July 1609, 
there is the Will and Inventory of the goods pertaining to the deceased 
Robert Ross " in Annat," in the parish of Nig and shire of Inverness, who 

died in April 1602, given up by himself, 24th April 1602. Free 

i884, 15s. He discharges all former Wills, and all assignations made by 
him to Robert (sic) Ross, his brother german, or to any other person or 
persons preceding the above date, and nominates Donald Ross, apparent of 
Priesthill, executor. Item, to Mariorie Urquhart, his spouse, the profit of 
500 merks yearly, during her lifetime; Item, the said Donald Ross to be 
tutor to Alexander Ross, his lawful son, and to the rest of the bairnes, as 
need shall require; Item, he leaves to his natural son, Ferquhar Ross, 100 
merks, " together with his haill wapounes whatsomever during the minoritie 
of the said Alexander, his lawful son. - ' which armour the said Ferquhar is 
to deliver to the said Alexander when he attains his majority. " Item, he 
leaves the tua lasses and their geir to their moder, the said Mariore 
Wrquhart." Confirmed 3d July 1609. George Munro of Tarrell is cautioner. 

Probably the same Ferquhar Ross, " in Leachavak," was witness, 16th 
April 1633, to Sasine on charter by Andrew Ross, burgess of Tain, to Alex- 
ander Ross of Pitkerie, and John Ross of Aldie, of part of the lands of 
Leachavak in the abbacy of Feme. 

Hugh Ross " in Annat " was witness to a Sasine 17th September 1640. 


1. Farquhar Ross (no paternity given) was father of 

2. William. (See below.) 

3. John (witness Sasine 16th February 1654). 

2. William Ross " in Ardgye " obtained a tack from David Ross of Bal- 
nagown (20) of part of the lands of Ardgye and Bonmayres. He married 
Margaret Ross (Sasine 22d August 1682), and had. 

4. Hugh, "eldest son" (witness Sasine 5th November 1688). 

5. William. 

6. Alexander (witness Sasine 24th July 1682). 

Another John Ross " in Ardgye " appears as witness to a Sasine in 1630, 
David Ross in 170S, and William Ross in 1717. 


The name, being always spelt Ros in the Inverness Sasines, was included 
in the list of descendants of the Earls of Ross on the Key Chart. This 
family was one of the numerous families of Rose. 


In 1527, James v. granted the lands of Ballintraid and others to Thomas 
Ross ; no paternity stated. In 1541, Mr. David Dunbar, chaplain of the chap- 
lainry of the Virgin Mary, in the parish of Kilmuir Meddat, granted the 
lands of Priesthill to Thomas Ross of Ballintraid and Elizabeth Dunbar his 
wife. Thomas Ross appears as grantee " of the chappellands of Delny " 
(Oris- Par. Scot. vol. ii, pt. ii, p. 464). Donald Ross "of Ballintraid" died 
15th December 1614 (Kal. of Feme). 

Ross of and in Ballonc. 57 

William Ross "in Ballintraid " married Agnes Innes, "his spouse" 
(Sasine 2d August 1639, on precept of dare constat by George, Earl of Sea- 
forth, to her in the lands of Kirkskeath). They had a daughter, Margaret, 
spouse to Thomas Dingwall in Knockshortie (Sasine 15th December 1642, on 
charter to them by Thomas Ross of Priesthill, of part of the lands of Over 

David Ross "in Ballintraid" appears as witness 1708. 

In the Cromarty registers of marriage, 12th November 1712, Alexander 
Ross in Ballintraid, in the parish of Kilmure, and Helen Hood, were booked. 


Walter Ross of Shandwick (143), who died 10th June 1531, by one of his 
numerous wives, was father of Nicholas Ross of Balon. 

1. Donald Ross "of Ballone " (no paternity stated) gave a charter of 
these lands (Sasine on it, 30th June 1606) to his eldest son, 

2. Nicholas. (See below.) 

3. Hugh (Sasine 20th December 1606). 

4. Walter (Sasine as above), "sons of Donald, in Ballone" caution, 

1595 (Reg. P. Coun.). 

2. Nicholas Ross was father of 

5. Donald Ross, " heir of Nicol Ross of Bellon, his father," 20th December 
1636 (Inq. Gen. xv. 277), "heir of his grandfather, Donald Ross, in the lands 
of Bellon," 20th December 1636 (Inq. Spec. Ross et Crom.). He married 
Margaret Mackenzie, "his spouse" (Sasine 2d September 1642, on charter to 
her of the liferent of the lands of Ballone). Donald Ross, "sometime of 
Ballone, and Margaret Mackenzie, his spouse," obtained a charter from 
Malcolm Ross (41), son of David Ross of Pitcalnie, of part of the lands of 
Midganie and others (Sasine 16th November 1652), which lands he cedes 
by charter, in 1655, to Mr. Thomas Mackenzie of Inverlael. In 1655 he sold 
Balon to Mr. William Ross of Shandwick (152). 

Walter Ross, son of Angus, in Bellone, witness to Sasine 12th August 1630. 

Alexander Ross in Bellone 1638-50. 

Andrew Ross " in Bellone " 1642-60. " of Bellone " 19th December 1664, 
possibly Andrew Ross, sixth of Shandwick (154). 


I. David Ross in Edderton, whose paternity is not stated, obtained from 
David Ross of Balnagown (20) a tack of part of the lands of Edderton 
(Sasine 22d April 1686). He married Christian Murray, "his spouse" 
( Sasine 3d October 1698) ; they had a tack of the mill of Edderton, renewed 
to her, as a widow, and to her eldest son, by the said laird of Balnagown. 
They had, 

2. Arthur. (See below.) 

3. David, "brother of Arthur" (Sasine 8th February 1712). Captain 

David, "shipmaster of Dumfries" (Sasine 10th October 1741), 
"of the Isle of Man" (Shandzvick Letters). He was nearly 
related to the Shandwick family, and kept up a correspondence 

58 Rossiana. 

with them. One letter, dated Douglas, 22d October 1747, written 
to Alexander Ross (169), at Gothenburg, begins — Dear Cousen 
Shandy — I have your most agreeable favour of 12th ult. which 
only came to hand two days ago. I cou'd not imagine what was 
come of you this long time. If I had known you had been at 
home I wou'd certainly have desired your assistance in pur- 
chasing our Teas when I wrote to your Broth 1 " George (172). 
. . . I remain, my dear Sandy, your affectionate Cousen and 
ever ready servant, David Ross. 

2. Arthur Ross "of Rives, and then of Priesthill, son to David Ross in 
Edderton " (Sasine 29th June 1696). Charter under the Great Seal to 
Arthur Ross in Edderton of the half davoch lands of Milntown of Westray, 
which had belonged to George, Master of Ross (Sasine on it 28th February 
1710). In 171 1 he was styled of Torray. Roderick M'Leod of Catboll dis- 
poned to him the town and lands of Priesthill (Sasine 17th October 1730). 
He died 7th October 1742, and was buried at Edderton, 1 having married 
Jean Ross, "his spouse" (Sasine 2d May 1721), on disposition to Arthur and 
Jean Ross, by Alexander Bain of Knockbain, of the town and lands of Rives. 
They had an only son, 

4. David, a judge in 1747; he registered Arms 12th June 1767, as follows : — 
Gn. three lions rampant arg. armed and langued az., within a border of the 
second for difference. Crest, a dexter hand holding a laurel garland proper. 
Motto, Nobilis est ira leonis. He died 13th December 1781, having married 
Margaret, third daughter of James Sutherland of Clyne (Sasine on marriage- 
contract, 10th October 1741), when Arthur Ross disponed to his son the lands 
of Rives and others disponed to him by Gustavus Munro of Culrain. She 
died shortly before her husband, leaving a daughter, 

Jean, married to Mr. Alexander Baillie of Knockbreak ; their son, 
William, was baptized at Tain, 20th March 1771. 
The property had been sold some time before the death of David Ross to 
Sir John Ross. 

a The burying-place of the Rosses of Priesthill is at the East end of Edderton 
Church. In the wall of the old chapel there is a tablet to the memory of Arthur Ross, 
but being of stucco, the inscription is nearly obliterated: — 

Oct. 9. 1752 

Hie conducunt Exuviae 

Arthuri Ross 

de Priesthill 

Obiit Oct. 7 a.d. 1742 

Monumentum hoc 
posuit Davidus Ross de Priesthill 
unicus Filius 

Ross of Mid Gany. 59 

Mr. William Ross (whose paternity is not stated) took his M. A. degree 
at the University of St. Andrews, 13th May 1653. He was minister at 
Edderton for fourteen years, and dying there, 1679, was buried in the church- 
yard, where a tombstone marks his resting-place. He appeared as witness 
to Sasines in 1666 and 1670. Andrew M'Culloch of Glastulich disponed to 
him part of the lands of Monakill, in the parish of Rosskeen (Sasine 1st May 
1668). Also in Edderton churchyard there are two large flat stones, side by 
side ; on one, the Arms of Ross, and the initials T. R. above the shield, and 
K. R. below, with W. R. and J. R. at the upper corners of the square on 
which the shield is cut, and below the square, various emblems ; the following 
inscription runs round the stone : — here lies the corps of ane honest man 


On the other stone, bearing the Arms of Rose, there is an inscription in 
memory of Patrick and Issobel Rose, children of Andrew Rose, master miller 
in West ray, who died 15th January 1683. There is a tradition that these two 
families intermarried ; very probably the ancestor of the " honest man " was 
Thomas Ros in Mylntown of Westray, and parish of Eddertayne, who died — 
April 1593 (Testaments Edin. vol. 30). Amount of inventory and debts 
£2246, 8s. 8d. Given up by his near kinsman, George Ross (tenth) of Bal- 
nagown, administrator to Alexander, Walter, and Donald his sons. Will 
confirmed 15th July 1597. In 1649 (Sasine 13th February), David Ross 
(twelfth) of Balnagown lets the lands of Miltown of Westray to Mr. Thomas 
Ross of Morangie for his life, and nineteen years after. 


1. Donald Ross of Mid Gany was in all probability a descendant of 
Nicholas Ross, chaplain of Dunskaith, 19th Abbott of Feme, who purchased 
the estate of Geanies, circa 1543 (See Morangie). There is a complaint made 
against Donald Ross, and many other persons, 24th April 1592, for carrying 
off a certain John Ross from the " Chanoury " of Ross, prisoner, to Balna- 
gown (Reg. P. Conn.). Styled " portioner of Mid Ganies," he granted by 
charter to his eldest son, Nicholas, the quarter lands of Mid Ganies (Sasine 
30th June 1606). He gave the sowings of three bolls of barley to John 
Paterson in Wester Ganies, and Jonet Ross his spouse (Sasine on charter 
16th June 1607). He had, 

1. Nicholas. 

2. Walter. 

3. Hugh. 

In 1631 William Corbat had become a portioner of Mid Ganies (Sasine on 
charter nth August). 

John Corbat of Little Ranie granted part of the davoch lands of Mid Ganies, 
with houses, to Malcolm Ross (41), afterwards of Kindeace, and to Katherine 
Corbat his spouse (Sasine on charter 30th May 1649). In the Inverness 
Sasines there is no further mention of Mid Ganies until David Ross, as 
portioner of Mid Ganies, gave a bond of corroboration of the quarter lands 
of Mid Ganies to George Ross of Morangie (Sasine 17th March 1694). This 
David had two sons, Robert and James. 

60 Rossiana. 


Alexander Clones of Easter Gany had an only son Alexander ( Sasine 20th 
December 1606). Walter Ross was tenant in Easter Gany, and had a son 
Alexander (Sasine nth April 1633). 


1. Alexander Ross was " portioner of Wester Gany" 3d August 1598 
(Reg. P. Conn.), "of West Gany" (witness Sasine 30th June 1606). He 
died 2d August 1608 (Kal. of Feme) leaving a son, 

2. Alexander, heir-male of Alexander Ross, his father, portioner of 
Wester Gany, in the town and davoch lands of Langoll-Strathokell 13th 
March 1621 (Inq. Spec. Ross ct Crom.). He married Margaret Ross "his 
spouse" (Sasine 7th June 1625), and had a son William, heir-male of his 
father in three-quarters of the town and lands of Langoll-Strathokell 
(Retours, 3d April 1621). 

George Ross, who had been tenant in Wester Gany, left a widow, Katherine 
Munro (Sasine 7th June 1625). In 1629 an Andrew Ross was tenant. 

James Sutherland was also a portioner of Wester Gany, having married 
Isobell Clunes, who married, secondly, Alexander Ross there (Sasine 5th 
November 1630). 


First Family of Ross so Styled. 

1. George Ross (whose paternity is not stated) was called "in Inver- 
chasley," 20th February 1626, and "of Inverchasley," 19th November 1629. 
His eldest son was 

2. Alexander, "'portioner of," 25th November 1630, "of Inverchasley" 
27th December 1639; the last mention of him is as a witness to Sasine 
18th September 1650. In 1695, William Sutherland, brother of Alexander 
Lord Duffus, seems to have been in possession of Inverchasley, which with 
other lands he disponed to David Ross (50), second son of Malcolm Ross 
of Kindeace. 


Donald Ross "in Kincardine" (Sasine 14th January 1625), on discharge 
of reversion by Hugh Ross, fear of Easterfearn (102). He married Elspet 
Corbat, and had, 

John, "eldest son" (Sasines 22d April 1641, and 15th July 1642). 

Walter Ross "in Kincardine" (witness Sasine 12th October 1648). 

Robert Ross "in Kincardine" (witness, 16th February 1654). 

Alexander Ross, Robert's son, "in Kincardine" (Sasine 4th August 1652, 
and 29th January 1674). 

Charles Ross there 1674. 

1. Robert Ross " in Kincardine," witness to a Sasine 9th June 1708, was 
a relation of the Shandwick family; he married , and had, 

2. Alexander Ross " in Kincardine." yEt. 60 in 1770. 

3. David Ross, writer, Edinburgh, known as " long David," died 

s. p. — April 1770, /Et. 70, having married Susanna Murray. He 

Ross of Kindeace. 61 

left some money to his cousin William Ross, afterwards of 
Shandwick (171). His will was confirmed in Edinburgh 22d 
May 1770 (Commissariat of Edin. Tests, vol. 121). 

[1.] Margaret, eldest daughter. 

[2.] Janet, living at Liverpool 1770. 


First Family of Ross so Styled. 
Donald Ross, a younger son of Nicholas Ross, Abbot of Feme (see Mor- 
angie), was styled "of Litill Kinteis ;" there is no document to prove it, but 
very probably he was father of 

1. Walter Ross " in Mekle Kindeace," who appears as witness to a deed, 
28th August 1565; on 4th June 1594 he purchased these lands, with a clause 
of reversion, from James Dunbar of Tarbart and Marjory Ogilvie, his wife 
{Kindeace Writs). Walter signs the deed of purchase, "w* my hand at ye 
pen led be ye notar. ... at my speciale comand Because my self can no* 
wrytt." He married , and had a son, 

2. Hugh Ross of Kindeace, " son and heir-apparent of Walter," 28th 
August, 1565. In 1607 he is styled " portioner of Little Kindeis." He 
obtained a charter under the Great Seal of the lands of Easter Kindeace, 
20th July 1615, to hold of the Crown. He died 5th August 1622 (Kal. of 
Feme), having married Margaret Gordon, "relict of Hugh Ross of Kindeace, 
and now spouse to Thomas Ross of Risollis " (Renunciation of Easter 
Kindeace in favour of Gilbert Robertson, 17th April 1650). By her first 
husband she had, 

3. Walter, " son and heir of the late Hugh Ross, son of Walter Ross of 
Little Kindeis (Sasine 8th June 1648), heir-male of his father in the house 
and lands of East Kindeace, 29th July 1623 (Inq. Spec. Ross ct Crom.). He 
obtained the lands of Achmoir, in the barony of Delnie, from John, Lord 
Balmerinoch (Sasine on charter 15th October 1624). He was bound over 
not to harm George Munro of Meikell Tarrell, 15th March 1593 (Reg. P. 
Coun.). He disposed of Kindeace to William Robertson, merchant, burgess 
of Inverness, and 31st August 1649 of Morehwater and Pitmaduthie, by 
charter, to Gilbert Robertson of Kindeace. Sometime " stylit of Kindis, now 
in Easter Rarichies " (Sasine 16th February 1653). He died 9th September 
1659, and was buried at Nigg (Kal. of Feme), having married Barbara Pape, 
" his spouse," 1649. He had a son, 

4. Charles, " son of late Walter Ross of Easter Kindeis," 15th November 
1661 (Kindeace Writs). 

It has been impossible to connect and chronicle in regular order the fol- 
lowing names : — 

Hugh Ross " of Kindeis." renunciation by William Fraser, sometime of 
Mullochie, and Janet Ross, his spouse, in his favour of the south half of 
Easter Kindeis (Sasine 1st June 1626). He had a son, 

George, " heir of Hugh Ross of Kindeis his father " (Retours, 26th 
July 1643, xvii. 270). 

62 Rossi a ii a. 

William Ross "of Easter Kindeis " (Sasine 30th April 1608). The follow- 
ing appears to be his son — 

John, "son of William Ross, portioner of Little Kindeis" (witness 
Sasine 1st April 1607), and "son of William, portioner of Easter 
Kindeis" (witness, Sasine 30th April 1608). 

William Ross " of Kindeis," who cannot be the same as the preceding, 
appears as father of 

Charles Ross, writer, Edinburgh, who, in 1703, obtained a grant of Arms 
from the Lyon Office — Gu. 3 roses slipped in fees betwixt as many lioncells 
rampant arg. Above the shield and helmet befitting his degree mantled gu. 
doubled arg. Crest, a fox issuant out of the torse with a rose in his mouth 
proper. Motto, a Rosam ne rode. He married Barbara Coupar, a relative 

of Mr. David Coupar of New Grange, writer, Edinburgh, and dying 

October 1706, left two daughters, who were served and retoured as heirs 

[1.] Katherine, married David Coupar, writer, Edinburgh. 
[2.] Elizabeth, baptized 14th September 1683 (Edin. Regs.). 

His will was confirmed in Edinburgh 18th February 1608, his daughters 
being the only executors. They assigned to David Ross, writer, Edinburgh, 
all the property they inherited from their father (Disposition dated 15th June 
1714, registered 19th September 1732, Reg. of Deeds, Mackenzie Office, vol. 
152). David Ross, by a disposition dated 16th April 1715, declared that he 
only held the property in trust for David Coupar, and disponed the same to 

The lands of Kindeace had long passed away to other families. Easter 
Kindeace, with the house and mill erected by Walter Ross (3) pertained 
heritably in 1720 to Alexander Duff of Drummuir, and were by him ceded 
to Alexander Ross (97), late merchant in Cracow. Yet the descendants of 
the old family still staled themselves "of Kindeace;" Walter Ross, so desig- 
nated, is named in the settlement made in 1766 by Hugh Ross of Kerse 
(157) of his estates. 

Donald Ross, " in Meikle Kindeis," or " in Kindeis," appears frequently 
as witness to Sasines between 1631 and 1691. 

Alexander Ross, " in Kindeis," in 1633. 

Hugh Ross, " in Kindeis," between 1650-1671. 

Andrew Ross, " in Kindeis," tenant, appears from 1650 to 1659 when he 
assigns his rights to Malcolm Ross of Knockan (41). 


1. Hugh Ross "in Kirkskeath," 1607, "of Kirkskeath" (Sasines 12th 
April 1617, and 24th May 1630), was nephew of the late Walter Ross of 
Rhiznell (Sasine 1st June 1648), who had a son, William (Sasines 30th 
April and 5th June 1629). Hugh married Christian Ross, "his spouse," 1st 
April 1607, and had, 

2. Alexander. (See bclozv.) 

3. Walter, "son of Hugh Ross of Kirkskeath" (Sasines 13th August 

1630, and 22d March 1639). 

Ross of and in Knockbreak. 63 

4. William, witness to a deed 3d November 1634 (Reg. of Deeds. 

2. Alexander Ross, second of Kirkskeath, ''notary public" (Sasine 1st 
August 1632), "fear of Kirkskeath," 1636, "of Kirkskeath," 1644. He 
married, first, — , by whom he had, 

5. Alexander. Captain Alexander Ross, of Kirkskeath, was a fre- 

quent witness to Sasines between 1660 and 1693. 
He married, secondly, Helen Hoss, " his present spouse," by whom he had, 

6. Hugh, "their son" (Sasine 12th August, 1657). 

In the Tain Registers there is mention of Andrew Ross " in Kirkskeath," 
whose daughter Christian was baptized 5th March 1725. 


William Ross " of Knockbreak," 3d November 1679. His eldest daughter, 
Janet, married John Sutherland of Meikle Torbo (Sasine on marriage-con- 
tract, by which the said Janet was infeft in a liferent annuity). Walter 
Ross, Provost of Tain, and Mr. Robert Ross, of Logie, witnesses. 

Hugh Ross, " tacksman of Knockbreak," died before 2d March 1733, 
leaving Donald, his eldest son, " tacksman in the Hill of Tain," who became 
excise officer in Tain, and married Mary Munro (Sasine 2d July 1754). 
From Roderick M'Culloch of Glastulich he obtained a precept of clare constat 
of an annual rent from the lands of Little Reynie (Sasine 20th July 1745). 

Katherine, daughter of the above Hugh Ross, married 1739 her 

relative, Donald M'Lendris, who was born 1713, and assumed the 

name of Ross at the same time as his brother David. (See 165). She died 

at Aldie 1771, and he December 1765 ; they had, 

1. David, born 7th August 1740; he succeeded his uncle, the above- 
named David, as commissary-clerk of Ross, and town-clerk of 
[1.] Margaret, died 1759. 

[2.] Elspat, married Donald Ross, tacksman in Milne of Hiltoun, and 

Hugh, baptized at Tain loth February 1769. Witness, 

Mr. David Ross, town-clerk. 
David, baptized 1st March 1784. Witnesses, Captain David 
Ross, and David Ross, commissary-clerk. 
[3.] Katherine, married William Ross. 
[4.] Marjory, died 1793, having married David Taloch. 
[5-] Mary, died 1790, having married James Ross. 
In the churchyard at Edderton there is an enclosure, in which there is a 
marble slab with the following inscription: — Here are deposited in the 
burying-place of his forefathers — The mortal remains of Hugh Ross of 
Knockbreak — who departed this life on the 12th March 1822 — JEtatis LII. 


1. William Ross, master mason in Knockgartie, died before 21st July 
1696, leaving a widow, Christian Munro, "his spouse" (Sasines 2d October 
1656, and 16th March 1668), by whom he had, 

64 Rossiana. 

2. Donald Ross "of Knockgartie," their eldest son (Sasines 14th 

June 1675, and 2d March 1695) ; " late of Knockgartie, now in 
Rosskein " (Sasine 30th January 1699). Sir David Ross of 
Balnagown (14) granted him a charter of the lands of Little 
Allan (Sasine 21st July 1676). 

3. Walter, mason, made a disposition of the lands of Knockgartie, 

Tormoir, and others in the barony of Balnagown, to James 
Ross, town-clerk of Nairn, which lands were impignorat by 
Mr. Thomas Rigg of Eddernie and the late David Ross of 
Balnagown for 5000 merks to William Ross, master mason, and 
were by him disponed in liferent to his spouse and to his 
children in fee (Sasine 21st July 1696). Walter became "of 
Achyhyll, Achyle, or Achayeil " (witness to a Sasine 18th 
August 170S). He died before 2d April 1723, having married 
Margaret Bayne, by whom he had three sons, Andrew, Donald 
and Charles. 

4. David. 

5. Alexander. 

[1.] Agnes, married John Mackenzie in Milntown (Sasine 10th Febru- 
ary 1697). 
[2.] Helen, married Walter Ross, in Milntown, mason. 
[3.] Issobell, married Robert Lillic. gardener in Tain. 


1572, William Ross, Thomason (sic in Fasti) exhorter at Logie Easter 1567- 
1574; Newynkill, Kincardin, Kilmur Easter, and Logy Easter were under 
him, he sustaining the reader (Fasti Reel. Scot.). 

1. Hugh Ross 1 "of Logy," whose mother was Marjory Dunbar, and who 
died before 15th December 1572 (Reg. Sec. Sig. vol. xli. fol. 26), leaving 
Elizabeth Cumming, " his relict." If the paternity given in the Fasti of the 
above William be correct, Hugh Ross of Logy was not the father of, 

2. William Ross " in Log} - ," who obtained a charter from John, Bishop 
of Ross, to him and Margaret Munro. his spouse, of the lands of Logy in 
the barony of Nig, in conjunct fee and liferent, and to the heirs-male of their 
body. Dated at Canonry of Ross 1st April 1567, Mr. Thomas Ross, rector of 
Alnes, witness. 2 Confirmed by James vi. at Falkland, 3d August 1586 

(Great Seal, xxxvi. 136). He died . — November 1592; in his will he is 

described as " of Logy, parson of Roskeen," his son Alexander was executor, 
the amount of free gear being £445, 10s. 2d. His will was confirmed 28th 
July 1598, Ferquhar Munro, portioner oi Little Kindeis, being cautioner 
(Commiss. of Rdin. Tests, vol. 32). He was succeeded by, 

Correction, for which I am indebted to Mr. D. Murray Rose. — Hugh Ross, called by 
me first of logy, was Hugh Rose, son of John Rose, first of Ballivat, by Marjory Dunbar. 
He was murdered in 1572, his widow Elizabeth Cumming, being alive in 15S6. On 16th 
September 1572 the Regent Morton wrote to Kilravock to protect the children of Hugh of 
Logy, " his kynnisman." F. N. R. 

s This Mr. Thomas Ross seems not to be mentioned in the Fasti. 

Ross of Logy or Logic. 65 

3. Alexander Ross "of Logy," 2d January 1601 (Reg. P. Conn.), "son of 
the late William." 6th July 1610; he married , and had, 

4. Thomas. (See below.) 

[1.] Elizabeth, who is said to have married John Munro of Aldie. 

4. Thomas Ross of Logy, with consent of William Ross his eldest son 
and Donald his second son, gave a charter of the lands of Logie Easter to 
Mr. David Ross, minister at Logie (181) (Sasine 30th May 1630), and, 2d 
April 1633, a charter to Christian Ross, his spouse, of a liferent in part of 
the lands of Culkengie; in Sasine 22d December 1636 she is styled his 
relict ; they had, 

5. William, apparent of Logie (Sasine 12th June 1624), "heir of 

William Ross of Logie, his guidsir," 21st October 1649 (Inq. 
Gen. xxiv. 79), "heir of Thomas Ross of Logie, his father," 
7th January 1635 (Inq. Gen. xv. 160). Most probably he mar- 
ried Issobell Sutherland (Sasine 12th August 1634). On Logie 
passing to another family, there seems to be no further notice 
of him. 

6. Donald. (Sec below.) 

[i.j Katherine. married to Hugh Ross of Kilravock (Sasine 15th April 
1625), charter from Simon, Lord Lovat, of a liferent to her in 
the lands of Wester Leyis. 

6. Donald. " second son." Cliarter, dated at Logie 16th April 1627, to 
him from his father of half of the church lands of Priesthill, and in 1630 
of the lands of Dalnaclevach. In 1632 Donald ceded the lands of Priesthill 
to Andrew Munro of Delnies. He obtained a charter from Isabella and 
Margaret Sutherland, with consent of William Poss her spouse, to him and 
his wife. Janet Mackenzie, of the lands of Torranliah (Sasine 12th August 
1634), and was thereafter styled "of Torranliah; " they had. 

7. Alexander. (See below.) 
[1.] Elizabeth. 

7. Alexander, " son to Donald Ross of Torranliah " (witness Sasine 16th 
March 1665); "commissar depute of Ross" (Sasine 8th July 1681); "late 
commissar depute," 20th October 1686, and 9th September 1695. He mar- 
ried ■ , and had, 

8. Walter. (See belozv.) 

9. David, writer, Edinburgh, died February 1718. 

8. Mr. Walter Ross, minister at Kilmuir Easter, heir special to his 
grandfather, Donald Ross of Torrenliah. Executor and nearest-of-kin to 
his father, and to his brother David. His father's will confirmed first 6th 
December 1721, and again 21st January 1726 (Commiss. Edin. Tests, vols. 
88. 90). He studied at Aberdeen, was ordained 15th September 1715, and 
died 29th December 1733, having married Katharine Wilson, who married 
secondly, Mr. Daniel Beton, minister of Rcsskeen (Fasti Eeel. Scot.). 
Mr. Walter "was held of high repute in Ross and Cromarty" (Old Letter). 

66 Rossiana. 


i. David Ross, "portioner of Meddat " (Sasine 226. August 1626), "por- 
tioner of Meikle Meddat " 19th June 1627, " in Meddat, portioner of 
Pitcalzean," 13th March 1653. was perhaps the second son of Walter Ross, 
third of Balmachy (193). He married Mary Urquhart. and had, 

2. Colin, "son and heir to David Ross in Meddat" (Sasine 27th 

January 1676). 

3. Walter " Davidson in Meddat," 22d May 1663. 

4. Robert, " son to deceased David Ross in Meddat " (Sasine 15th 

May 1650). Heir of David Ross, sometime in Meddat, his father 
(Retours, 2d September 1685). On 18th March 1716, he is 
described as "now in Bellendrumy ; " his eldest son was named 
David (Sasine 8th March 1710). 
In the Sasine of 15th May 1650, George Ross in Meddat, witness, is also 


Alexander Ross, styled "of Midfairne " (Sasine 12th August 1634), 
obtained in 1637 from Robert Gray of Creich the renunciation of the easter 
half of the davoch lands of Wester Fairnie (Sasine 29th May). In 1638, 
he had a brother Donald living. He married Issobell, daughter of Mr. John 
Mackenzie of Balmaduthie, and by charter gave her the liferent of his lands. 
From a Sasine dated 13th March 1640 it would appear that Alexander was 
a portioner of Drugellie, thus designated he and his wife were infeft in the 
lands of Keandruife. Their daughter, Martha, is said to have married George, 
seventh son of William Munro, third of Achany. In 1624 there was an 
Alexander Ross in Wester Ferae, and Hugh "his brother german " (witness, 
Sasine 9th June 1625). 

Also Robert Ross, and David, son of William Ross in Midfairnie, witnesses 
to Sasines between 1638 and 1649. 


1. Alexander Ross, chaplain of Dunskaith. This chaplainry was founded 
by James II. in the parochial church of Tain, between 1456 and 1458; in 1487 
it was annexed as a prebend to the collegiate church which he founded at 
Tain (Exchequer Roll, 227). Alexander Ross was presented to the chap- 
lainry, " vacant by the incapacity or demission of Sir John Poilson, chanter 
of Caithness," 13th June 1500 (Privy Seal Reg. vol. i, fol. 126). A long and 
fruitless search has been made to discover the paternity of the above Alex- 
ander. It is not unlikely that he was descended from the Shandwick family, 
as Walter Ross of Shandwick (143), who died 1531. had a wadset of the 
town and chaplainry of Dunskaith ; his second son being William Ross of 
Culnahall (190), a property afterwards belonging to the Morangie family. 
In a contract made, 23d March 1546-7, between 'Alexander Ross, ninth of 
Balnagown (16), on the one part, and William Hamilton of Sanchar, Knight, 
and others, on behalf of James, Commendator of Feme, on the other, 
regarding certain property of the abbey, " Sir Nicholas Ross." son of the 
above Alexander, is styled " cousin to Alexander Ross of Balnigown " (Acta 

Ross of Morangie. 67 

Dom Con. et Sess. vol. xxiii. fol. 32). Alexander, the chaplain, died before 
20th February 1543, and was, as already stated, father of 

2. Nicholas Ross, who in 1533 had been named chaplain of Dunskaith. 
He was presented by Queen Mary, in 1549, to the provostry of the collegiate 
church of Tain, and to the annexed vicarage, when they should become 
vacant (Privy Seal, vol. xxii. fol. 91). He resigned the provostry in 1567, 
and became the nineteenth abbot of Feme. He sat in the Parliament held 
at Edinburgh in August 1560, and voted for the abolition of the Roman 
Catholic religion. Letters of legitimation were granted, 20th February 1543, 
to Nicholas Ross, " bastard natural son of the late Alexander Ross, chaplain 
of Dunskaith" (Great Seal), and, 20th December of the same year he 
obtained letters of legitimation for his four sons, Nicholas. William, Donald, 
and Thomas, when purchasing from Balnagown the estate of Geanies to settle 
on them. By a deed,, dated 24th March 1544, at the collegiate church of Tain, 
with consent of Queen Mary, the Earl of Arran, Bishop Leslie, John Thorn- 
ton, provost, and the prebendaries, he granted his lands of Dunskaith to his 
son Nicholas, and the heirs-male of his body, with remainder to his sons 
William and Donald, and their heirs-male; to his son Thomas and his heirs- 
male; whom failing, tc the eldest heir-female of Thomas; whom all failing, 
to the heirs of Nichoas whomsoever (Orig. Par. Scot, vol ii. part ii. p. 422). 1 
" The xvii day of September the year of God 1569, nicolas Ros, comedator 
of ferae, provest of tane decessit, quhom God assolze " (Kal. of Feme). He 
was buried in the abbey, to the north of the choir, leaving, 

3. Nicholas. (See below.) 

4. William, of whom there appears to be no further notice. 

5. Donald, styled " of Litill Kinteis.'' He obtained a charter, from 

his brother Nicholas, of part of the lands of Dunskaith, in life- 
rent, dated and subscribed by the grantor at Pitcallene in Ross 
25th June 1571. (Pitcalnie Papers.) 

6. Thomas. (See post.) 

[1.] ... daughter, married as first wife John Ross or Reid, in Annat, 
styled " brother of abbot Thomas ; " he married secondly Ellen 
Jameson, who died 7th March 1590 (Kal. of Feme). By his 
first wife he had a son, Thomas Ross, alias Reid, to whom in 
J 574 James VI. granted the chaplainry of Morangie for his 
education "at the sculis " (Privy Seal, xlvii. 12). On "the xxij 
of deceber 1591 Thomas Ross alias reid deptit in tane; 
he wes y e abat of fernis syster sone ; & wes sustenit by y e said 
abat ay sin he wes fowir yeir of age & at y e scewlis " (Kal. of 

3. Nicholas Ross "of Dunskaith" (Charter 25th June 1571), "of Cul- 
nahaw" 1595. In 1583, November — "The viij day of this instand beand 
fryday Capitane James Ross brodyr sone to ye lard of achlossin and patrick 

1 From Reg. Sec. Sig. xxxviii. fol. 101, it would seem that the abbot had two sons 
who bore the name of Thomas — Gift to Isobel Ros, reiict of Thomas Ros, of the 

escheat of the late Thomas Ros, son to Ros. abbot of Feme, at the horn for not 

paying Andrew Munro, chamberlain of the diocese of Ross, the tiends of Easter Gany 
and Tarrell for 1569-70. At Leith, 10th July 1571. 

68 Rossiana. 

Yvat with him wer slane in tane in andro rossis chalmir at viij horis afore 
none be nicolas ross and waiter ross w* yair coplesis " (Kal. of Feme). For 
this murder he obtained, under the Great Seal 14th August 1595. a 
remission — " Nicolao Ross de Culnahaw et Waltero Ross de Intumecarrach 
fratribus (sic) 1 Willielmi Ross de Invercharron pro parte interfectionis 
Capitani Jacobi Ross." 

6. Thomas Ross "of Culnahall " (Statist. Aec. of Scot.), burgess of 
Forres, parson of Alness. He appears as provost of the collegiate church 
of Tain in 1550, and between 1561-66, appointed by John Leslie, bishop of 
Ross. Queen Mary confirmed the presentation when the provostry should 
become vacant by the decease of Nicholas, commendator of Feme (Ratifica- 
tion 13th May 1567, Reg. See. Sig. xxxvi. fol. 41). He became the twentieth 
abbot of Feme in 1566, three years before his father's death. In the abbey 
he built a new hall, chambers, cellar, pantry and kitchen, and near it a mill. 
In 1569 he fell out with Alexander Knv>. ninth of Balnagown, and in conse- 
quence retired to Forres. He appears to have led an unquiet life there; in 
1586 the magistrates warn him " furth of the common land revin by him from 
the mureshed ; " and he, with his servants, are sued by John Anderson, 6th 
April 1590, "for slaying his bred gevis " — fat goose (Burgh Records, Forres 
Council Book). In 1580 he complained of cruelties committed by Alexander 
of Balnagown in exacting moneys from some of his tenants (Reg. P. Coun.). 
Andrew Ross of Shand'wick became surety for him in £roco not to harm 
John Denune of Catboll, signed at Feme 27th August 1594, before Mr. Robert 
Ross, minister of Alness, and others (Reg. P. Coun.). Resigning his 
appointments in 1584, James VI. granted the abbacy and provostry for life 
to his son Walter Ross (Reg. P. Coun.). The abbot died in Tain. 14th 
February 1595, and was buried in St. Nicholas aise, having married Isobel, 
daughter of Alexander Kinnaird of Cowbin, or Culbowie; she was buried 
in the same grave as her husband, 5th October 1603. — " Obitus Isobelle 
Kinnard sponse M ri thome ros abbatis feme apud tane et sepultse in fearne " 
(Kal. of Feme). By her will she nominated Walter, her eldest son, her 
only executor, and left bequests to her daughter Barbara and her son 
William. Will confirmed, 13th February, 1603-4. William Sinclair of May 
is cautioner (Edinb. Tests, vol. xlii.). The testament-dative and inventory 
of the goods of Abbot Thomas were given up by William his son, and 
Barbara his daughter, spouse to Andrew Moresone, collector of the north 
parts of Scotland, executor. The free gear amounted to £1878, 7s. iod. Will 
confirmed, 2d February 1597-58 (Commiss. of Edin. Tests, vol. xxxi.). He 

7. Walter. (See below.) 

8. William, " son of Mr. Thomas, the abbot," born at Pitlary, — October 

1574 (Kal. of Feme). In 1586 King James granted him the 
chaplainry of Morangie for life, then held by his brother Walter. 
Styled "burgess of Tain" (Sasine 19th November 1629). From 

'So the word reads in one copy. In the Index, Signet Library, 40, 241, it is 
fratrem, in the " praeceptum remissionis " (Reg. See. Sig. Ixvii. 196), it is fratris instead 
of fra.ri, which should refer only to Walter Ross. 

Ross of Morangie. 69 

a Sasine ist May 1668. "William Ross Abatsone, burgess of 
Tain," appears to have been living, aged 94. He probably had 
a son " Alexander Williamson, burgess of Tain " (witness, 
Sasine ist April 1629). 

9. Andrew, "burgess of Tain" (witness, Sasine 3rd May 1608). 

Charter of confirmation to him, styled " de Morinschie," and to 
other burgesses of Tain, of the mill of Aldie. 22d June 1609 
{Great Seal). 1 
[1.] Barbara, who received from her father £1000 of tocher (Durgli 
Records, Forres), and married Andrew Moreson. She had a 
daughter, Barbareta, who, both her parents being deceased, was 
(Sasine 2d August 1639) wife to Kenneth M'Kenzie, burgess of 
Dingwall, who died before 1666, and was second sou of Mr. John 
M'Kenzie, first of Towie. They had two daughters, Barbara 
and Annabella, co-heiress of their mother; their only brother 
was killed at the battle of Worcester. 
7. Walter Ross, first of Morangie, " son and heir of Mr. Thomas, burgess 
of Forres " 24th April 1587. In 1580 James VI. granted him the chaplainry 
of Morangie for seven years, and in the same year the abbacy of Feme and 
provostry of Tain, reserving the liferent of both to his father; he was the 
21st and last commendator of Fernc. He obtained a charter of Easter and 
Wester Morinches, ist December 1591, and of other abbey lands, 24th March 
1592 (Great Seal). Like his father he gave a bond not to harm John Denune 
of Catboll, Walter Ross, apparent of Bellamochie, being his cautioner, Edin- 
burgh, 2d September 1594 (Reg. P. Conn.). In 1596 there was a complaint 
of oppression made against him by Grissell Dunbar, relict of David Ross cf 
Little Rany I Reg P. Cowl). In 1626-29 he appears as burgess of Tain, 
and in 1644 as " Walter Ross of Moringie," on the valuation roll of the 
sheriffdom of Inverness and Ross. The date of his death is uncertain. He 
married first Janet Ross, who died at Feme, 2d September 1600 (Kal. of 
Feme): 2 By her he had three children, 

10. Mr. Thomas. (See below.) 
10b. Hugh. 

[1.] Isobell, "eldest daughter" (Sasine ist May 1626), married Hugh 
Ross of Easterfern (102). P. 
He married secondly, Alesone Qephane, "spouse to Walter" (Sasine 19th 
November 1629), and had, 

11. John, "eldest son and heir apparent of Walter Ross and Alesone 

Clephane " (Sasine 8th October 1633). Charter to him from 

Andrew is not mentioned in the will of Abbot Thomas, or in that of his wife. 
There is no proof of his being their son. He is probably the Andrew Ross, burgess of 
Tain, who, in 1604, having married Mary, daughter of John M'Gilendris, gave a 
discharge to his father-in-law for 400 marks, his wife's tocher. 

2 The testament-dative and inventory of goods were given up by her said husband, 
as father and lawful administrator to their three children. Free gear — £828, 13s. 4d. 
She was owing to Walter Ros Johnston, grieve, for his year's fee, anno 1600, £20. Will 
confirmed, 1st May 1602. Andrew Moresoun, collector depute for the north, is cautioner. 
(Edinb. Tests, vol. xxxvi.) 

yo Rossiana. 

his father of the lands of Easter and Wester Morinchies, dated 
at Tain "th November 1629. Styled " fiar of Morinchies " 1640, 
"apparent of" (Sasine 8th June 1648). and, as a witness to 
Sasine 31st January 1663, " Abatsone, burgess of Tain." {See 
10. Mr. Thomas Ross, second of Morangie. " eldest lawful son to Walter " 
(Sasine 8th October 1633). Charter to him of the lands of Morinchies 19th 
December 1636 {Great Seal). Burgess of Tain 1639. He died 13th Septem- 
ber 1658 (Kal. of Feme), having married first, . By her he 

appears to have had a son, 

12. Walter, "son of Mr. Thomas" (witness Sasines 10th April, 20th 
June. 7th October 1650). Walter had a son, William, but neither 
of them seem to have inherited the lands. 
He married secondly. Jean Stewart, "his spouse" (Sasine 15th April [652) ; 
"his relict" (8th August 1666), by whom he had. 

13. George. {See below.) 

14. Alexander. " second son of the second marriage " (Sasine 8th 

August 1666). 

15. David (Sasine 20th February 1667). 

[1.] Elizabeth, married Walter Ross, provost of Tain, "his spouse" 
(Sasine 15th August 1682). (It is doubtful whether she was 
a daughter of the first or second marriage.) 
13. George Ross, third of Morangie, "son of Mr. Thomas, son of Walter" 
{Retoars) . Heir of provision of the second marriage of Mr. Thomas Ross 
of Morangie. his father {Inq. Gen. 8th February 1698). Charter of con- 
firmation to him of the lands of Inverbreakie, 4th February 1687 {Great 
Seal). He was of age in or before 1643. He was commissioner of supply 
for Ross-shire 1685-86 (Acts of Pari). About 1672 he registered Arms at 
the Lyon Office — Mr. George Ross of Morinchie, descended of Balnagown, 
G11. 3 Iioncells rampant between as many stars arg. Next is placed on one 
torse for his crest a foxhead couped prop. Motto — Spes aspera levat. He 
died 7th April 1703, having married first, Elizabeth Innes, by whom he had. 

16. George, baptized 18th September 1685, in Edinburgh, who probably 

died young. 

17. William. {See belozv.) 

18. Thomas, called second son in his father's will. 
[1.] Anna, baptized 19th April 1684 (Edinb. Reg.). 

He married secondly, Helen, daughter of the late John Rose, fifth of 
Blackhills; "now spouse" (Sasine 20th November 1694, making provision 
for the children if any). 

By his will he appointed his eldest son only executor, and his worthy 
friends, cousins, and relations as tutors and curators to his children, viz. : 
George Munro of Newmore, John Ross of Achnacloich, Walter Ross, provost 
of Tain, and James Ross in Culliss. Confirmed 31st January 1718 {Commiss. 
of Edinb. Tests.). 

17. William Ross, fourth of Morangie, baptized in Edinburgh, 14th August 
1688, was by profession a writer. Eldest son of the first marriage of deceased 
George Ross of Morangie, 26th July 1714 (Great Seal). Served heir to his 

Ross of Morangie. yi 

father in the lands of Dibbedale in the parish of Kincardine, ioth May 1726. 
About the same time he disposed of the town and lands of Easter and Wester 
Morangie, in the parish of Tain, to David Ross of Inverchasley. He married 
, and had, 

19. John. 

20. William. (See below.) 

20. William Ross, a merchant at Liverpool, who died 13th July 1804, having 
married, 26th January 1768, Nancy Horner, by whom he had, 

21. Henry. (See belozv.) 

22. William. (See post.) 

23. Arthur, died s. p. 

21. Henry, merchant at Liverpool, who died 27th March 1856, having 
married, 15th May 1799. Eleanor, daughter of James Moore, Mayor of Lan- 
caster. She died 20th February 1826, leaving, 

24. James Moore, died s. p. 

25. Wiliam Horner, died s. p. 1838. 

26. Henry, Solicitor in London, died s. p. 1845. 

27. Stephen. (See belozv.) 

[1.] Mary, married to W. T. Vane, Mayor of Lancaster, and died 1881. 

27. Stephen Ross, baptized at St. James's, Liverpool , and 

died 4th October 1869, having married, 9th April 1833, Charlotte,' daughter of 
William Harrison. They had, 

28. Henry Ross, of Dallas House, Lancaster, LL. D., born 1834, 

married, at Port Louis Mauritius, Amelie Rachel, second daughter of the 
Rev. J. G. Bichard, and has 

29. Henry Harrison Stockdale. 

30. Stephen John. 
[1.] Amelia Charlotte. 
[2.] Henrietta Mabel. 

22. William Ross (see ante) settled in America, and married at Washing- 
ton, North Carolina, Jackey, daughter of John Simpson, by whom he had, 

31. John, only son, died s. p. 

[1.] Margaret, married Benjamin Sprail. P. 

[2.] Eleanor Pocock, married John B. Chesson. P. 
To return to 

11. John, eldest son of the second marriage of Walter Ross, first of 
Morangie. In the Sasine 31st January 1663, another witness is Alexander 
Ross, " student in Tain," no paternity given. He signed next to the above 
John, and may have been his son. The next John Ross of whom there is 
mention is John Ross, " merchant and indweller in Tain," bailie to a sasine 
on charter to David Ross of Inverchasley, 2d July 1729, probably the same 
as John Ross " residenter in Tain, bailie," mentioned in Sasines 24th March 
1730, 29th January 1734, 17th and 23d June 1737. In the Sasine 1730 Alex- 
ander Ross, student in Tain, witness, is named. 

It appears to be certain that a John Ross of the Morangie family, who 
settled in Tain, had two sons, 

(1.) John, a soldier, of whose history nothing is known. 

(2.) Alexander. (See belozv.) 



(2.) Alexander Ross, served as a soldier in Holland, and married Mar- 
garet M'Intosh, daughter of the provost of Inverness, 1 by whom he had two 

(3.) John. (Seebelozv.) 

(4.) Alexander, commander of the Ordnance during the siege of Gib- 
raltar, born in Holland — 1748, and dying 1804, was 

buried at Gibraltar. He married, first, , Margaret, daugh- 
ter of John Climes of Neilston. She died 1792, and left, 

(5.) John Clunes, born 8th November 1790, and died at Malta 


[1.] Margaret Brewse, borne 179-2- She married G. H. 

Hooper, and had, with other children, Rev. Robert Poole 
Hooper, to whom I am indebted for the notice about 
this branch. 

He married secondly, Helen Inglis, who died s. p. 1832. 

(3.) John Ross, a director of the E. I. Company, born at Fort Augustus 

, married at Tangier, , Sarah Minsker, by whom he had two 


[1.] Hannah, married Admiral Sir Richard O'Connor, K. C. H. P. 
[2.] Margaret, married Patrick O'Connor. P. 


In 1581 James VI. confirmed the grant made by the Bishop of Ross to 
Alexander Feme of the half-lands of Pitcalzeane. In 1582 a grant was made 
to Finlay Manson of another quarter, and in 1584 another portion was granted 
to Donald Gibson. Andrew Feme, portioner of Pitcalzeane. granted the 
easter quarter to Walter Douglas, burgess of Tain, and Alexander Ross, late 
bailie (Orig. Par. Scot.). In 1662 Andrew Feme of Pitcalzeane was served 
heir to his grandfather Alexander in the half-lands (Rctours). 

David Ross, second son of David Ross, third of Balmachy (193), appears 
as portioner of Meddat and of Pitcalzeane, and in a Sasine of 1648 on charter 
under the Great Seal in his favour of the barony of Balnagown, David Ross, 
probably the same, is styled " of Pitcalzeane." 

In Sasine 15th August 1628 appears George Ross " of Pitcalzeane," who 
had for his spouse Margaret Denune, and a son. Andrew. In Sasine 31st 
July 1649, it is stated that Donald Ross, alias M'Thomas Nore. in Easter 
Radichies, became owner of part of Pitcalzeane. and had for his eldest son, 
Andrew, who married Agnes, daughter to Alexander Clunes of Newtaine. 

In Sasine 3d June i637 appears Robert Ross "of Pitcalzeane," and nth 
December the same year John Ross " in Pitcalzeane." 


1. Alexander Ross, notary and clerk of Tain, obtained a disposition from 
Sir John Urquhart of Cromarty of four oxgates of the lands of Pittogarty, 
in the parish of Tain (Sasine 20th July 1674), and from James Corbat of 

1T n the Inverness registers the marriage of Margaret M'Intosh does not appear, but 
Isobel M'Intosh married an Alexander Ross, 9th November 1742. 

Ross of and in Rarichies. 73 

Balnagall, the half davoch lands of Balnagall and others in the parishes of 
Tain and Tarbat (Sasine nth December 1671) ; he died before 1687, leaving, 

2. Andrew, " his son and h?ir," second of Pittogarty, who in February 
1695, was put to the horn by James Dunbar of Dalcross, for a debt of £20 
(Antiquarian Notes, Mackintosh). 

In 1535 William M'Culloch, third of Plaids, granted a charter of Pittogarty 
to William Denoon. In the Edinburgh Testaments, vol. xlv., 24th February 
1609, there is the following: Testament-dative and inventory of goods, etc.. 
which pertained to the deceased Elspeth Ross, sometime spouse to Alexander 
Denovane in Pittogartie, in the parish of Tain, given up by the said Alex- 
ander, as father and lawful administrator to their bairns, David. John, Wil- 
liam, Andrew. Kathrine, Cristiane, Jonet Issobell, Elspeth. Will confirmed 
23d February 1609, John Ross in Cullicudny, cautioner. 

Andrew Ross, provost of Tain, was witness. 10th August 1627, to the 
Sasine of John Denune, merchant there, in the lands of Pittogarty. On 22d 
February 1628, there was a reversion in favour of David Denune. and on 1st 
July 1634 a discharge of reversion by David Denune "of Pittogarty," in 
favour of the said John Denune, burgess of Tain (Inverness Sasines). 


Hugh Ross "of Rarichies" died there 23d October 1529 (Kal. of Feme). 

Alexander, son of William Ross "in Rarichies," died nth November 
1601 (Kal). 

Hugh Ross in Easter Rarichies is mentioned in Sasine nth April 1632. 
Andrew Ross in Wester Rarichies (witness Sasine 19th October 1649), and 
John Ross in Rarichies (witness Sasine 15th March 1659). 

Andrew Ross, sometime in Rarichies. and afterwards in Auchnaquhyll or 
Achaghyll, who died before June 1698, left a widow, Margaret M'Culloch, 
by whom he had, 

1. Walter, eldest son and heir in Auchnaquhill. 

2. Samuel, mason in Newnakill. 

3. Hugh. 

4. John. 

, 5. James. 
6. Andrew. 

[1.] Margaret, married John Ross, mason, in Pitmaduthie. 

[2.] Helen, married Thomas Ross, saddler, in Tain. 

[3.] Isobell, married Alexander Munro in Alness. 

[4.] Janet, married Hugh Sutherland in Newnakill. 
These all made a renunciation in favour of David Ross of Balnagown of 
the lands of Achagyll and Badferne in the parish Kilmuir, dated at Balna- 
gown, 31st May 1698. David Ross disponed the above lands in liferent to 
Lady Anna Stewart, his spouse (Sasine 13th June 1698). 

In 1550 the lands of Easter and Wester Rarichies and of Cullis were sold 
by Alexander Ross of Balnagown to William Carnecors, and in 1615 these 
lands had become the property of Sir William Sinclair of Catboll, and then 
passed to Rose of Kilravock through intermarriage with the Sinclairs of 
Dunbeath (Orig. Par. Scot.). 


Ross lit I hi. 


Thomas Ross " in Risollis " died 5th August 1600. and was buried at 
Cromarty (Kal. of Feme). Perhaps lather of 

Thomas Ross "of Risollis" (mentioned in Sasines 226. February 1628, 1st 
February 1629. 29th August 1643). Sheriff of Inverness (Sasine 8th June 
1648). He married Margaret Gordon, relict of Hugh Ross of Kindeace, and 
" now his spouse." Jth April 1650. She died 5th September 1665. and was 
buried at Nigg (Kal. of Feme). He had a son. 

John, "lawful son of Thomas Ros of Rysolis " (Sasine oth October 1649). 


This name is spelt in many ways, Intumecarrach. Tuttintarvach, Tutam- 
taruach. etc. It has been impossible to settle the connection between the fol- 
lowing persons: — 

Walter Ross (126), brother of William Ross, third of Invercharron (76), 
styled " of Tutintarroch," was concerned in the murder of Captain James 
Ross at Tain in 1583 (see Morangie), and obtained a remission under the 
Great Seal 14th August 1595. 

Malcolm Ross, "apparent of" (witness Sasine 31st July 1607) ; "in Tutin- 
tarroch" (Sasine 31st March 1636). 

William Ross " of Tutintarroch " had a son, Walter, who died 29th Novem- 
ber 1648 (Kalendar of Feme). 

Thomas Ross " in Tutintarroch " had a son. Alexander, who married 
Issobel Ross, widow of Alexander Ross, second of Invercharron (75). David 
Ross of Pitcalnie gave a charter to him and his wife of some lands in the 
bishoprick of Ross (Sasine 30th July 1632 1. 

John Ross "in Tutintarroch" (witness Sasine 16th March 1665). 


Andrew Ross, whose paternity is not stated, was a relative of the Shand- 
wick family; writing to Bailie Donald Ross, 29th March 1732, he sends "his 
humble respects to his worthie frinde, old Shandwook, to your Laday, my 
Cousine." He was a wealthy clothier at Musselburgh, and. dying — Novem- 
ber 1735, left two daughters, 

[1.] Grissell, married to John Rose of Blackball, in the parish Old 
Nairn, 14th July 1732. witnesses, Charles Hay of Hopes, and 
William Fraser. writer, Edinburgh (Invcresk Regr.). 
[2.] Christian, married to Charles Hay of Hopes. 
His testament-dative and inventory of goods were given up by his sons- 
in-law, his daughters being executrices. 

Amount of inventory and debts, £23.675. lis. 

Will confirmed 30th December 1735 (Commiss. of Edinb. Tests., vol. xcvii.). 

Grissell Ross, sister of the above Andrew, was married 17th February 1713 

to Mr. William Lindsay, late schoolmaster of Musselburgh (Inveresk Regr.). 


1. Andrew Ross (paternity not stated), styled "burgess of Tain" in 
Sasines 1624-26, "provost," 1627-38, "sometime provost" (Sasine 26th May 
1640). He died 4th October 1660 (Kal. of Feme), having married first Mar- 

Benjamin Ross, Bailie of Tain. 75 

garet Ross, charter to her, his spouse, of a liferent in the lands of Wester 
Catboll (Sasine 21st April 1630), and again, 7th August 1651, of part of the 
lands of Mikill Allane, which he had acquired by charter from James, grand- 
son and heir of John Ferguson, burgess of Tain. They had, 

2. William. (See below.) 

[1.] Muriel, "daughter to the provost" (Sasine 4th March 1635). 

The provost married, secondly, Bessie Gray. As relict of Andrew Ross, 
sometime provost of Tain, she obtained a disposition of lands in Dornoch 
from John Gray in Arboll. She had a son also called William. 

2. William Ross, "eldest son of the provost" (Sasine 16th April 1633), 
"elder, burgess of Tain" (witness 7th October 1650). He died before 1658, 
having married , by whom he had, 

3. Andrew, eldest son and apparent heir of deceased William Ross, 

burgess of Tain, who died vested in the lands of Wester Geanies, 
apparent heir to his grandfather, Andrew, provost of Tain 
(Sasine 1st February 1658). Styled "bailie of Tain" 1665, 
"provost" (Sasine 24th February 1669, witness). 

4. William, " son to deceased William Ross, bailie of Tain " (Sasine 

4th March 1670, witness). He apparently had a son, Alexander, 
" son of William Ross, burgess of Tain (witness Sasine nth De- 
cember 1673), and a daughter Margaret, married to John Ross 
of Aldie (Hv.). 
Andrew Ross, provost of Tain, may perhaps have been son of Thomas, 
Abbot of Feme (see Morangic), burgess of Tain, 1608, therefore born in or 
before 1587. 


He married, , 1788. Jean, daughter of Bailie Millar, and had, 

George, baptized at Tain, 20th May 1789. 
Mary, baptized 30th October 1791. 
Margaret, baptized 29th September 1794. 
James, baptized nth May 1796. 
Elizabeth, baptized 16th July 179& 


Donald Ross, bailie of Tain, whom, previous to his marriage in 1717 
with Margaret, second daughter of Andrew Ross of Shandwick (155), 
William Ross (156), her brother, addressed as " aff. Cousigne," assisted the 
various members of the Shandwick family in their fallen fortunes. He was a 
pewterer in Tain, and at one time postmaster. Many of his letters are 
extant, but they give no clue to his paternity; only two nephews are men- 
tioned, Hugh Ross, and Hugh Munro, a sister's son. Perhaps Bailie Donald 
was a descendant of Donald Ross (146) who sold Shandwick in 1642. 

The above Hugh Ross was son of John Ross, "overseer at Craigioy," 
who died about 1743; on 22d November of that year he was retoured as 
heir-general to his father (Inq. Gen., registered 4th July 1749). He was 
student of divinity at Aberdeen, and graduated there April 1736. On the 
16th he wrote to his uncle — " I was graduated Tuesday last we were very 
hearty yester night, I mean five more of the best of the class and I, 

y(S Rossi ana. 

treating the Regent and the other masters of the College with a dozen 
and half of wine and a supper, . . . we had so much over and above 
of the wine bought for our graduation where the masters were pleased 
to drink the health of our respective friends." From Aberdeen he went 
to Edinburgh, where he seems to have remained (in what capacity does 
not appear) for some years. He was licensed by the Presbytery of Tain, 
21st .March 1744, ordained in 1755, and became minister of Kildonan, 

Sutherlandshire. He married i/59> Ann Houston, and died 

1761. (Fasti Ecc. Scot.) 

His successor at Kildonan was Mr. John Ross, whose paternity is not 
stated. He was ordained missionary of Farr 26th September 1759, and 
minister of Kildonan 18th November 1761. He died 28th March 1783 in 
his forty-second year, having married the widow of Gunn M'Sheumais, by 
whom he had, 

David. (Sec below.) 

Katherine, married David Gunn, who died 1827. 

David Ross was in the army. On his father's death he left it, took a 
farm, and was also miller at Cloggan in Strathbeg. He married the daughter 
of a wealthy tenant, by whom he had a numerous family of sons and 
daughters. The eldest son went to America as a teacher (Memorabilia 
domestica, Sage, Minister of Resolis. Wick, 1889). 


He was a litstcr, or dyer, and appears as a witness to Sasines between 
1695 and 1698. He had been previously established in Tain, where he was 
also burgess (Sasine 19th August 1701). He was living in Dornoch 1720-23, 
and was in all probability of the Little Tarrell family, either Nicholas, whose 
brother Walter (xxxix) was town clerk of Dornoch, or Nicholas, his 
nephew (xxxv). His daughter Katherine was married to George Ross, 
merchant, " Theusurer " in Tain, and had, 

William, baptized at Tain, 26th January 1720. Witnesses, William 
Ross, bailie, Thomas Reid, leat bailie, and John Reid, merchant. 

Katherine, baptized 30th June 1721. 

John, baptized 22d May 1723. 

Helen, baptized 25th March 1725. 
Another Nicholas Ross, student at Tain, witnessed a Sasine 1st April 
1725, and was probably the Nicholas Ross who was " one of the present 
bailies of Tain" in 1754. 


In Feme Abbey there is an oblong flat stone, with the following inscription 
running round the outer edge: — This stone is placed j here by William 
Ross bailie of Tain and un | der the same lyes | the body of Margaret Ross 
his spouse who depar | ted this life the 28 | day of March 1718. In the center 
of the stone 

William Ross 

Margaret Ross 

Katherine M'Intosh. 

William Ross, Bailie of Tain. 77 

William Ross appears as witness to a Sasine 13th April 1710. Soon after 
the death of his first wife, he married, secondly, Katherine M'Intosh, by 
whom he had. 

Alary, baptized at Tain, 4th February 1720. Witnesses, David 
Ross of Inverchasley, Hugh Ross of Achnacloich, and Thomas 
Ross, leat bailie. 
Alexander, baptized 28th December 1722. Witness, David Ross 

of Kindeace. 
Robert, baptized 14th October 1724. 
Very probably many inscriptions in Feme Abbey Church perished, when 
on Sunday 10th October 1742, at the time of worship, the roof and part of 
the side wall fell in during a violent storm. The gentry had their seats in 
the niches, and by that means their lives were saved, as was the minister, 
Mr. Donald Ross, by the sounding-board falling on the pulpit and covering 
him. Very many were wounded, and forty were dug out and buried pro- 
miscuously without ceremony {Scots Mag.). Mr. Donald died 2d Septembt-'r 
1755 in his 83d year (Fasti). 


I. William Ross, bailie of Tain (paternity not stated), mentioned first 
in 1726 in the correspondence of the Shandwick family, and called their 

cousin, died before 1738, having married twice. By his first wife 

he had, 

2. George, eldest son, who married Katherine, third daughter of 

Andrew Ross, seventh of Shandwick (155). 

3. William, living in 1753. 

4. David, died before 1753. 
[I.] ■ 

[2.] Margaret, second daughter, married Duncan Simpson of Nether 
Culcraigy (Sasine on marriage-contract 8th November 1734). 

Me married secondly , living as his widow in 1748, and had, 

•with a daughter, a son, 

Gilbert. In 1748 Alexander Ross (169), of the Shandwick family, 
wrote to Mr. Alexander Gray in London, introducing to him 
Gilbert Ross " as a youth he had great hopes of. His success 
and conduct at Aberdeen has endeared him to all his friends." 
He died in London March 1788. having become a mer- 
chant in Billiter Lane. His widow. Ann , was living in 

1793. He left three sons, 

1. Gilbert, the eldest, was married. 

2. William, a grocer. 

3. George. 

At his death he left £40.000 to be divided between his three sons, 
bis widow, and his sister. Roberta, widow of Lieutenant David 
Ross, who died before 1783. 


(By Francis Nevile Reid.) 

IN volume xxxiii., Edinburgh Testaments, under date 27th February 1598, 
there is the testament-dative and inventory of goods, etc., pertaining to the 
deceased Margaret Munro, sometime spouse to Walter Ross, apparent of 
Ballamonthie, in the parish of Tarbet, and shire of Inverness, who died 
8th May 1594, given up by the said Walter, as father, etc., to 

1. Hugh, 

2. George, 

3. Donald, 

4. David, 

5. William, 
[1.] Katrene, 
[2.] Issobell, 

their lawful bairns, and executors-dative surrogate to their deceased mother. 
Confirmed 27th February 1598. James Innes, liar of Innerbraikie, is 


David Ross (20), the last laird of Balnagovvn, in 1668 gave part of the 
Oxgate lands of the Drum of Fearn to John Ross and Margaret his wife. 
It is by no means clear whether the husband, or the wife, was his illegitimate 
child. The above John Ross, mason in Balnagown, died before 1717, and his 
wife, Margaret, before 1741, having had an only son, David, who died before 

his father, and three daughters. , the eldest, married James Ross, 

tailor in Fearn. who in 1717 purchased the portions of the other two 

daughters, and died January 1738, having had, 

[1.] Frances, who married Finlay Ross, alias Roy, tenant of the Wester 

Drums of Fearn. 
[2.] Elspeth, married George M'Gilies in Arboll. 

[3. J Euphemia, died before her father, having married Roderick Ding- 
wall, tenant at the Bridge End of Fearn, by whom she had two 
sons and two daughters. 
These three sisters were retoured heirs portioners to the deceased John 
Ross, their grandfather, and also to the deceased David Ross of Balnagown, 
their great-grandfather, in part of the lands of the Drum of Fearn (Sasine 
28th July 1741). The above James Ross, owing money to Bailie Donald 
Ross of Tain, in payment of the debt, the above heirs ceded to him these 
Oxgate lands of the Drum of Fearn (Memorial about the Heritable Estate 
of Bailie Donald). 

Ross of Calrossie. 



From the following notice it appears that Thomas Ross, second of Cal- 
rossie (65), stated to be the son of Thomas Ross, first of Calrossie (64), 
by Katherine Ross his wife, was not his son, but his nephew. Procuratory 
of resignation of Thomas Ross of Calrossie. and pertinents in the parish 
of Logie Easter and sheriffdom of Ross, for new infeftment in favour of 
himself, and Thomas Ross of Knockan. son to Malcolm Ross, merchant in 
Tain, his brother-german (63). and the heirs male of the said Thomas 
Ross of Knockan. Alexander Ross, sheriff-clerk depute of Ross, is a wit- 
ness. Signed at Calrossie 7th October 1732, registered 13th December (Reg. 
of Deeds, MacKenzie Office, Edin. vol. 132). 

There was a Malcolm Ross "of Calrossie" who died 15th September 
1618 (Kal. of Feme). (See (72) and (22).) 


The daughters of Alexander Ross, fifth of Easterfearn (105) were. 

[1.] Janet Gordon, who married Mr. Arthur Sutherland, minister at 

Edderton, and was his widow in 1728. 
[2.] Margaret Gordon. 

[3.] , married Innes, and had a son, Walter. 

[4.] Elizabeth, married Manson. 

The latter will of Captain Ross of Daan (116), who died June 

1735, was dated at Mt. Ephraim, Tunbridge Wells, 4th September 1728. He 
named his brother Alexander, W. S., executor, and left legacies to his 
sisters and other relatives. Confirmed 16th June 1737 (Commiss. of Edin- 
burgh Tests, vol. 99). 

(106, 107). — Corrections. — William Ross, sixth (not fifth) of Easter- 
fearn, was commissary clerk of Ross in or before 1706 until after 1724. He 
died in 1727 (not in 1712, as previously stated). His son and heir, Alex- 
ander, afterwards seventh (not sixth) of Easterfearn, served and retoured 
heir to his father before 1729, had in 1726 become commissary clerk of Ross 
(Sasine 15th December). Being unable to pay the claims on him for the 
remainder of the purchase-money of Tarlogie, in lieu of further payment 
David M'Lendris or Ross, his creditor, accepted the clerkship, to which he 
was not regularly appointed until 1733 (MS. notes). 

Another Alexander Ross in a charter of resignation of part of Little 
Allan, called Balnagore (Gt. Seal, 3d February 1710, Sasine on 1st March), 
is styled " commissary clerk of Ross." He appears as witness to many 
Sasines ; in one. dated 25th February 1724, he is described as writer at 
Tain, commissary clerk depute of Ross. He died before 4th June 1730, 
when William, his eldest son and heir, disposed of lands in Dornoch. He 
had also a son Hugh (Tain Registers) whose daughter Jannet was baptized 
23 d May 1723. 

Another Alexander Ross was commissary clerk of Tain, and married Janet, 
daughter of Bailie Dingwall ; they had, 

Alexander, baptized 20th September 1720. 
Charles, baptized 10th September 1722. 
Christian, baptized 20th December 1723. 

8o Rossiana. 

Again, an Alexander Ross was Dean of Guild in Tain before 1698, and 
witnessed many Sasines; he had a son Alexander (Sasine 15th July 1724), 
and a son David (Sasine 17th October 1705). He was living in 1724. 

David Ross, notary, mentioned in various Sasines between 1690-1708, was 
sheriff-clerk of Ross; he had Andrew, his eldest son, and Mr. George, 
schoolmaster at Tarbat. 


(Second family so styled (see 50).) — From the nomination of heirs made 
in 1762 by Mr. David Ross (52), afterwards Lord Ankerville, whose mar- 
riage-contract bears date 7th August 1755. it appears that David Ross, lirst 
of Inverchasley, by his first wife, had the following daughters, 

[1.] Anne, married to John Haldane of Aberathven. by whom she had 
an only son David, captain in the Royal Regiment of 
[2.] Margaret, married to Charles Urquhart of Brealangwell, by whom 
she had an only son David (Sasine on marriage-contract, 28th 
September 1728). 
By his second wife, as previously stated, he had an only daughter, 

Mary, married to John Grant of Ballintotne. 1 
The daughters of David Ross, second of Inverchasley, were, 

[1.] Jean, eldest daughter, wife of Roderick M'Culloch of Glastulich. 

by whom she had a son David, captain in the army. 
[2.] Isobel, 2 wife of William Ross, tenth of Invercharron. She and 

her heirs were passed over in the settlement. 
[3.] Mary. 
The above-named settlement included the lands of Shandwick, Tarlogie, 
Newton of Tarlogie and Fanintraid, Morangie and Dibidaile. part of Drum- 
gillie, Easter Kindeace, Morvichwater, part of Meikle Ranie, Pitkery, and 
various lands near Tain. 

(59) Charles Ross, Lieutenant-General, styled " of Morangie," second 
son of David Ross, second of Inverchasley,"' having become owner of Inver- 
charron, made a settlement of his estates 31st May 1796, recorded nth 
March 1797 (Register of Tailzies, Edinburgh, vol. 30. f. 107). Failing his 

1 John Grant, third son of Tohn Grant of Dalrachney, and Mary Ross his spouse, 
6th December 1736, gave a discharge to David Ross of Inverchasley for 2000 merks, 
due by bond of provision from her father, dated 12th January 1733 (Register of Deeds, 
Mackenzie Office, vol. 162). 

2 This lady in the Shandwick papers is called Ann (see ante, Invercharron (84) her 
son David was captain in the 71*/ (not 1st) regiment of Foot, and was serving in India in 
1796. Her eldest daughter, Helen, married William (not David) M'Caw. 

^Inverness Sasines, vol. viii.. fol. 275. Sasine on disposition by William (not George, 
as previously hated) Ross of Morangie, writer in Edinburgh, in favour of David Ross 
of Inverchasley, of the town and lands of Easter and Wester Morangie, with the two 
milns thereof, etc., in the parish of Tain. At Edinburgh, ISth March 1726. Hugh 
M'Culloch ... is writer of the precept. Sasine on 20th April 1726, in presence of 
Charles Ross of Eye, Simon Ross of Rosehill. and David M'Culloch of Glastulich. 
David Ross obtained the lands of Dibidale also from the above William Ross, son of 
George Csee (51) ). 

Ross of Kindeace. 81 

own heirs, he disponed his estates to his nephew, Charles Ross, advo- 
cate (57), and his heirs, whom failing to David Ross, younger of Anker- 
ville (53), and his heirs; to his nephew, Captain David Ross (85), son of 
William Ross, late of Invercharron, by his sister, Isobel Ross ; to his nephew, 
George Munro of Culrain; to Captain David Ross, late of Kindeace, now on 
half-pay, and their heirs; whom failing to his nieces, daughters of Lord 
Ankerville, viz. Margaret, wife of Major James Baillie, Fort-Major of Fort- 
George, Elizabeth Ross, Jean Ross, and their heirs; to his nieces, daughters 
of Invercharron, viz. Helen, wife of William M'Caw, and Elizabeth Ross, 
second daughter, and their heirs ; to James Rose, writer, Edinburgh, third 
son of the deceased Mr. Hugh Rose, minister of Tain, by Mary M'Culloch, 
his (the General's) first cousin, and his heirs; whom all failing, to his own 
lawful heirs, etc., etc. 

This distinguished officer received his commission as ensign in Leighton's 
regiment (32d Foot) 6th April 1747. He became lieutenant 2d October 
1755; captain-lieutenant, Anstruther's regiment (58th Foot), 25th December 
1755; captain, 32d Foot, 28th August 1756; 2d major, Earl of Sutherland's 
Battalion of Highlanders, 27th August 1759; lieutenant-colonel, 39th Foot. 
31st July 1773; colonel of the /2d Foot, 13th October 1780. This regiment 
was disbanded in 1783, when he was placed on half-pay. He became major- 
general 19th October 1781, and lieutenant-general 12th October 1793. 

In June 1779, being at that time lieutenant-colonel of the 39th, he suc- 
ceeded in joining his corps at Gibraltar by assuming a disguise and risking 
the passage in a row-boat from Faro, a port in Portugal. In 1781 he went 
to England, and 13th November returned to Gibraltar to take command of 
his regiment, the 72d, or Royal Manchester Volunteers. On 27th November 
he commanded a force of about 2000 men in a sortie from the garrison, 
destroying the enemy's advance batteries ; and in December returned to 
England (War Office Records). He was M. P. for the Wick Burghs, 

1780-84. He died .y. p. 1797; his nephew, Charles Ross, advocate, was 

served heir to him 26th April in the same year. 


(Second Family so Styled.) 
Alexander Ross (69), eldest son of the second marriage of Malcolm Ross 
of Kindeace (-11), as has been already stated, joined his uncle Robert 
M'Culloch, merchant, at Copenhagen. He there became a grocer. He was 

born 5th July 1659, and died 27th August 1722, having married 

Catherine Elizabeth Abesteen, who was born 15th June 1675, and died 9th 
June 1735. He obtained a grant of arms from the Lyon Office, dated 1st 
March 1699, Sir Alexander Erskine of Cambo, Bart., being Lyon King. He 
is styled " Master Alexander Ross, merchant in Copenhagen, lawful son to 
Malcolm Ross of Kindeace, and lawfully descended of the family of Bal- 
nagown." The said Mr. Alexander for his ensigns armoriall Bears Gules 
three Lyoncells rampant argent within a bordure counter compound of the 
second and first, and for his Brotherly difference a Crescent in abysm or 
in the center argent on an helmet answerable to his degree with a mantle 

82 Rossi a ii a. 

gules doubling argent and wreath of his colours is sett for his Crest a Fox 
passant proper with this motto in an Escroll above " Caute non astute " 
(Archives of the Herald's Office, Copenhagen). It must have been at this 
time that the bore-brieve (to which frequent reference has been made) 
was granted to Alexander Ross, perhaps by the Lyon Office, although in 
a search made there no record of it or of the grant of arms was found. 
The bore-brieve gives his paternal and maternal descent for many genera- 
tions, the old copy in my possession is wanting in date and signature. It 
concludes by stating that " he was educat and brought up in the fear of 
God, earlie instructed in the principles of the Christian religion and 
Orthodox faith . . . and while in his native country he behaved and 
demeaned himself in all places and societies piously and honestly as 

He left an only daughter and heiress, 

Marie, born 3d June 1693, died 12th January 1715, having married, 
16th January 1710, Daniel Walker, grocer at Copenhagen, who 
was born 5th March 1680, and died 8th September 1747. They 
had a son, Alexander. (See below.) 
Alexander Walker inherited his grandfather's property, and, in accord- 
ance with his will, assumed the name of Ross in lieu of his own. He was 
born 17th December 1710. and married first Magdalene Elisa- 
beth Euran, who. died 15th October 1754. and secondly Anna 

Christina, daughter of Admiral Tydicker; she died s. p. 23d May, 1766. 
Having served the King of Denmark for thirty years, he was made " Com- 
missioner General of War" with the rank of Major-General. On 2d March 
1782 he petitioned King Christian VII. to create him a Danish nobleman, 
and to permit him to use the Arms of his mother's ancestors. This petition 
was granted 12th June 1782, and all the documents are duly registered in the 
Herald's Office at Copenhagen. 
By his first wife he had, with a daughter, 

Paul Alexander, Aide-de-Camp and Major, born 26th October 
1746, married, nth July 1782 or 1783, Petronelle Wasserfree, by 
whom he had two sons. 

Alexander, born 23d May 1784. 
Peter Vilhelm, born 29th January 1793. 
They have left very numerous descendants, of whom a description may 
be found under the heading of Ross of Balnagown in the Danish Peerage 
(Danmdrks Adels Aarboy) published yearly at Copenhagen by A. Thiset. 


THE original arms of 
the Earls of Ross 
(gules three lions 
rampant within a tressure 
argent ) were taken from 
the shield of the King him- 
self, which was or and the 
tressure gules as well as the 
one lion rampant, to show 
that they were children of 
the Royal Lion, connected 
as they were with the 
Royal house of Scotland by 

When the Lairds of Bal- 
nagown assumed the title 
of Ross as a family name, 
they dropped the tressure 
and retained the three royal 
lions as proof of their de- 
scent from the Royal 
house ; motto, " Spem suc- 
cessus alit." 

The Rosses of Shand- 
wick bore argent three 
lions rampant gules. 

armed sable, the crest 
being a demi-lion rampant 
gules, and the motto, 
" Xobilis est ira leonis." 

Our own branch of Bal- 
blair bore gules three lions 
rampant argent, and the 
crest was a demi-lion ram- 
pant gules, armed and 
langued sable, and the 
motto was the same as that 
of Shandwick, " Nobilis est 
ira leonis." 

Hon. John Ross, Royal 
attorney-general, of Tuscu- 
lum and Philadelphia, bore 
the same arms, but had for 
a crest an arm holding a 
wreath of laurel leaves, and 
the motto of Ross of Bal- 
nagown, " Spem successus 
alit." No reason has ever 

The King's Escutcheon, or Arms of David II of 
Scotland, as shown by the Bruce Coat on the 
Cappiline. — [Stodart's " Scottish Arms." 

8 4 

Rossi a no. 

Stone Carving at Daan House. 

been given for this 
unless it was that 
he regarded the 
Balnagown crest 
and motto older 
than that of Bal- 

Ross of Priest- 
hill, it is said, bore 
the same arms and 
crest as those of 

The coat-of-arms 
cut in stone at Bal- 
nagown Castle, 
which I have seen, 
and which dates 
back to very early- 
times, is colored 
gules (red) for the 
shield, and or 
(gold) for the 

While on a visit 
to Daan House in 
1881, the writer ob- 
served a curious 
carved stone, above 
the fireplace in one 
of the rooms, 
which contained 

the Arms of Munro 
and of Ross. Gen- 
eral Meredith Read 
on being informed 
of it, had it photo- 
graphed, a repro- 
duction of which is 
shown herewith. Of 
the three circles 
appearing on the 
stone, the one on 
the left contains the 
Anns of Munro 
( an eagle's head 
erased), surrounded 
by the motto, 
"Aquila 11011 captat 
muscas ; " the one 
on the right, the 
well-known three 
lions of the Arms 
of Ross, with the 
motto, " Nobilis est 

Anns of Ross. 


ira leonis," while the centre circle contains the effigy of a man in 
a Geneva cloak and bands, holding an open book ; on which is 
inscribed, " Fear God in heart as ye my be bsd." Around the effigy appear 
the words, " Servire deo est regnare," together with the letters " M. H. M., 
E. R." (Magister Hector Munro, Effie Ross). The stone was undoubtedly 
erected as a memorial to Hector Munro, Minister of Edderton, " first of Daan 
(Sasines 226. August, 1626, and 30 April, 1629), lands of Little Daan," and 

Arms of the Earls of Ross. — [Stodart's " Scottish Arms." 

Effie Ross, his wife. The letters " A. M.," at the top of the stone, probably 
refer to Andrew or Alexander Munro, ancestor of Hector, while the letters 
" M. F." appearing at the bottom were intended to show that the family was 
of the ancient line of Munro of Foulis. Beginning at the left of the first 
circle and ending at the right of the third are the words, " Soli deo gloria." 
The date 1680 probably refers to the time of its erection. The Effie Ross 
here mentioned was the granddaughter of Sir David Ross, seventh Laird 
of Balnagown (d. May 20, 1527), and his wife, Helen Keith. Effie's father was 
William of Ardgay. afterward first of lnvercharron, second son of Sir David. 



Arms of Alexander Stewart. Earl of Buchan, 
who married Euphemia, Countess of Ross, 
1382.— [Stodart's " Scottish Arms." 

In the account of the 
funeral of Hugh Munro of 
Teaninich in 1703 (see 
page 139) the names of 
"Alexr. Munro of Dahan " 
and " Hector Munro the 
younger of Dahan." appear 
in the list of those in at- 
tendance from the parish 
of Edderton. The former 
was probably a son and 
the latter a grandson of 
Hector Munro and Effie 
Ross. A strange feature of 
the carving is the motto 
surrounding the Ross arms. 
" Nobilis est ira leonis." 
which was the motto of 
the Rosses of Shandwick 
and Balblair (descended 
from Hugh Ross, fourth 
Laird of Balnagowni, 
while the Effie Ross men- 
tioned was of the Rosses 
of Invercharron (de- 

scended from David Ross, 
seventh Laird of Balna- 
gown). It would seem 
that William Ross, of 
Ardgay, first of Inverchar- 
ron. must have adopted 
the motto of Shandwick. 
rather than the motto of 
Balnagown, " Spent suc- 
cessus alit." The carving 
contained no lines indicat- 
ing color. This interesting 
memorial of the past was 
some years ago removed 
by Lady Ross to Balna- 
LMiwn Castle. 

Many members of the 
family have been troubled 
about the different tinc- 
tures used by various 
members of the race both 
in this countrv and in 

Scotland, but modern English heraldry takes no account of the custom pre- 
vailing both in France and Scotland of differentiating the same coat-of-arms 
by changing the color of the shield and the color of the charges, to show a 

Arms of Ross. 87 

younger branch. Neither does modern English heraldry say anything about 
the custom in both countries of taking crests for cadet houses other than the 
one used by the chief of the family. 

Malcolm Ross of Kindeace. third son of David Ross of Pitcalnie, received 
a grant of arms in 1672 which were thus described : " Gu. 3 Lyoncells ramp. 
arg., within a bordure, counter compound of the 2d and 1st; crest, a fox 
passant proper; motto, Caute 11011 astute." 

Alexander Ross, eldest son of the second marriage of the above Malcolm 
Ross of Kindeace, obtained a grant of arms from the Lyon office, dated 
March 1, 1699. He was styled " Master Alexander Ross, merchant in Copen- 
hagen, lawful son to Malcolm Ross of Kindeace, and lawfully descended of 
the family of Balnagown." The grant says : " The said Mr. Alexander for 
his ensigns armorial! Bears Gules three Lyoncells rampant argent, within 
a bordure counter compound of the second and first, and for his Brotherly 
difference a Crescent in abysm or in the center argent on an helmet answer- 
able to his degree with a mantle gules doubling argent, and wreath of his 
colours is sett for his Crest a Fox passant proper, with this motto in an 
Escroll above. Caute non astute." 

George Ross of Morangie, " descended of Balnagown," registered his arms 
at the Lyon office about 1672, as follows : " Gu. 3 lioncells rampant between as 
many stars arg.; next is placed on one torse for his crest a foxhead coupled 
proper ; motto, Spes aspera levat." 

Charles Ross, writer in Edinburgh, obtained a grant of arms from the 
Lyon office in 1703, which were described as follows : " Gu. 3 roses slipped in 
fees betwixt as many lioncells rampant arg.; above the shield an helmet 
befitting his degree mantled gu., doubled arg.; crest, a fox issuant out of the 
torse with a rose in his mouth proper ; motto, a Rosam ne rode." He was 
a descendant of Ross of Kindeace. 

David Ross of Priesthill, a judge in 1747, registered his coat of arms June 
12, 1767, as follows : " Gu. three lions rampant, arg. and langued az., within 
a border of the second for difference ; crest, a dexter hand holding a laurel 
garland proper; motto, Nobilis est ira leonis." 

David Ross (born, 1775 ; died, 1799), a descendant of the house of Shand- 
wick, and a lieutenant in the First Regiment of Foot under General Burgoyne 
in America, registered a coat of arms on December 5, 1795, which was 
described as follows : " Gu. 3 Lyons ramp., arg. and on a chief or, 3 legs 
conjoined at the center at the upper part of the thigh, and flexed in triangle 
azure ; crest, a lymphad, her oars in action proper, flagged gules ; motto. Pro 

The arms of Ross of Shandwick, upon parchment, sent to Hon. John Ross, 
of Philadelphia, in 1764, by Hugh Ross, merchant in London, then head of 
the house of Shandwick, were for a long time in possession of Hon. John 
Read (1769-1854), Senator of Pennsylvania; they were afterward in pos- 
session of Miss Emily Read and Mrs. Major Reeves, her sister, and hung in 
their ancient mansion at Newcastle, Del. The parchment was later given 
to Miss Julia Ross Potter and now hangs in Mrs. William Potter's hospitable 
house, 21 19 Oak street, Baltimore, Md. 

88 Rossi an a. 

The appended notes are taken from volume two of Stodart's " Scottish 
Arms " (being a collection of armorial bearings, 1370-1678, reproduced in 
facsimile from contemporary manuscripts, with heraldic and genealogical 
notes by R. R. Stodart, 1881) : 

Arms of Ross of Balnagown- [Stodart's " Scottish Arms. 

Referring to the arms of John, Earl of Ross and Lord of the Isles, Stodart 
says (page 37) : " The field should be gules, the lions argent, and the tressure 
probably or." Again, below, on the same page, he says : "In the armorial of 
Gilles Le Bouvier Berry Roi d'Armes, A. D. 1450-1455 is a shield described 

Anns of Ross. 89 

as the arms of the Earl of Sutherland, but probably meant for those of the 
Earl of Ross, as the bearing of that family was gules three lions rampant 
argent. John, Earl of Sutherland at that time being the husband of Margaret, 
daughter of Alexander, Earl of Ross and lord of the Isles." 

In Forman's Roll (page 77) : " Ross of Balnagown — This is evidently Ross 
of Mont Grenane for which it must be intended, as Balnagown bore three lions 
rampant. Also the arms of Ross are usually first and fourth Scotland, second 
Ross, third Brechanbroke." 

Page 96: "Workman's MSS. mentions Robert II., and Euphemia Ross. 
In this MSS. there is a series of engravings with surcoats on which their arms- 
are represented." 

Page 284: "The second Lindsey MS. 1603-5, mentions the Lord of Ross. 
Melville in the first and fourth quarters. Then mentions the laird of Balna- 
gown. The arms of the Lord of the Isles are in Lindsey. Bouvier gives those 
of one of the latter Lords." 

Page 288: " Ross of Balnagown. Balnagown was granted by William Earl 
of Ross before 1370 to his brother Hugh, with whose descendants it remained 
until the death without issue in 171 1 of David Ross. This gentleman left the 
estate, which had been erected into a barony in 1615, away from his right heirs. 
He seems to have a passion for executing long documents, as he not only made 
three different deeds of entail, but arranged to execute a resignation of his 
pretentions to the Earldom of Ross in favour of William Lord Ross of Hawk- 
head, who hoped to obtain a regrant from the Crown. Balnagown had two 
sisters — Isabel, who married Innes of Lightnet, and Catherine, the wife of 
John MacKenzie of Inverlawell ; Malcolm Ross of Pitcalnie became heir male 
and his descendant is the present representative. Two savages were borne as 
supporters. The seal of Hugh of Rarichies afterwards of Balnagown in 1351,. 
at which time his elder brother was alive, has a mullet in base as a mark of 
difference and what Mr. Laign describes as a bordure charged with eleven 
escalopes or ermine spots ; perhaps this is the tressure which was borne by 
several of the Earls of Ross." 

The following paragraphs probably refer to one of the numerous families- 
of Rose, as the description of the arms would indicate : 

Speaking of the Le Sire de Ros (page 33) : "At this time Thomas de Ros, 
Baron of Hamlake, was the representative of the great house to which 
belonged William de Ros, a competitor for the Crown of Scotland in 1296. 
Three water bougets were his arms, and gules, three water bougets argent, 
is the blazon in the Caerlaverock Roll. It does not, however, seem very 
likely that in 1370 this family of Ros would be included in a Scotch roll of 
arms, as their connection with that country had long ceased. 

Page 101 : " Workman's MSS. Lord Ros. Quartered, or, a chevron 
chequered sable and argent, between water bougets of the second; second 
and third gules, three crescents argent within a border of the second, charged 
with eight roses of the field ; crest, a fox courant ; motto, " Thynk on ;'" 
supporters, two falcons. The crest was soon after changed to a falcon's head.' 


THIS tribe is designated by the Highlanders as the Clan Anrias, which is 
altogether different from their name, as in a similar way, the Robert- 
sons are called the Clan Donnachie. In the ancient genealogical 
history they are called " Clan Anrias," and it begins with Paul MacTire, to 
whom William, Earl of Ross, Lord of Skye, granted a charter for the lands 
of Gairloch in 1366, witnessed by Alexander, Bishop of Ross, Hergone. 
brother of Earl William, Henry the Seneschal, and others. 

Robertson mentions that in the Earl of Haddington's Collections he met 
with an entry in the reign of Alexander II., dated about 1220, of a " charter 
to Ferquhard Ross, of the Earldom of Ross." This Ferquhard, he adds, 
was called Macant-Sagart, or the Priest's son, and has, with reason, been 
supposed to be the son of Gille-Anrias, from whom the clan took its name. 

He founded the Abbey of Fearn, in Ross-shire, in the reign of Alexander 
II. His son. Earl William, was one of the Scottish nobles who, under 
Alexander III., bound themselves to make no peace with England in which 
the Prince and chiefs of Wales were not included. This line ended in 
Euphemia, Countess of Ross, who became a nun, and resigned the Earldom 
of Ross to her uncle, John, Earl of Buchan. 

The Rosses of Balnagown were a very ancient line, as they sprang from 
William, Earl of Ross, a great patriot and steady friend of Robert I. His 
son, Earl Hugh, was killed at Halidon Hill, hghting for his King and 
country, in 1334. 

The ancient Rosses of Balnagown failed, and by an unusual circumstance 
the estate came, by purchase, to another family of the same name, the Lords 
Ross of Hawkhead. an old and very honorable branch of the clan, which 
failed on the death of George, twelfth Lord Ross, in 1754, at Ross House, 
and of his son. the Master, at Mount Teviot, when his title went to the 
Earls of Glasgow. 

The line of Balnagown is thus given in 1729 by George Crawfurd, His- 
toriographer for Scotland, and other authorities. 

Hugh Ross, second son of Hugh, Earl of Ross, married the heiress of 
Balnagown. and was succeeded by William, second laird of Ba'nagown, 
who married a daughter of the Lord Livingstone. Their son William mar- 
ried Catharine, the daughter of Paul MacTire. She was the heiress of 
Strathcarron, Strathoykel, and Fostray. 

Hugh, third laird of Balnagown, married Lady Janet, daughter of the 
Earl of Sutherland, and had by her John, his heir, and William Ross of 
Little Allan and Coulnaki, predecessor of the Rosses of Shandwick. 

John, fourth of Balnagown, married a daughter of Torquil MacLeod of 
the Lewes. Their son Alexander married a lady of the Duff us family, and 
had " Sir David Ross, who married Helen of Inverugie, daughter to Mari- 
schal's predecessor, by whom he had Walter, his son and heir, and William 


And where low, tufted broom or box or berry'd juniper arise. 
Dyer "The Fleece" 

Our woods with juniper and chestnuts crown'd 
With falling fruit and berries paint the ground 
And lavish Nature laughs and strews her stores around. 
Dryden "Seventh Pastoral" 

Origin of the Clan System. 91 

who was the root of Rosses of Invercharron and its branches. The said 
Walter married Mary, daughter of James Grant of Frenchy, Laird of Grant." 

Their son Alexander was twice married. First, to Jean, daughter of 
George, Earl of Caithness, by whom he had George, his successor; second, 
to Katharine, daughter of MacKenzie of Kintail. by whom he had a son 
Nicholas, the first of the line of Pitcalnie. He died in 1591. 

George, sixth of Balnagown, married Marjorie. daughter of Sir John 
Campbell of Cawdor, with " a tachor of 3000 merks " in 1572. They had a 
daughter, married to the Laird of Kintail, and a son, David, seventh of 
Balnagown, who. by Anne of Tullibardine, had a son, " David the Loyal." 
who married Mary, Lord Lovat's daughter. He died at Windsor Castle 
after the Restoration, and Charles II. bestowed upon him and his heirs for 
ever a pension of 4000 merks Scots, yearly. 

David, the last Laird of Balnagown, married Lady Ann Stewart, daughter 
of the Earl of Murray, and dying without issue, conveyed his estate to 
Brigadier Charles Ross, son of George, tenth Lord Ross of Hawkhead, by 
his second wife, Lady Jean Ramsay, daughter to the Earl of Dalhousie. 

The Brigadier was an officer of high military reputation, and in 1729 was 
Colonel of the old 5th Royal Irish Horse, raised in 1688, and disbanded 
after the Rebellion of 1798. 

Ross of Pitcalnie was supposed to represent the ancient line of Balnagown, 
the present Baronets of Balnagown being in reality Lockharts. 

In 1745 the fighting force of the clan was 500 men. 


The Goidelic word eland or claim (in Welsh, plant) signifies seed, and 
in a general sense children, descendants. In the latter sense it was 
used as one of many terms to designate groups of kindred in the tribal 
system of government which existed in Ireland and the Highlands of Scot- 
land. Through the latter country the word passed into the English language, 
first in the special sense of the Highland clan, afterwards as a general name 
into the tenure of land in different countries and the ancient laws and insti- 
tutions of Aryan nations, and the publication of various Celtic documents, 
particularly the ancient laws of Ireland and Wales, have thrown much light 
on the constitution of the clan system, and given it a wider and more 
important interest than it had hitherto possessed. 

Before the use of surnames and the elaborate written genealogies, a tribe 
in its definite sense was called a tuath, a word of wide affinities, from a root 
tit, to grow, to multiply, existing in all European languages. When the tribal 
system began to be broken up by conquest and by the rise of towns and of 
territorial government, the use of a common surname furnished a new bond 
for keeping up a connection between kindred. The head of a tribe or smaller 
group of kindred selected some ancestor and called himself his Ua, grandson, 
or as it has been anglicized, O' , e. g., Ua Conchobair (O' Conor), Ua Suit- 

!This article on the origin of the clan system, which has been inserted as being 
of interest to many readers, is from the Encyclopaedia Britannica, vol. 5, pages 799 
et seq. 

9 2 


leabhain (O'Sullivan). All his kindred adopted the same name, the chief 
using no fore-name whatever. The usual mode of distinguishing a person 
before the introduction of surnames was to name his father and grandfather, 
c. g., Owen, son of Donal, son of Dermot. This naturally led some to form 
their surnames with Mac, son, instead of Ua, grandson, c. g., Mac Carthaigh, 
son of Carthach (Mac Carthy). Mac Ruaidhri, son of Rory (Macrory). 
Both methods have been followed in Ireland, but in Scotland Mac came to 
be exclusively used. The adoption of such genealogical surnames fostered 
the notion that all who bore the same surname were kinsmen, and hence 
the genealogical term chum, which properly means the descendants of some 
progenitor, gradually became synonymous with tuath, tribe. Like all purely 
genealogical terms, claim may be used in the limited sense of a particular 
tribe governed by a chief, or in that of many tribes claiming descent from a 
common ancestor. In the latter sense it was synonymous with sil, siol, 
seed, e. g., siol Alpine, a great clan which included the smaller clans of the 
Macgregors, Grants, Mackinnons, Macnabs, Macphies, Macquarries, and 

The clan system, in the most archaic form of which we have any definite 
information, can be best studied in the Irish tuath, or tribe. This consisted 
of two classes: — (i) tribesmen, and (2) a miscellaneous class of slaves, 
criminals, strangers, and their descendants. The first class included tribes- 
men by blood in the male line, including all illegitimate children acknowl- 
edged by their fathers, and tribesmen by adoption or sons of tribeswomen 
by strangers, foster-sons, men who had done some signal service to the tribe, 
and lastly the descendants of the second class after a certain number of 
generations. Each tuath had a chief called a rig, king, a word cognate with 
the Gaulish rigs or ri.x, the Latin reg-s or rex, and the Old Norse rik-ir. 
The tribesmen formed a number of communities, each of which, like the 
tribe itself, consisted of a head, ccann fine, his kinsmen, slaves, and other 
retainers. This was the tine, or sept. Each of these occupied a certain part 
of the tribe-land, the arable part being cultivated under a system of co-tillage, 
the pasture land co-grazed according to certain customs, and the wood, bog, 
and mountains forming the march-land of the sept being the unrestricted 
common land of the sept. The sept was in fact a village community like the 
Russian mir, or rather like the German gcmcinde and Swiss altnend, which 
Sir H. S. Maine, M. de Laveleye, and others have shown to have preceded 
in every European country the existing order of things as respects owner- 
ship of land. 

What the sept was to the tribe, the homestead was to the sept. The head 
of a homestead was an aire, a representative freeman capable of acting as 
a witness, compurgator, and bail. These were very important functions, 
especially when it is borne in mind that the tribal homestead was the home 
of many of the kinsfolk of the head of the family as well as of his own 
children. The descent of property being according to a gavel-kind custom, 
it constantly happened that when an aire died the share of his property which 
each member of his immediate family was entitled to receive was not suffi- 
cient to qualify him an aire. In this case the family did not divide the 
inheritance, but remained together as "a joint and undivided family," one 

Origin of the Clan System. 93 

of the members being elected chief of the family or household, and in this 
capacity enjoyed the rights and privileges of an aire. Sir H. S. Maine has 
directed attention to this kind of family as an important feature of the early 
institution of all Aryan nations. Beside the "joint and undivided family" 
there was another kind of family which we might call " the joint family." 
This was a partnership composed of three or four members of a sept whose 
individual wealth was not sufficient to qualify each of them to be an aire, 
but whose joint wealth qualified one of the co-partners as head of the joint 
family to be one. 

So long as there was abundance of land each family grazed its cattle upon 
the tribe-land without restriction ; unequal increase of wealth and growth of 
population naturally led to its limitation, each head of a homestead being 
entitled to graze an amount of stock in proportion to his wealth, the size 
of his homestead, and his acquired position. The arable land was no doubt 
applotted annually at first, gradually, however, some of the richer families of 
the tribe succeeded in evading this exchange of allotments and converting 
part of the common land into an estate in severalty. Septs were at first 
colonies of the tribe which settled on the march-land ; afterwards the con- 
version of part of the common land into an estate in severalty enabled the 
family that acquired it to become the parent of a new sept. The same process 
might, however, take place within a sept without dividing it ; in other words, 
several members of the sept might hold part of the land of the sept as 
separate estate. The possession of land in severalty introduced an important 
distinction into the tribal system — it created an aristocracy. An aire whose 
family held the same land for three generations was called a flaith, or lord, 
of which rank there were several grades according to their wealth in land 
and chattels. The aires whose wealth consisted in cattle only were called 
bo-aires, or cow-aires, of whom there were also several grades, depending 
on their wealth in stock. When a bo-aire had twice the wealth of the lowest 
class of flaith he might enclose part of the land adjoining his house as a 
lawn; this was the first step towards his becoming a flaith. The relations 
which subsisted between the flaiths and the bo-aires formed the most curious 
part of the Celtic tribal system, and throw a flood of light on the origin of 
the feudal system. Every tribesman without exception owed ccilsinne to 
the rig, or chief, that is, he was bound to become his ceile, or vassal. This 
consisted in paying the rig a tribute in kind, for which the ceile was entitled 
to receive a proportionate amount of stock without having to give any bond 
for their return, giving him service, c. g., in building his dun, or stronghold, 
reaping his harvest, keeping the roads clean and in repair, killing wolves, 
and especially service in the field, and doing him homage three times while 
seated every time he made his return of tribute. Paying the " calpe" to 
the Highland chiefs represented this kind of vassalage, a colpdach or heifer 
being in many cases the amount of food-rent paid by a free or saer ceile. 
A tribesman might, however, if he pleased, pay a higher rent on receiving 
more stock together with certain other chattels for which no rent was 
chargeable. In this case he entered into a contract, and was therefore a 
bond or daer ceile. No one need have accepted stock on these terms, nor 
•could he do so without the consent of his sept, and he might free himself 

94 Rossiana. 

at any time from his obligation by returning what he had received, and the 
rent due thereon. 

What every one was bound to do to his rig, or chief, he might do volun- 
tarily to the fiaith of his sept, to any fiaith of the tribe, or even to one of 
another tribe. He might also become a bond ccilc. In either case he might 
renounce his ceileship by returning a greater or lesser amount of stock than 
what he had received according to the circumstances under which he ter- 
minated his vassalage. Hence the anxiety of minor chieftains, in later times 
in the Highlands of Scotland, to induce the clansmen to pay the " calpe" 
where there happened to be a doubt as to who was entitled to be chief. 

The effect of the custom of gavel-kind was to equalize the wealth of each 
and leave no one wealthy enough to be chief. The " joint and undivided 
family," and the formation of "joint families," or gilds, was one way of 
obviating this result; another way was the custom of tanistry. The head- 
ship of the tribe was practically confined to the members of one family; this 
was also the case with the headship of a sept. Sometimes a son succeeded 
his father, but the rule was that the eldest and most capable member of the 
geilfine, that is the relatives of the actual chief to the fifth degree, 1 was 
selected during his lifetime to be his successor, — generally the eldest sur- 
viving brother or son of the preceding chief. The man selected as successor 
to a chief of a tribe, or chieftain of a sept, was called the tanist, and should 
be " the most experienced, the most noble, the most wealth}-, the wisest, the 
most learned, the most truly popular, the most powerful to oppose, the most 
steadfast to sue for profits and [be sued] for losses." In addition to these 
qualities he should be free from personal blemishes and deformities, and of 
fit age to lead his tribe or sept, as the case may be, to battle." So far as 
selecting the man of the geilfine who was supposed to possess all those 
qualities, the office of chief of a tribe or chieftain of a sept was elective, 
but as the geilfine was represented by four persons together with the chief 
or chieftain, the election w r as practically confined to one of the four. In 
order to support the dignity of the chief or chieftain a certain portion of the 
tribe or sept was attached as an appanage to the office; this land, with the 
duns, or fortified residences upon it, went to the successor, but a chief's own 
property might be gavelled. This custom of tanistry applied at first prob- 
ably to the selection of the successors of a rig but was gradually so extended 
that even a bo-aire had a tanist. 

A sept might have only one fiaitJi, or lord, connected with it, or might 
have several. It sometimes happened, however, that a sept might be so 
broken and reduced as not to have even one man qualified to rank as a 
fiaith. The rank of a fiaith depended upon the number of his ceiles, that 
is, upon his wealth. The fiaith of a sept, and the highest when there was 

*It is right to mention that the explanation here given of geilfine is different from 
that given in the introduction to the third volume of the Ancient Laws of Ireland, 
which has been followed by Sir H. S. Maine in his account of it in his Early History 
of Institutions, and which the present writer believes to be erroneous. 

2 It should also be mentioned that illegitimacy was not a bar. The issue of 
" handfest " marriages in Scotland were eligible to be chiefs, and even sometimes 
claimed under feudal law. 

Origin of the Clan System. 95 

more than one, was ceann fine, or head of the sept, or as he was usually 
called in Scotland, the chieftain. He was also called the flaith geilfine, or 
head of the geilfine, that is, the kinsmen to the fifth degree from among 
whom should be chosen the tanist, and who according to the custom of 
gavel-kind were the immediate heir- who received the personal property 
and were answerable for the liabilities of the sept. The flaiths of the different 
septs were the vassals of the rig, or chief of the tribe and performed certain 
functions which were no doubt at first individual, but in time became the 
hereditary right of the sept. One of those was the office of maer, or steward 
of the chief's rents, &c. j 1 and another that of aire tuisi, leading aire, or 
taoiscch, a word cognate with the Latin dues or dux, and Anglo-Saxon 
heve-tog, leader of the " here," or army. The taoiscch was leader of the 
tribe in battle ; in later times the term seems to have been extended to sev- 
eral offices of rank. The cadet of a Highland clan was always called the 
taoiscch, which has been translated captain ; after the conquest of Wales 
the same term, tywysaug, was used for a ruling prince. Slavery was very 
common in Ireland and Scotland; in the former slaves constituted a common 
element in the stipends or gifts which the higher kings gave their vassal 
sub-reguli. Female slaves who were employed in the houses of chiefs and 
flaiths in grinding meal with the hand-mill or quern, and in other domestic 
work, must have been very common, for the unit or standard for estimating 
the wealth of a bo-aire, blood-fines, &c, was called a cuinhal, the value of 
which was three cows, but which literally meant a female slave. The 
descendants of those slaves, prisoners of war, forfeited hostages, refugees 
from other tribes, broken tribesmen, &c, gathered round the residence 
of the rig and flaiths, or squatted upon their march-lands, forming a motley 
band of retainers which made a considerable element in the population, and 
one of the chief sources of the wealth of chiefs and flaiths. The other 
principal source of their income was the food-rent paid by ccilcs, and espe- 
cially by the daer or bond ccilcs. who were hence called biathachs, from 
biad, food. A flaith. but not a rig, might, if he liked, go to the house of 
his ceile and consume his food-rent in the house of the latter. 

Under the influence of feudal ideas and the growth of the modern views 
as to ownership of land, the chiefs and other lords of clans claimed in 
modern times the right of bestowing the tribe-land as turcrec, instead of 
stock, and receiving rent not for cattle and other chattels as in former 
times, but proportionate to the extent of land given to them. The turcrec- 
land seems to have been at first given upon the same terms as turcrec-stock, 

1 This office is of considerable importance in connection with early Scottish history. 
In the Irish annals the rig, or chief of a great tribe (mor tuath), such as of Ross, 
Moray, Marr, Buchan, &c, is called a mor, maer, or great maer. Sometimes the same 
person is called king also in these annals. Thus Findlaec, or Finlay, son of Ruadhri, 
the father of Shakespeare's Macbeth, is called king of Moray in the Annals of Ulster, 
and mor maer in the Annals of Tighernach. The term is never found in Scottish 
charters, but it occurs in the Book of the Abbey of Deir in Buchan, now in the library 
of the University of Cambridge. The Scotic kings and their successors obviously 
regarded the chiefs of the great tribes in question merely as their maers, while their 
tribesmen only knew them as kings. From these " mor-maerships," which corresponded 
with the ancient mor tuatha, came most, if not all, the ancient Scottish earldoms. 

•96 Rossi an a. 

but gradually a system of short leases grew up ; sometimes, too, it was given 
on mortgage. In the Highlands of Scotland ceiles who received turcrec- 
land were called " taksmen." On the death of the chief or lord, his suc- 
cessor either bestowed the land upon the same person or gave it to some 
other relative. In this way in each generation new families came into 
possession of land, and others sank into the mass of mere tribesmen. 
Sometimes a "taksman" succeeded in acquiring his land in perpetuity, by 
gift, marriage, or purchase, or even by the " strong hand." The universal 
prevalence of exchangeable allotments, or the rundale system, shows that 
down to even comparatively modern times some of the land was still recog- 
nized as the property of the tribe, and was cultivated in village communities. 

The chief governed the clan by the aid of a council called the sabaid (sab, 
a prop), but the chief exercised much power, especially over the miscel- 
laneous body of non-tribesmen who lived on his own estate. The power 
seems to have extended to life and death. Several of the fiaiths, perhaps, 
all heads of septs, also possessed somewhat extensive powers of the same 

The Celtic dress, at least in the Middle Ages, consisted of a kind of shirt 
reaching to a little below the knees called a lenn, a jacket called an inar, 
and a garment called a brat, consisting of a single piece of cloth. This was 
apparently the garb of the aires, who appear to have been further distin- 
guished by the number of colours in their dress, for we are told that while 
a slave had clothes of one colour, a rig tuatha, or chief of a tribe, had five, 
and an ollamh and a superior king, six. The breeches was also known, and 
cloaks with a cowl or hood, which buttoned up tight in front. The lenn 
is the modern kilt, and the brat the plaid, so that the dress of the Irish and 
Welsh in former times was the same as that of the Scottish Highlander. 

By the abolition of the heritable jurisdiction of the Highland chiefs, and 
the general disarmament of the clans by the Acts passed in 1747 after the 
rebellion of 1745, the clan system was practically broken up, though its influ- 
ence still lingers in the more remote districts. An Act was also passed in 
1747 forbidding the use of the Highland garb; 1 but the injustice and impolicy 
of such a law being generally felt it was afterwards repealed. (w. k. s.) 

1 The following oath was administered at Fort 'William and other places in 1747 and 

" I, [name], do swear, as I shall answer to God at the great day of judgment, that 
I have not, nor shall have, in my possession any gun, sword, pistol, or any arm 
whatsoever, and that I never use tartan, plaid, or any part of the Highland garb; and 
if I do so, may I be cursed in my undertakings, family and property, — may I never 
see my wife and children, father, mother, or relations, — may I be killed in battle as 
a coward, and lie without Christian burial in a strange land, far from the graves of 
my forefathers and kindred; may all this come across me if I break my oath." 



Settlement of the Contest in 1876 — Efforts to Discover a Missing 
Family Tree Sent by Hugh Ross, Merchant in London and Head 
of the House of Shandwick, to Hon. John Ross, Counselor-at-Law 
in Philadelphia, in 1764 — Discovery of a Similar Tree Sent to 
Another John Ross. 

BY THE death of the direct representative of the house of Shandwick 
(Miss Cockburn Ross), without issue, in 1872, the question of the 
succession to the estate was left open, and a number of claimants 
appeared, all basing their claims upon descent from Andrew Ross, seventh 
of Shandwick, from whom Miss Cockburn Ross had descended. The final 
disposition of the matter depended upon the order of birth of the several 
sons of Andrew. An effort was made by the attorneys of some of the 
claimants to discover a certain family tree which, their records showed, had 
been sent in 1764 to Hon. John Ross, counselor-at-law in Philadelphia, grand- 
son of David Ross of Balblair, and a descendant of the house of Shandwick 
through the branch of Balmachy, by his kinsman, Hugh Ross, merchant in 
London, then head of the Shandwick house. 

After much correspondence with American representatives of the Ross 
family, the matter was finally referred to General Meredith Read, a descend- 
ant of David Ross of Balblair, who made an earnest effort to recover the 
missing tree by a search of the family archives. He found, first, a letter 
dated 1763, from Hon. John Ross to Dr. Gordon, then about to sail for 

England, as follows : 

Philad: April 30th, 1763. 

Dear Sir. — As it is a doubtful point whether my name sakes in London 
be of the same family with myself I decline writeing to either of those 
gentlemen till I am satisfied in that matter and the rather least they should 
imagine I wanted to scrape kindred with them, and call on them for some 
favours inconsistent with their inclinations or interest to grant. But 
because I honoured and loved my good father and entertained a high 
affection to all to whom he was, (and through him I now am), related and 
should greatly rejoice to find any branch of his family resident in London 
with whom I might now and then correspond, I must entreat your kind favor 
to examine whether any relationship subsists between these gentlemen and 
myself, & favor me with a line on the occasion, and should that be my 
happy case, I trust that they never will have occasion to be ashamed of any 
American Relation ; and the better to enable you to make this enquiry, 
permit me to subjoin an extract of my father's own account sent me of 
his birth and parentage. I wish you a safe and pleasant passage, and am with 
great truth Dr Doctor 

Your most obedt humble servant 

John Ross. 

This letter, enclosing an account of his descent by Rev. George Ross, was in 
due season presented by Dr. Gordon to Hugh Ross, merchant in London, head 



of the house of Shanchvick, who wrote as follows to David Ross, writer in 

Edinburgh : 

London, March 22d, 1764. 

Dear Sir. — ■ You'l see by the within Letters to Doctor Gordin from John 
Ross Esqr Counselor of Law at Philadelphia That this gentlemen's father 
was second son of David Ross of Balblair, I must referr you to the very full 
and distinct account he gives of himself and as Mr. John Ross son of George 
Ross Rector of Newcastle in Philadelphia is desirous of having the best 
Account possible of his Pedigree and descent; I desire that you'l get such 
from the best authoritys you can and have it properly attested and the gentle- 
man's connections as to my family as they will appear to be, as I shall be 
glad of every connection to a gentleman of Mr Ross's character. If you was 
to consult my brother Sandy those matters I do not presume to shine in 
equal to him and I believe it would afford him some pleasure. You'l tell 
my brother I wonder I do not hear from him. 

I am &ca 

Hugh Ross. 

Hugh Ross of Shandwick, writer of the above, some six months later, 
wrote to Hon. John Ross, counselor-at-law in Philadelphia, enclosing the 
family tree mentioned as being likely to have an important bearing on the 
Shandwick succession. The letter follows : 

Dr Sr 

Dr Gordon having delivered me yours and coppys of my worthy kinsman 
your deceased fay r ' s faithful detail of his and your descent I sent coppys to 
them in Ross-shire where I have not been for many years. Your uncle 
Andrew Ross of Balblair long since dead, (whom I knew) left an only son, 
Andrew Ross, Doctor of Medecine of Kingston of Jamaica, also dead without 
heirs, so that I think you must be the male representative of that house? 
And as I find your ho. of Balblair is from mine of Shandwick I hand you a 
ace* y r of herew 1 not inferior to any extant as your worthy fay r truly tells 
you. My eldest br died a bachelor you shall find me his heir as the his- 
toriographer of Scotland's deduction shows. A parchment whereof herewt, 
also Blazon of my coat armorial on parchmt witout any risk of cadency as 
my h° of Alan and Shandwick are 290 years from the Earl of Ross and Barnv 
of Rarichies and Bal : if you desire any further voucher and regular cadency 
it will be expensive from the Lyon King at Arms his Court Ed r but as you 
stand cadet of a decayed house of Balamuchy from me you may take what 
crest and mottoe you please ; my coat has a star or mullet in front of the 
Lyons. Balblair of your title was purch* by my br as it was part of his ho. 
originally. It remains yt. I assure you of the pleasure Dr Gordon's hon'ble 
accts of you gave me. Mrs Ross and two boys all wish good offices for you 
and yours, please to reive. Your commands for me at London shall meet 
w< reciprocal punctuality, being w l my little family's respects to yours. 

With great truth and esteem, 

Hugh Ross. 

London, St. Mary Axe, October 1st, 1764. 

The family tree mentioned here as having been sent to Hon. John Ross 
was undoubtedly a copy of the tree prepared by George Crawfurd, the his- 
toriographer of Scotland, in 1729, another copy of which was in possession 

Note. — The account of the Ross family given above by Hugh Ross in his letter to 
Hon. John Ross is supported by documents in the muniment room in Dunrobin Castle, 
Golspie, Sutherlandshire, Scotland, the seat of the Duke of Sutherland, as well as by 
the clear and comprehensive account prepared by Mr. Frai*cis Nevile- Reid, which 
appears elsewhere in this volume. No branch of the Ross family in Ametica, however, 
ever bore a mullet or any other mark of cadency. 

Shandwick Succession. 99 

of the attorneys interested in the matter of the Shandwick succession. Its 
value lay in the fact that the copy in Edinburgh showed that certain entries 
had been made in a handwriting different from the remainder of the instru- 
ment, and it was expected that the American copy, if found, would, by com- 
parison, show whether these entries were a later production than the tree 
itself. The Crawford tree, of which the American document was supposed to 
have been a copy, is as follows : 

A Geneologie of the Ancient Earls of Ross and of the male repre- 
sentative of this illustrious Family and its branches, and particu- 
larly of the Rosses of Shandwick. 

It is agreed on by all antiquaries that the Earldom of Ross is one of the 
most antient erections we have. Our history mentions — 

Macinsagart Comes Rossensis, in the reign of King William, that by his 
valour and conduct he defeated the rebellious Murrays and obliged them 
to submit to the king's mercy. He was succeeded by his son — 

Ferchard, Earl of Ross, whom our historians mention with great honour. 
In the reign of Alexander the Second he founded the Abbacy of Fern, in 
the County and Earldome of Ross and the Chanors of Tain; he died at Tayn 
the first day of February, 1257. He was succeeded by — 

Willielmus Comes de Ross, his son, of whom there is very honorable 
mention made in the Federa Angliae in the year 1258. He married Jean, 
daughter of William, Earl of Buchan, and had by her — 

William, his son and heir, which William, the second of that name, suc- 
ceeded his father in 1294, and is mentioned in the Federa and other authen- 
tick vouchers in the competition for the crown betwixt the Bruce and the 
Baliol. He married Matilda Bruce, daughter of Robert, Earl of Carrick, and 
sister to King Robert the Bruce, as by several original charters the author 
of this memorial has seen and perused, granted by the said King and Matilda, 
his sister, and to their heirs. By this noble Lady he had a son — 

Hugh, who was his successor, which Hugh adhered with great fidelity to 
King Robert the Second, and contributed not a little to fix him on the throne. 
He adhered with no less fidelity to his son. King David the Second, in 
whose service, and in that of his country, he lost his life at the battle of 
Halidon Hill, anno 1332. He left behind him two sons — 

William, his successor, and Hugh Ross of Rarichies and Balnagown, in 
whom the male line of this illustrious family, after the extinction of the 
dignity, came to be possessed. This Earl [Hugh] had also two daughters — 
Eupham, married, first, to John Randolph, Earl of Murray, &c. ; afterwards 
to Robert, the second of that name, King of Scotland and first of our Kings 
of the Stewartine Line ; and Jannet, the second daughter, was married to 
Sir Alexander Murray of Abercarny. as appears from the original contract, 
by way of indenture, which the author of this paper has seen. To Hugh, 
Earl of Ross, succeeded — 

William, his son, who, being a weak and easy man, was by the craft and 
cunning of Sir Walter Lessly, his son-in-law, circumvened out of his estate, 
that, by the laws and constitution of Scotland, should have gone, as all 
masculine feus had ever gone, to his brother, Hugh Ross of Balnagown. 
But Sir Walter Lessly, being in a high degree of favour, and having got the 
Earldom resigned in favour of his wife, there was no remedy, tho' the 
Earl himself supplicated the King again and again to have Sir Walter 
Lessly's right again tryed, but I see no regard was had to his remonstrance. 
The original remonstrance I have. Upon Earl William's death the honour 
did not descend to Eupham Ross, his eldest daughter, tho' she had the 
estate ; nor did her unkle Hugh assume it, because he had not the estate to 
support the honour of the family; nor was even Sir Walter Lesly Earl of 
Ross, but after his decease his wife, having the estate, she resigned in favor 
of Alexander Lesly. her son, who, upon that, was invested and de novo 
created Earl of Ross by King Robert the third, per cincturam gladii comitatus, 
according to the antient rite and form of creation. But he dieing without 

ioo Rossi a 11 a. 

issue male, the estate came to Eupham Lesly, his only daughter, who made 
it over to her tinkle, Sir John Stewart of" Coule, afterwards the famous 
Earl of Buchan. 

The antient Earls of Ross having thus lost their estate, the right of the 
representation in the male line is in the heir male of the antient and honour- 
able family of Balnagown, as hath been said, the first of whom was Hugh 
Ross, second son of Hugh, Earl of Ross, and brother and heir male to 
Earl William. He was succeeded by — 

William, the second laird of the house of Balnagown, who married 
. daughter to the Lord Livingstone, and had by her — 

William, the third of the family, who married Catherine, daughter of 
Paul MacTyre, heiress of Strathcarron, and had by her — 

Hugh, of Balnagown, his son and heir, who married Janet, daughter to 
the Earl of Sutherland, and had by her his son and heir [John] and William 
Ross of Little Allan, of whom the Rosses of Shandwick, to which branch 
we shall confine our deduction of the line of this antient and honourable 

John of Balnagown, who married Isabell, daughter of Torquil MacLeod 
of the Lewis., had — 

Alexander, his son and heir, which Alexander married Jean, daughter of 
Sir Alexander Sutherland of Duffus, and had — ■ 

Sir David, his son and heir, who married Helen, daughter to William. 
Earl Marishal, and had by her — 

Walter, his successor, and William, who was the root of the Rosses of 
Invercharron and its branch ; which Walter, Laird of Balnagown. married 
Mary, daughter of James Grant of Freuchie, Laird of Grant, and had — 

Alexander Ross of Balnagown, who married, first, Jean, daughter of 
George, Earl of Caithness, by whom he had George, his successor. He 
[Alexander] married, next, Margaret, daughter of MacKenzie, Laird of 
Kintail, by whom he had a son Nicolas, who was the first man of the House 
of Pitcalnie: he dyed in 1591. 

George Ross of Balnagown married Marjerie, daughter of Sir John Camp- 
bell of Calder, brother to the Earl of Argyle. by whom he had — 

David, his successor, and a daughter, married to the Laird Kintail. David, 
next Baron of Balnagown, married, first, Jean, daughter of John. Earl of 
Sutherland, and again, Anne, daughter to William, Earl of Tullibardin, 
ancestor to the Duke of Athol, by whom he had — 

David, the last Laird, who married the Earl of Murray's daughter, and. 
dying without issue, he conveyed his estate to Brigadier Charles Ross, son 
of George, Lord Ross, by his second wife. Lady Jean Ramsay, daughter of 
William, Earl of Dalhousie, who died Governour of Portsmouth, and Generall 
of all his Majesties British Horse, etc. 

The Branch of the House of Shandwick, regularly deducted from 
the Family of Balnagown. 

As we have observed in this deduction, the first of this branch of the 
house of Balnagown was William Ross of Little Allan, second son of Hugh 
Ross, second of that name and the third Laird of Balnagown, by Janet, his 
wife, daughter of William, Earl of Sutherland. This gentleman, William 
Ross of Little Allan, married, first, a niece of the great MacDonald, John. 
Lord of the Isles, and Earl of Ross, but whether by his brother Hugh of 
Slate or of McAlestine of Lochalsh, predecessors to the MacDonalds of 
Glengarrie, is not so clear. By this lady, his first wife, he had Alexander 
and — 

Walter Ross of Shandwick, who married six times, but presumitur by his 
first. Lady Janet, daughter of Walter Tulloch of Bonnieston, he had — 

David Ross of Shandwick, his eldest son and heir, who married 

Clunes of Milderge, by whom he had two sons — 

Andrew, his successor, and Mr. Robert Ross, parson of Allness, whose son, 
William Ross, came to be Laird of Shandwick. This William, so succeeding 
to the estate of Shandwick, married Margaret Campbell, daughter of Colin 
Campbell of Dellny, by whom he had issue — 

Shandwick Succession. 101 

Andrew Ross of Shandwick, his son and heir, who married Isabell, daugh- 
ter of William Ross of Invercharron, a branch of the antient family of 
Balnagovvn, by whom he had — 

Andrew Ross of Shandwick, his son and heir, who married Christian, 
daughter of William Ross of Ardgay, by whom he had issue — 

Mr. William Ross, apparent of Shandwick, in Edinburgh. 

Hugh Ross, his second son, factor and merchant at Gothenburg, in Sweden. 

* Andrew Ross, his third son. 
Alexander Ross, his fourth son. 

* David Ross, his fifth son. 
Walter, sixth. 

Charles, seventh. 

Robert, eighth. 

Farquhar, ninth, and the tenth born Doctor a. 7 mo. aft. birth. 

The armorial bearings of this antient family is the same with the old 
Earls of Ross, vizt. : Argent three lions rampant gules, with a brotherly 
cognisance as a younger son of the House of Balnagown, the heir male ant 
representative of the antient Earls of Ross. 

This account of the family of Ross of Shandwick, as branched in this 
deduction from the antient Earls of Ross, was drawn from antient and 
modern charters and other authentic documents by me. 

(Signed) George Craufurd. 

Edinburgh. 10th February, 1729. 


Edward Armstrong, Esq., of Philadelphia, wrote to General Meredith 
Read, under date of August 12, 1873, as follows, concerning the disputed 
Shandwick succession : 

" I have been applied to by Messrs. Stuart and Cheyne a respectable law 
firm of No. 56 Frederick Street, Edinburgh, to endeavor to recover a 
genealogical tree of the Ross family which I understand was many years ago 
sent out from Scotland to the Rev. Mr. Ross, Rector of Emmanuel Church, 
Newcastle, Delaware, the father of John Ross, who was a distinguished 

" It appears that a trial is about to take place to establish the question of 
succession in Scotland, and the controversy, I am informed by Messrs. Stuart 
and Cheyne, has no sort of relation to the interests of the Ross family of 
Newcastle, Delaware. I wrote to the Rev. C. Spence, the present Rector of 
Emmanuel Church, who I understand applied to your cousin, the author of 
the life of George Read, without success, and to my great regret, for many 
reasons the latter shortly after died, for I highly esteemed and respected him. 

" I then wrote to your father, who kindly suggested that Messrs. Stuart 
and Cheyne might derive some information about the tree if they wrote to 
you, and that you had prepared a biography of John Ross. 

" Should they write to you, you would confer a personal favour if you 
would give them such information as you may possess as to the tree. 

" You have had a life of startling experiences since I saw you, and you 
may be assured that it afforded me great satisfaction to learn that you had 
escaped the terrible perils of the siege." 

*Note. — The Christian names Andrew and David, and those of all the sons after 
David, are in a different handwriting from the rest of the tree, and it was this fact 
which gave rise to the contest for the estate of Shandwick. decided in 1876. 

102 Rossi an a. 

Messrs. Stuart and Cheyne to General Meredith Read. 

Upon the receipt of this letter. General Meredith Read wrote to Messrs. 
Stuart & Cheyne. offering to give any information or assistance in his power, 
and received the following reply under date of August 29, 1873: 

" Sir. — We were about writing to you in consequence of a letter from 
Mr. Armstrong of Philadelphia, when we received this morning yours of the 
27th, by which we are obliged. 

" What we are in search of is a genealogical tree of a family of Ross of 
Shandwick in this country, which was sent by a member of that family 
Mr. Hugh Ross, merchant in London, to his relative Mr. John Ross, 
counsellor at law in Philadelphia, in 1764, and which, if it could be found, 
would throw light upon the question of succession in which we are engaged. 

" We understand from Mr. Armstrong that you prepared a sketch of the 
life of Mr. John Ross. Possibly therefore his family papers may have come 
into your hands, or you may be able to direct us to some quarter where such 
may be found. It would be very obliging, if you have the means of doing so, 
if you would enable us to trace the paper in question." 

John Whitefoord MacKenzie to General Meredith Read. 

General Meredith Read, having written to John Whitefoord MacKenzie, 
the well-known antiquary and book collector, of 16 Royal Circus, Edinburgh, 
concerning the Rosses of Balblair, incidentally mentioned the Shandwick 
matter, and in his reply, dated September 22, 1873, that gentleman said : 

" The estate you allude to the succession of which is at present in dispute, 
is that of Shandwick in Ross-shire, which belonged to an old lady Miss 
Cockburn Ross, who was insane for long before her death. 

" My friend, old Mr. Ross of Kerse, always held that his family would 
succeed, but since the old lady's death it has been found that this is a mistake, 
and that they have retired from the competition. I have been told that a 
Mr. Reid is thought by some to have the best claim, but I am ignorant of the 
grounds on which it rests. I have never seen him or his case, although the 
gentleman who was guardian to the old lady (and who, I think, was inclined 
to believe that he himself had some claim ) , told me he had heard it stated 
that I considered Mr. Reid's case a good one." 

R. R. Stodart, Esq., to General Meredith Read. 

Pursuing his investigation. General Meredith Read wrote to R. R. Stodart, 
Esq., of the Lyon Office, Edinburgh, to inquire about the standing of Messrs. 
Stuart and Cheyne, and also asking for any additional information he might 
possess concerning the merits of the Shandwick dispute. To this letter, 
under date of October 2, 1873, he received the following reply : 

" I have the most favourable accounts of the position of Messrs. Stuart and 
Cheyne as a house and as to the character of the individual members of the 
firm. I called yesterday afternoon at their office, which is within hve minutes 
walk of mine. Mr. Stuart was out, but I saw Mr. Cheyne. The one docu- 
ment of which they are very desirous of having inspection is a pedigree sent 
by one of the Shandwick Rosses to one of your family in 1764. It appears 
tbat the seniority of two or three brothers is a point of vital importance in 
the Shandwick case, and this contemporary holograph by a member of the 
family would be of great value. L T nder these circumstances, I think you might 
freely allow the pedigree if in existence to be produced or at least an 
authenticated copy of it. Of course the claimant would pay ah expenses that 
might be incurred." 

Shandwick Succession. 103 

Edward Armstrong, Esore., to General Meredith Read. 

Mr. Armstrong again wrote to General Meredith Read on the 18th October, 
1873, as follows (from Philadelphia) : 

" I am extremely obliged for your kind promise to write to Messrs. Stuart 
and Cheyne. I have not however been able to recover the missing genea- 
logical tree of the Ross family sent out to this country to Mr. Ross, upon the 
possession of which these gentlemen place so much stress. I doubt if it is 
now in existence. They sent me a copy of the original in which the descent 
from the Earls of Ross was established. * * * I often thought of you my 
dear friend through all that dreadful siege, and gloried in your pluck and 

Messrs. Stuart and Cheyne to General Meredith Read. 
Messrs. Stuart and Cheyne, writing from 56 Frederick street, Edinburgh, 
to General Meredith Read, on the 29th October, 1873, say : 

" We are obliged by your favour of the 21st and for your readiness to aid 
us in our search for the document wanted. We hope the result may be 
successful. We are loath to infringe on your valuable time, but the discovery 
of this document would go a long way to settle, if not to absolutely terminate, 
the disputed point of a valuable succession, the estate being worth between 
two and three thousand pounds a year. 

" We are sorry that we are not in possession of any letters written by 
Mr. John Ross of Philadelphia, though we have seen one in which he gives 
an account of himself and his family. We will by and bye get access to 
this and any others, if there be others in existence, and when we do so we 
will have pleasure in furnishing you with copies or if possible in procuring 
originals for you. Meantime, this will serve to explain why we are unable 
at present to comply with your request." 

Edward Armstrong, Esqre., to General Meredith Read. 

Mr. Armstrong again writes from Philadelphia to General Meredith Read, 
on November 5th, 1873, as follows : 

" I was indeed much gratified yesterday in receiving a letter from Messrs. 
Stuart and Cheyne of Edinburgh, apprising me that they had opened a 
correspondence with you in regard to the recovery of the Ross genealogical 
tree, and that you intended to fall upon some plan by which the examination 
of your papers in New York might be made. I replied that I would offer 
my services to you to visit New York and to assist in the matter, if I could 
afford any help. 

" I am truly obliged to your father for the suggestion that I should write 
to you, and I perceive by the contents of the letter of Messrs. Stuart and 
Cheyne that they are still more inclined to regard me as a person who has it 
in his power to render valuable service. 

" I am delighted with the reflection that one whose friendship I so much 
value (I mean yourself) has done such good service to his country and is 
in a position to render yet perhaps greater services to bring additional credit 
upon the American name." 

R. R. Stodart, Esore., to General Meredith Read. 

On the 2nd February, 1874, Mr. Stodart writes to General Meredith Read, 
from Edinburgh, as follows : 

" Mr. Hugh Ross's 1 letter in 1764 to Mr. John Ross of Philadelphia, is of 
real value as showing at that date what was believed to be the descent of 

lMr, Hugh Ross's father-in-law was Alexander Ross, of Daan House, near Balblair, 
Ross-shire. He was a writer to the Signet in Edinburgh, admitted 171S, and knew 
thoroughly the origin of the Rosses of Balblair. 

104 Rossiana. 

Messrs. Stuart and Cheyne to General Meredith Read. 

Messrs. Stuart and Cheyne write to General Meredith Read on the 23rd 

May, 1874, as follows: 

" We have accounts of the death of Mr. Armstrong of Philadelphia on the 
25th February, before, of course, your letter of instructions in regard to 
making the search for the copy tree of the house of Shandwick could have 
reached him. It is unfortunate, as doubtless he could more easily have under- 
taken the search than anyone else from his previous knowledge of what was 
wanted. Is there anyone else to whom you could entrust the matter ? It is 
of course important that we should ascertain as soon as possible whether the 
copy is in existence or not." 

General' Meredith Read to Messrs. Stuart and Cheyne. 
On the 22nd July, 1874, General Meredith Read writes to Messrs. Stuart 
and Cheyne as follows : 

" I shall leave town on Wednesday of next week with my family for the 
purpose of spending two months in the United States. If you will, before 
that date, forward to me here another copy of the Ross pedigree, — for I 
cannot find for the moment the one you sent me, — I will endeavor to trace 
the original while I am in America. 

" You promised to procure for me the letters of the Hon. John Ross, my 
great grand uncle, — if you succeeded in obtaining the originals. If you 
cannot send the originals, send the copies as they will be of the greatest 
service in helping me to trace the missing document." 

Messrs. Stuart and Cheyne to General Meredith Read. 

" 56 Frederick Street, Edinburgh, 
" 25th July, 1S74. 

" Dear Sir. — We are favoured with yours of 22nd and are much obliged 
by your offer to make search for the missing pedigree of Ross of Shandwick 
on your visit to the United States. We send you, as requested, copy of 
the document and of the letter from Mr Hugh Ross of London to Mr John 
Ross of Philadelphia sending it. We are sorry we cannot send you either 
originals or copies of any letters of Mr John Ross. The one we formerly 
mentioned as extant is in possession at present of a party here who is from 
home. We sent today to see if his clerk could find it, but he thinks the 
party must have it away with him. He has gone to the country to examine 
witnesses in this matter and has taken a number of documents and probably 
the one referred to among them. We shall send you a copy as soon as we 
can get it. What will be your address in the States? 

" We hope your kind search may be successful in bringing the document 
to light, and will be glad to hear the result at your earliest convenience. 

" We are, Dear Sir, 

" Yours faithfully, 

" Stuart and Cheyne. 
" General J. Meredith Read 

" 37 Avenue d'Antin, Champs Elysees, Paris." 

Messrs. Stuart and Cheyne to General Meredith Read. 

Messrs. Stuart and Cheyne write to General Meredith Read from Edin- 
burgh on the 27th August, 1874, as follows : 

" We have now procured and enclose a copy of the letter from the Hon. 
John Ross of Philadelphia, of one to him from his father, and of one from 
the relative of the latter, Mr Hugh Ross of London, to Mr David Ross of 
Edinburgh. We are sorry that we h^ve been unable to send you this sooner, 

Shandwick Succession. 105 

but the party in whose custody the old copy was from which we have 
transcribed the enclosed, only returned to town recently and until his 
return we could not get access to it. The originals of the letter are not 
extant, at least they have no-where come to light, and what we have 
transcribed from is a copy of the three letters in a continuous paper, but 
evidently very old. As we formerly explained to you, we cannot send you 
this old copy at present, as it is required as evidence in the case we have in 
hand, in order to aid in authenticating the copy tree you were kindly search- 
ing for, if this be found. On the case being completed, however, you may 
rely on our using every endeavor to get the custodian of it to give it up, 
and send it on to you, and have little doubt we will get it for that purpose. 
We have never found any letters from or relating to the Hon. John Ross ; 
but if we do so, and if there are any among the documents we are collecting 
we are sure to fall in with them, we shall have much pleasure in endeavoring 
to secure them for you. We shall be glad to hear from you as to the result 
of your search when completed." 

Messrs. Stuart and Cheyne to General Meredith Read. 

Messrs. Stuart and Cheyne write to General Meredith Read on the 18th 
October, 1874, as follows : 

" We are obliged by your favour of the 14th ult., which the absence of 
the party taking charge of the matter has prevented our earlier replying to 
We have since had a call from your friend Mr Stodart (if we recollect 
the name aright) who has explained to us what you state about your great 
uncle's papers being stored in New York. 

" Your great uncle's family were in no way concerned with the property, 
although related to the family to whom it belonged, and what we are at 
present in search of is a document which we know, from evidence in our 
possession was sent to him (the Hon. John Ross) by one of the Rosses of 
Shandwick, the name of the property in question. The accompanying 
memorandum will explain matters to you, and we need not therefore repeat 
ourselves here, but refer you to that memorandum. When we add that the 
point on which the question of succession turns is the names of the third 
and fifth sons of Andrew Ross, which you will find are blank in the copy 
of the tree quoted in the memorandum, and that the strong probability is 
that in the copy of that tree sent to Mr John Ross by Hugh the second son 
of the same Andrew, the names of the sons would all be inserted, you will 
see the very great importance of discovering if possible that copy. We think 
therefore that if there be no one in New York to whom you can confide the 
search among the Hon. John Ross's papers, it will be well worth the cost 
of having the boxes containing them sent over either to yourself in Paris, 
or here, where you could perhaps come and superintend the search. We will 
of course bear the expense of their transmission, and, if necessary, of your 
journey here, or, if you could get it done, of a search among the papers 
in New York. 

" We are assuming that Mr. John Ross your great uncle is the person to 
whom the document in question was sent. Some further correspondence 
between the latter and Mr. Hugh Ross which we have found reveal the fact 
that he was Counsellor at Law, and son of Mr. George Ross, clergyman at 
New Castle in America. 

" You asked if the Cockburn Rosses were descendants of Admiral Ross by 
Miss Cockburn. We have to answer, No ; but that a Miss Ross, one of the 
Shandwick family, married a Mr Cockburn, who, on his wife's succeeding 
to the estate, had to take the name of Ross — Cockburn Ross thus becoming 
the name of their descendants. Owing to the entire failure of the Cockburn 
Ross family, the estate now reverts to the descendants of one or other of 
the sons of Andrew Ross before referred to. As the trial of the case may 
be pushed on by some of the parties interested, we will esteem it a great 
favour if you can put matters in train for access being had to Mr John 
Ross's papers as soon as possible." 

io6 Rossiana. 


General Meredith Read during his visit to the United States in 1874 
searched in vain among the family papers for the Ross genealogical tree, 
which had been sent over to the Hon. John Ross in 1764, by Mr. Hugh Ross 
of London. After a thorough search, in the course of which he applied for 
information to Miss M. E. Ross of Philadelphia, in whose hands he found 
the John Ross family Bible, and the silver alluded to in his letter to 
Messrs. Stuart and Cheyne. of the 14th December, 1874 (see, post). General 
Meredith Read had recourse to the family of Plumstead, which was related 
to his own family through the McCall family of Philadelphia. The Plum- 
steads were originally established in the county of Norfolk and received 
a grant of arms in the 15th year of Elizabeth. Clement Plumstead was 
Mayor of the city of Philadelphia in 1723: His grandson, William Plumstead, 
also a wealthy man was three times Mayor of Philadelphia, in 1750, 1754 and 
1755. He married his second wife, at Christ Church, September 27th, 1753, 
viz. : Mary, daughter of George McCall, Esqre., of Philadelphia, by his wife 
Anne, daughter of Jasper Yeates. an early councillor. His son George, by 
his second wife, born May 3rd, 1765, died 5th April, 1805, married 3rd Decem- 
ber, 1795, Anna Helena Amelia Ross, daughter of John Ross of Philadelphia, 
merchant, a native of Tain, Ross-shire, by his wife Clementina, daughter of 
Captain Charles Cruickshank, of the Royal Army. 

General Meredith Read accordingly addressed his inquiries to Miss 
Clementina Ross Plumstead, descendant, who very kindly made a search 
among her family papers and gave to him the following statement : 

" Our grandfather, John Ross, merchant of Philadelphia, was born in 
Tain in the county of Ross. Scotland. His father Murdoch Ross, merchant 
in Tain, married Christian Simson in Tain, on the 29th December. 1724, and 
our grandfather was one of ten children, several of whom died in infancy. 
But little has come to us of his life before his arrival in this country. He 
was a merchant in Perth, Scotland, Tor a year or two, from whence he came 
to Philadelphia, and soon after married Clementina Cruickshank, daughter of 
Captain Charles Cruickshank, of the British Army, at Clinton Hall, after- 
wards called by him The Grange Farm. A paper among the family effects 
is entitled ' A Geneologie of Earles of Ross. The Antient Earles of Ross- 
shire in North Britain. Procured from Edinburgh, Anno 1764, by John 
Ross, late of Ross-shire, in Scotland, and a native of that place which 
county he left in 1763 : now a merchant and resident in the city of 
Philadelphia.' " 

The existence of this second Ross family tree was a curious coincidence. 
The Craufurd tree for which General Read was searching was sent, as 
stated, by Hugh Ross in London to Hon. John Ross, counselor-at-law in 
Philadelphia, in 1764. The second tree, in possession of the Plumstead fam- 
ily, was also a Craufurd tree, but had been sent by some one in Edinburgh 
to John Ross, merchant in Philadelphia, the same year (1764), who was in 
no wise related to Hon. John Ross. It apparently is a copy of the greater 
portion of the first tree, but is not brought down to as late a period as is 
the case with the former. 

Shandwick Succession. 107 

Miss Plumstead to General Meredith Read. 

Philadelphia, November 9, 1874. 

•General Meredith Read, Minister of the United States to Greece, Fifth 
Avenue Hotel, New York: 

My Dear Sir.— Agreeably to your request I send you the copy of our family 
paper together with the extract from the family Bible, in looking over the old 
letters, there was one of my grandfather's General Ross's own writing which 
corresponds with that on the outside of the record; you will remember asking 
me if anyone could prove his handwriting. 

Our letters are merely family affairs of no interest except to relations, they 
are dated from Tain, Elgin, and Aberdeen but few were written in the present 
century. I cannot refrain from indulging a hope that something to our 
advantage may arise in the investigation. What gives me the hope is what 
"was communicated to us by one of our Scotch relations Mr. Alexander Gordon 
that one of the Ross family was a rich bachelor and that his nearest heirs were 
in America. 

I shall be glad to know that these papers have been safely received and are 
satisfactory. With kind regards believe me respectfully. 

[Signed] Clementina Ross Plumstead. 

Miss Plumstead to General Meredith Read. 

The documents were accompanied by the following letter addressed to 
General Meredith Read by Miss Plumstead : 

" Philadelphia, 1122 Girard Street, 

" November 14th, 1874. 

"My Dear Sir. — Your telegram was received. Not quite understanding, 
I asked for further information. Your letter, however, explains. 

" The memorandum on the back [of the genealogy] was copied in the 
paper sent, in which John Ross merchant was named; also the date 1764 on 
the back, but not under the name of George Crawford. Fearful of accident. 
I send duplicate with handwriting sworn to : also duplicate of the marriages 
of our great grandfather and grandfather, together with my mother's mar- 
riages, all of which I have sworn to. I regret that my ignorance of business 
has given you trouble, particularly as your time must be fully taken up on the 
eve of your departure from this country. 

" I hope I have given you what is necessary in the enclosed papers. Accept 
my thanks and warmest wishes for a safe voyage and believe me your's truly 

" Clementina Ross Plumstead." 

" My sister desires her kind regards as well as myself, and Mr. H. P. Muir- 
Jicad has kindly promised to deliver this package this evening." 

Enclosed in this letter was the following family record copied by Miss 
Plumstead from the Ross family Bible : 

Murdoch Ross, merchant in Tain, and Christian Simson were married 
December 29th, 1724, and had issue — 
Christian, born 5th June. 1726. 
Barbra, born 3d May, 1727. 

* John, born 29th January, 1729; died 8th April, 1800. 
Jean, born 22d January, 1731. 
Christian, born 8th March, 1733. 
Arthur, born 15th September, 1735. 
Peggy, born 26th June, 1736. 
Christian, born 12th November, 1737. 
David, born 17th December, 1738. 

*At Clifton Hall, on the 8th December, 176S, John Ross [merchant in Philadelphia] 
was married to Clementina Cruickshank, daughter of Captain Charles Cruickshank — 

108 Rossi a ii a. 

Ann, born 21st October, 1742. 

Clementina was born November 26, 1769; died January 12, 1848. 

Margaret was born April 25, 1771. 

Charles was born October 5, 1772; died, 1818. 

Jean was born November 23, 1773 ; died, 1858. 

Mary was born August 3, 1775 ; died, 1837. 

Anna Helena Amelia was born November 26, 1776; died, 1848. 

Mr. Ross died, 1800. 

Mrs. Ross died, 1828. 

The Plumstead Pedigree. 

The Ross pedigree in possession of the Plumstead family, a certified copy 
of which was sent to General Read by Miss Plumstead, was as follows, and 
is printed here for comparison with the preceding one: 

A Geneologie of the Antient Earles of Rosse and of the male 
representative of that Illustrious family and its Branch 1st 

It is agreed on by all antiquaries that the Earldom of Rosse is one of the 
most antient Erections we have ; our historians mention : 

1st — Macinsagart Comes Rossensis in the Reigne of King William, that 
by his valour & conduct he defeat the reblius Murrays & obliged them to 
submit to the King's mercy ; he was succeeded by 

2d — Farchard, Earl of Rosse, his son, whom our historians mention with 
great honour; in the reign of King Alexander the 2nd he founded the 
Abbacy of Fearn in the County & Earldom of Ross and the Channers of 
Tain; he dyed at Tain, February the first, 1257; he was succeeded by his 
son William. 

3d — ■ Willielmus Comes Rossensis, quohom very honourable mention in the 
Federa Anglise; in the year 1258 he married Jean, daughter of William, Earl 
of Ruchan, & had by her 

4th — William, the 2nd of that name, who succeeded his father in 1294 and 
is mentioned in the Foedera and other authenticall vouchers in the competition 
for the Crown Betwixt the Bruce and the Baliol ; he married Matilda, sister 
to King Robert the Bruce, as by several original charters the author of this- 
memorial has seen and perused, granted by the said King & Matilda his sister 
and to their heirs ; by this great lady he had a son 

5th — Hugh, who was his successor, who adhered with great fidelity to 
King Robert 2nd, and contributed not a little to fix him on the throne ; he 
adhered with no less fidelity to his son. King David the 2nd, in whose 
service and that of his country he lost his life at the battle of Halidon Hill, 


6th — He left behind him 2 sons, William, his successor, and Hugh Ross 
of Rarichies, in whom the male line of this Illustrious family, after the 
extinction of the dignity, came to be preserved ; that Earl had also two 
daughters, Euphemia, maryed first to Randolph, Earl of Morey & after to 
Robert the third of that name King of Scotland and first of the Stewarts, and 
Janet, the second daughter, was maryed to Sir Alexr. Murray of Abercairney, 
as appears from the original contract by way of Indenture, which the author 
has seen. 

7th — Hugh, Earl of Rosse, succeeded 

8th — William, his son, who, being a weak, easy man, was, by the craft 
& cunning of Sir Walter Leslie, his son-in-law, circumveened out of his 
estate, that by the Laws and Constitution of Scotland, should have gone, 
as all masculine feus had ever gone, to his brother, Hugh, but Sir Walter 
Leslie, being in a high degree of favour, and having got the Earldom resigned 
in favour of his wife, there was no remedy, tho' the Earl himself suplicated 
the King often to have Sir Walter's right again tryed, but I see no regard 
was had to his remonstrance ; the original remonstrance I have. 

Upon Earl William's death the honour did not descend to Euphemia, 
Rosses eldest daughter tho' she had the estate, nor did her Uncle Hugh 
assume it because he had not the estate to support the honour of the family. 

Shandwick Succession. 109 

nor was Sir Walter Earl of Ross, but after his decease, his wife having 
the estate, she resigned in favor of Alexander Leslie, her son, who upon 
that was invested and de novo created Earl of Ross by Robert the 3d, per 
cincturam Glady commitatis, according to the antient rite and forme of 
creation ; but he, dying without issue male, the estate came to Euphemia 
Leslie, who made it over to her uncle, Sir John Stewart of Coule, afterward 
the famous Earl of Buchan. 

The antient Earles of Ross having thus lost their estate, the right of the 
representation in the male line is in the heir male of the antient and honour- 
able family of Balnagown, as hath been said, the first of whom was Hugh 
Ross, brother-in-law to the King, 2nd son to Hugh, Earl of Ross & 
Brother and heir male to William, Earle of Ross ; said Hugh mary'd the 
heiress of Balnagown and was succeeded by 

2nd — William the second Baron of Balnagown, who maryed the Lord 
Livingstone's daughter, and had by her 

3d — William of that family, who maryed Paul Mactyre's daughter, by 
whom he got the lands & vast tracts of Strathcarron, Strathsikell & Tostray ; 
she bore him 

Hugh Ross, the 4th of Balnagown, who maryed the Earl of Sutherland's 
daughter, & had by her his son and heir, Hugh, & William Ross of Little 
Allan, of whom the Rosses of Shandwick, to which branch we shall confine 
our deduction of this antient honourable family; he maryed a niece of the 
great Macdonald, King of the Isles ; by this lady he had Alexr. & Donald 
Ross, the 1st of Shandwick, eldest cadet of the male line now extant of the 
Rosses, maryed six times & by his first wife, dau'r. to Tulloch of Bonytown, 
he had his son and heir, 

David Ross of Shandwick, who maryed Jean Clunes, daughter to Milderg, 
whose son, succeeding, was called Robert the Waster, whose son, 

Mr. William Ross of Shandwick, maryed Eliza Campbell, daughter to 
William Campbell of Delnies, who had issue, 

Andrew, who maryed Isabel Ross, daughter to William Ross of Inver- 
charron. by whom he had 

Andrew, who maryed Christian Ross, daughter of Ross of Ardgay, by 
whom he had ten sons and seven daughters. 

William, the eldest, dying a bachelor, he is represented by his second 
brother, Hugh Ross, now of Shandwick, merchant in London, who maryed 
Eliza Ross, only daughter to Alexr. Ross of Little Daan, late solicitor-at-law 
at London, by whom he had three sons and two daughters — Hugh, Alexander 
and Andrew William. 

The armorial bearings of this family is the same with the old Earles of 
Rosse, viz. : Argent three lyons rampant gules ; motto, nobilis est ira leonis. 

This acct. as branched from the antient Earles of Ross was drawn from 
antient and modern charters and other authentic documents by me. 

(Signed) George Crawfurd, 

Historiographer of Scotland. 

General Meredith Read to Messrs. Stuart and Cheyne. 
Upon receipt of a copy of the Plumstead pedigree, General Read, under 
date of December 14, 1874, wrote as follows to Messrs. Stuart and Cheyne, 
giving an account of his search and the discovery of the second family 
tree : 

" During my recent visit to America, a copy of the Ross pedigree, together 
with the copies of the letters of Hugh Ross Esqre to the Hon. John Ross of 
Philadelphia, 1764, were stolen. Will you do me the favour to send me 
duplicates as speedily as possible, as I leave Paris for Athens in a few days. 
The autograph of the Rev. George Ross, a copy of which you found among 
the old Ross papers, and which you sent to me, and of which I desired 
another copy was in the possession of my family and was printed in the life 
of my great grandfather. Chief Justice George Read, a Signer of the 
Declaration of Independence and a Framer and Signer of the Constitution 

no Rossiana. 

of the United States. I was unable to find in America the Pedigree sent by 
Hugh Ross. Esqre., to his relative the Hon. John Ross, but I discovered 
various pieces of family silver of ancient date and in the family Bible of the 
Hon. John Ross was the book plate of his son in law. Captain Henry 
Gurney, of the British Army, paly of six, or and azure : crest, a griffin's 
head erased or : with the arms of Ross on an escutcheon of pretence, and 
one of the Ross mottoes, "Span successus alit." This Bible was published 
by John Basket at Oxford in 1727. and the following entries are contained 
in it : 

Be it remembered that John Ross, Esquire, of Philadelphia, Counsellor 
at Law, son of the Rev. George Ross, Rector of the Church at New Castle 
on Delaware, was solemnly married to Mrs Elizabeth Morgan of Philadel- 
phia, eldest daughter of Mr Benjamin Morgan of Philadelphia, gentleman, 
on the 18th day of December. A. D. 1735 by the Rev. Mr Archibald Cum- 
mings. Commissary and Rector of Christ Church, in Philadelphia. 

The following inscriptions are in the handwriting of Mrs Ross : 

Elizabeth Ross was born 2nd May, 1740 and died 13th August, 1741. 

Margaret Ross was born 25th August, 1747, and died 20th Aug. 1766. 

Catharine Ross, born 21st July, 1748; died 27th August, 1782. 

She married the above named Henry Gurney, Esquire. 

I moreover found a copy or duplicate of the Ross Pedigree in the hand- 
writing and under the signature doubtless of George Crawford, Historiog- 
rapher of Scotland, which was procured from Scotland about the same time, 
1763-4, by another person of the name of Ross. While this Pedigree in some 
respects differs from the copy of the one you forwarded to me, it is 
undoubtedly authentic. I recovered it after a long and arduous search 
after the other copy, which I carried out in different states. I desire to know 
what the case in hand is. You will greatly oblige me by giving me an exact 
idea of the question under discussion, and who are the parties to the same, 
and their claims. 

Messrs. Stuart and Cheyne to General Read. 
Messrs. Stuart and Cheyne, following the receipt of General Read's letter 
of the 14th, wrote him as follows, under date of December 17, 1874. in which 
they give full particulars of the case in relation to the Shandwick succession : 

" We are favoured by yours of the 14th, and are very glad to hear that you 
have been able to recover the copy you mention of Crauford's Tree. We 
think, however, it must be the one sent by Mr. Hugh Ross to the Hon. John 
Ross, unless you have come upon any evidence showing it to have come 
from some other quarter. If you have, we will be glad to know from whom 
it seems to have come, or to whom sent, as the sender may also have been 
one of the members or relatives of the Shandwick Family whom we may be 
able to trace. 

" We send you as requested herewith another copy of the Tree as we have 
it and of the biographical letter you wish. It is quite possible that the copy 
of the tree we have may differ in some particulars from that you have found 
even though that be the one sent by Mr. Hugh Ross, as we are not certain 
as to the correctness of our copy and we quite expect that the one sent to 
America will be the more authentic of the two. It was on this account that 
we were anxious to recover it. 

" The case is shortly this. The succession to the estate of Shandwick in 
this country, which has been lately opened by the death of the last proprietor, 
depends on the order of seniority of the sons of the last Andrew Ross of 
Shandwick. In the copy of the tree we have, the Christian names of some 
of these sons have been inserted in a different hand-writing from the rest 
of the document, and there is nothing to show by what authority this was 
done, or whether the order thus shown is correct. Owing to the date when 

Note. — The estate of Shandwick had been sold by the family and afterwards 
repurchased by one of the latter's descendants who had made a fortune in India, and 
on this account the American house was in no wise concerned in it — that is, as claimants. 

Shandwick Succession. 1 1 1 

the copy was sent to America, we are lead to believe that if the names of the 
sons of Andrew are mentioned in it, they will be in correct order, and this, 
therefore, is the point of importance in reference to that copy. One of the 
claimants to the estate is a client of ours, Mr. Monro Ross, merchant in 
London, descended from Hugh Ross, a son of the said Andrew. Another 
claimant, is a Captain Reid, a descendant of Andrew Ross, another son of 
said Andrew ; and other claimants profess to be descended from George and 
Charles also sons of said Andrew. The estate has hitherto been in the 
possession of the descendants of David (another son of said Andrew) but 
these being now all extinct, it reverts to the descendants of one or other of 
David's brothers, the question to which of them, being as we have already 
said dependent upon the order of seniority of these brothers. We may men- 
tion that we have long been the family solicitors and that the absence of birth 
registers at that period in Scotland makes the evidence of the copies of the 
Tree of the more importance. 

" We will be greatly obliged if you will favour us at your earliest possible 
convenience with a copy of the Tree you have found, and which we presume 
you have with you, that we may see in what respects it differs from that 
we have. We should also like to have copies of any letters or writings that 
show by whom or to whom the Tree was sent and the date when it was sent 
or received. The originals will have to be recovered under order of our 
Supreme Court, so as to be preserved judicially, and thus rendered patent 
to all claimants, and until we can get such order, which we will apply for so 
soon as we know the contents of the Tree, we will be obliged by your taking 
great care that the originals meet with no mishap. We would suggest, with 
this view, and also as the order of Court will be more easily executed in 
Paris than in Athens, that on your leaving Paris you should deposit the 
documents in some secure place, say at the American or British Embassy or 
with Rothchilds Bank, where they may be got by the party who may be 
authorized by the Court to take possession of them. We expect our client 
Mr. William Monroe Ross to be in Paris in a day or two and are writing to 
him to his address there Hotel du Louvre to call upon you, if you have not 
left before his arrival. We will be pleased if he is fortunate enough to find 

" We were obliged for the papers you sent us and were well pleased to 
see the appreciation in which you are held by your countrymen, though their 
well deserved recognition of your services must have been damped by the 
soon after lamented death of your father." 

Messrs. Stuart and Cheyne to General Meredith Read, United States 
Ministers to Greece. Dated 30TH January, 1875. 

We wrote to you on the 17th ult. to the care of Messrs. Munroe and Com- 
pany, Paris, and hope our letters reached you safely. 

It will be a very great favour if you will kindly give us an early reply, as a 
trial of the succession case in which our client is interested is coming on 
and if the tree discovered by you is to be of any use in the matter we would 
require to have its contents at once. 

Hoping you will excuse our pressing the matter on your immediate atten- 
tion, we remain, dear Sir, 

Yours faithfully, 

Stuart and Cheyne. 

General Meredith Read to Messrs. Stuart and Cheyne. 

In reply General Meredith Read wrote the following letter to Messrs. 
Stuart and Cheyne : 

Legation of the United States, Athens, 

February 12th, 1875. 

Gentlemen. — Your brief note of the 30th January reached me yesterday. 
I had the pleasure of seeing Mr. Ross in Paris [Mr. William Monro Ross, 
of Stone Castle, Stone, West Dartford, Kent, England]. In fact he spent an 

ii2 Rossiana. 

evening with me by invitation. I showed him a sworn copy of the tree which 
I discovered in America. 

He was of opinion that it did not come down to a sufficiently late date to 
be of use. He thought, however, that it might perhaps be as well to send it 
to you and he said that he would ask you to send me a copy of another 
Pedigree which yon possess which giz'cs many more details than the one 
you sent me. 1 I have been waiting for this pedigree, but from your letter I 
infer that Mr. Ross has not yet informed you that he met me in Paris. This 
seems somewhat strange, as I treated Mr. Ross with great courtesy and gave 
him all the information in my power. I believe, however, that the oversight, 
on his part was not intentional and in accordance with your request I now 
enclose a sworn copy of the Tree which I discovered in the hands of 
Miss Clementina Ross Plumstead. You will observe on the last sheet that 
the above written document is endorsed as follows, viz. : 

" Genealogy of the Earles of Ross, the antient Earles of Ross-shire in 
North Britian, procured from Edin. Anno 1764 by John Ross late of Ross- 
shire and a native of that part of Scotland, which country he left in 1763 but 
now a resident and merchant of the city of Philadelphia." 

This John Ross merchant was as far as known in nowise related to my 
great uncle the Hon. John Ross, Attorney General, nor does it appear what 
connection if any he had with the family of the Earls of Ross, although he 
apparently adopted this tree. Was this the tree sent to the Hon. John Ross 
and did it fall into the hands of John Ross, merchant ? I think not, for the 
tree sent to the Hon. John Ross showed in detail at what time the house 
of Balamuchy branched from the main house and secondly the exact descent 
of the Hon. John Ross stated in the letter of Mr. Hugh Ross to the Hon. 
John Ross (dated London, 1st October, 1764), as follows: 

As I find your house of Balblair is from mine of Shandwick, I send the 
act yr of herewt, not inferior to any extant as your worthy Fathr truly tells 
you. * * * As you stand cadet of a decaved house of Balmuchv from me, 
&c &c 

On the 30th of April, 1763, the Hon. John Ross, then Attorney General (if 
the letter was written in the morning, for in the afternoon of that day his 
resignation was accepted and the Hon. George Read, who afterwards married 
his sister, was appointed in his place), residing in the city of Philadelphia, 
addressed a letter to Dr. Gordon requesting him to examine whether any 
relationship existed between him (the Hon. John Ross) and the family of 
Mr. Hugh Ross residing in London. Dr. Gordon took this letter with the 
copy of the account of his branch given by Rev. George Ross to his son the 
Hon. John Ross, and after his arrival in London delivered the two documents 
to Mr. Hugh Ross then residing in London, who sent copies of them in a 
letter dated London, March 22nd, 1764, to David Ross, Writer in Edinburgh. 

The result of a thorough investigation was the discovery that the Ross 
House of Balblair, of which the Hon. John Ross was the then male represen- 
tative, was descended from the Earls of Ross through the House of Bala- 
muchy. This, as I have before remarked, was set forth clearly in the letter 
of Mr. Hugh Ross to the Hon. John Ross, dated London, 1st October, 1764, 
and I have no doubt that the tree sent in that letter to the Hon. John Ross 
contained an account of his branch of the family. 

The tree, a copy of which I enclose, was probably obtained from Scotland 
by John Ross, merchant, for his own use. You will observe that the account 
of the latter's birth and parentage is enclosed. I had this copied from Miss 
Clementina Ross Plumstead's family Bible, as I thought it might perhaps 
give you a clue. 

I visited also in Philadelphia the great niece of the Hon. John Ross, Miss 
Mary Ross. She possesses many pieces of the Ross silver with the family 
arms; also the family Bible of the Hon. John Ross, but I could find no trace 
of the Pedigree. I only know that the facts set forth in the Pedigree have 

'Messrs. Stuart & Cheyne, in a letter given subsequently, say that no further 
information is given in this pedigree. 

Shandwick Succession. 113 

been traditional in our family from the time of the Rev. George Ross, the 
first settler in America who was born in Scotland in 1679, and died at New 
Castle in the Province of Delaware in 1754, and that we have quartered the 
Ross Arms with our own. I remember hearing in my early boyhood of our 
descent from Robert Bruce who contended with John Balliol. 

Messrs. Stuart and Cheyne to General Meredith Read. 

Edinburgh, 56 Frederick Street, 

27th February, 1875. 

Dear Sir. — We were favored with yours of the 12th instant, and are much 
obliged for all the trouble you have taken in the matter of the Shandwick 
tree. We send you, as requested, copy of your letter to us and of the docu- 
ments that accompanied it and will be most happy to aid you in your anti- 
quarian research by affording you any information in our power. We have 
not, however, any other tree than Crawford's except some which have evi- 
dently been compiled from it and contain nothing but what is in it. It would, 
therefore, be useless to make copies of them for you, as they give no further 
information than his. The copy you have sent us is exactly the same as the 
copy of Crawford's tree we already have, save that yours does not contain 
the names of the younger brothers of Hugh Ross the last mentioned in the 
tree, and therefore for the purposes of our case it is unfortunately of no 
importance, the only point wanting to be cleared up in it being the order of 
seniority of these brothers. 

Although it is difficult to account for the confusion of the two John 
Rosses or the connection of the merchant with our Hugh Ross, we are 
almost certain that the tree discovered by you is the tree that was sent out 
by Hugh Ross, as its particulars agree so minutely with his letter to John 
Ross, and we think it is needless to pursue the research for another one 
any farther. 

We have not heard from our client Mr. Wm. Ross since he saw you and 
conclude that he cannot have as yet returned from the Continent. 

We remain Dear Sir, 

Yours faithfully, 

Stuart and Cheyne. 
General J. Meredith Read, Athens. 

P. S. — We do not think the tree sent by Mr. Hugh Ross had the Balblair 
or Balamuchy branch set fort.i in it, and rather read Mr. Hugh Ross' letter as 
merely meaning that as John Ross' house was from Shandwick he sends him 
the account of the Shandwick house, not that the tree traces the descent 
of Balblair, &c, from it. S. & C. 


The suit for the possession of the Shandwick estate was tried in July 
and August, 1876, and resulted in establishing the claim of Captain Andrew 
Geldart Reid, brother of Mr. Francis Nevile Reid, and a descendant in 
the female line of William Ross of Shandwick, who, in 1786, had repurchased 
the Shandwick estate and brought it back into the family after it had been 
alienated for over one hundred years, having passed from the family in 
1675, when Andrew, sixth of Shandwick, died, and his widow, his second 
wife, gained possession of the estate by virtue of her marriage contract. 

Captain Reid, the successful suitor, died after the initiation of the pro- 
ceedings, and the estate descended to his eldest son. In a letter to General 
Meredith Read, dated February 25, 1892, Mr. Francis Nevile Reid says : 
" I descend from Mary Ross of Shandwick, from whom this property came 
into my family, and is now owned by my nephew, my elder brother's son." 

ii4 Rossiana. 

Appended is an interesting and complete description of the final settlement 
of the disputed Shandwick succession, as well as the names of the claimants 
and the nature of their pretensions, as printed in the columns of the Edin- 
burgh Scotsman of August 8, 1876 : 

The Shandwick succession case, which recently engaged the attention of 
the Lord President of the Court of Session and a jury for four days, deserves 
to be ranked as a cause celebre. It had many aspects of interest for the 
public at large, as well as for those who, from a professional point of view, 
could appreciate the enormous labour and the acumen that were displayed 
in tracing the branches of as tangled a " family tree " as ever puzzled a 
genealogist. The history of the case was in fact that of the Rosses of 
Shandwick. and it presented a curiously vivid and minute picture of the inner 
and domestic life, as it were, of a middle-class Scotch family of the last 
century. In more than one way, these Shandwick Rosses displayed strongly 
developed national characteristics. They were clannish, standing well by 
one another in time of need, and showing a decided preference in their 
matrimonial alliances for persons of their own name, and, it may be assumed, 
distantly or nearly of their own kin. They were quarrelsome, too; if they 
acted on the maxim that blood is thicker than water, they did not hesitate 
on occasion to spill that blood ; for the annals of the family within seventy 
years contain the record of two duels, each of which had a fatal termination 
for one of the combatants. Especially were they a pushing, enterprising race, 
ready to seek abroad the fortune that was not so easily within their reach 
at home. The number of cadets of the Shandwick blood who were sent out 
to that Eldorado of the last century, the East Indies, was remarkably large, 
while many of the family were at one time or another engaged in commercial 
undertakings at Gothenburg, in Sweden. 

The first connection of the Rosses with the Shandwick estate — which is 
returned in the Scottish Domesday Book as of 2,869 acres, and £2,721 gross 
rental, but was stated during the trial of the case to be at present worth 
between i' 3,000 and £ 4,000 a year — arose in the earlier part of the seven- 
teenth century, when Mr. William Ross, minister at Kincardine, acquired the 
" town and lands of Shandwick." He died in 1663, and was succeeded by 
his second son Andrew — the eldest, David, having been murdered in the 
wood of Invereshie. during the troublous times of the Civil War. This 
Andrew, who was twice married, died in embarrassed circumstances in 1675, 
and his second wife, who was a widow when he married her, got possession 
of the Shandwick estate in settlement of the provision made for her by their 
contract of marriage, leaving the eldest son of the late laird, likewise 
named Andrew, with nothing but the empty title ; and for more than a hun- 
dred years this was all the connection the Ross family had with the prop- 
erty. But if Andrew Ross the second did not possess broad acres, he was 
at least rich in olive-branches; it has been ascertained that he had thirteen 
children, and if a certain pedigree on which the case of one of the claimants 
partly rested could be trusted, he had seventeen — ten sons and seven 
daughters — so that he well deserved the title, recognised by all the claimants, 
of " common ancestor." Of his sons, the eldest, William, was a writer in 
Edinburgh, acquired considerable property as writers are wont to do, but was 
drowned in 1739 in a voyage between Peterhead and Orkney. He died 
unmarried. The second son, Hugh, cuts an important figure in the family 
history. He began life as a merchant in Tain, but in 1721 he killed Hugh 
Ross, laird of Achnacloich, in a duel, and fled to Gothenburg. There, and 
afterwards in London, he successfully continued mercantile pursuits, bought 
estates in Scotland, and for many years exercised a very generous and 
paternal care over numerous nephews, nieces, and cousins who stood in need 
of his assistance. He died in 1775 leaving two sons, both of whom died 
without lawful issue. The descendant of a natural son of one of them put 
in a claim as " nearest heir of conquest " to the Shandwick succession, but his 
claim was dismissed in 1873. 

Shandwick Su ccess ion. 115 

The third son of the common ancestor was named Andrew like his father. 
He began life as a merchant in Tain, where he rose to the dignity of Bailie 
and Dean of Guild at a comparatively early age. His property did not, how- 
ever, continue, and he gladly accepted in 1737 a commission from his well- 
to-do brother Hugh to go out to the East Indies on some commercial enter- 
prise. There, in 1739, the same year in which his elder brother William was 
drowned, he met his death in the same manner. He left behind him three 
sons and three daughters ; the sons all died without leaving issue. The 
eldest daughter jjiarried Bailie John Reid of Tain, and had a family of three 
sons and four daughters — the grandson of Andrew, the eldest of these 
Reids, was one of the claimants to the Shandwick estate. The third of 
Andrew Ross's daughters, Katherine, married David Ross, Commissary-clerk 
of Tain ; and her great-grandson, Mr. John Ross Duncan, was another of 
the claimants to the estate. The claim of these two representatives of 
Andrew Ross was a joint one ; their titles to succeed, as will be shown, must 
of necessity stand or fall together. 

The fourth son of the common ancestor, Alexander, was, like so many of 
his relatives, engaged in commercial pursuits — a busy, active man, and a 
great traveler, who seems to have had no time to think about the domesticities. 
At all events, he died unmarried in 1775, at the respectable age of three score 
and ten. David Ross, the fifth son of the common ancestor, was a man of 
a very opposite character. He spent his life in farming, with indifferent 
success, one of the properties of his brother Hugh, and died in 1768, leaving 
a son named William and a daughter named Christian. It was this son 
William of his who, after more than a hundred years of alienation, brought 
back into the family the estate of Shandwick. He was taken under the 
protection of his uncle Hugh, educated chiefly at his expense, and sent out 
in 1770, in his eighteenth year, as a writer to Madras. There he did so well 
that in 1786 he was able to return to his native country with a considerable 
fortune, and he lost no time in opening negotiations with the then proprietor 
of Shandwick, Lord Ankerville, for its purchase. The transaction was com- 
pleted in the same year, the amount of the purchase money being £17,600. 
Finding that there was not on the estate any house suitable for him to live 
in, the new laird resolved to build one, and while this work was in progress, 
he took a seven years 1 lease of the mansion of Tarlogie. There he was often 
visited by two half-cousins, Helen and Charlotte Reid, daughters of his 
cousin Mary Ross, who. as noted above, had married Bailie John Reid of 
Tain. A charge brought against him of immoral conduct towards these 
young ladies led to a desperate quarrel between Andrew Reid their elder 
brother and William Ross. Andrew challenged the laird to a duel, but the 
latter refused to accept the challenge, on the chivalrous ground that his 
opponent was married and the father of a young family, while he was a 
bachelor and free. Thereupon the indomitable Andrew actually brought home 
from India his younger brother David, an officer in the Bengal army, to 
avenge the wrong done to his sisters. A duel was fought at Blackheath in 
May, 1790, and this unhappy family quarrel was quenched in the blood of 
poor William Ross, who had enjoyed the rehabilitated territorial honours 
of the Shandwick family for scarcely four years. He had executed a deed 
of entail, by which the estate devolved on the descendants of his sister 
Christian, whom failing, to his heirs whatsoever. The direct line of entail 
ended in 1872, when its last representative died. She had been for some 
years in a lunatic asylum, and for a long time evidence had been in process 
of collection to determine the important question of the heirship to the 
Shandwick property. 

The two claimants already specified — Captain Andrew Geldart Reid, 
grandson of Andrew Reid who brought about the duel fatal to William Ross, 
the entailer, and Mr. Andrew Ross Duncan — were indisputably the repre- 
sentatives (entitled to succession) of all the sons of the common ancestor 
older than David, the father of the entailer. They both claimed as descend- 
ants of daughters of Andrew Ross, the third son, William, the eldest, having 
died unmarried, and all the lawful issue of Hugh, the second, being extinct. 
Captain Andrew Geldart Reid died after the initiation of the proceedings, 

n6 Rossi a n a. 

but his claim was continued by his trustees. The title of these two claimants 
to succeed as " portioners " could not be questioned, except by descendants 
of younger brothers of David Ross, the entailer's father, to whom, by the 
law of succession, the estate would fall, in preference to descendants of the 
elder brother. There were in fact two sets of claims of this character, either 
of which, if established, would have been at once fatal to the pretensions of 
Captain Reid and Mr. Duncan. The first was by Mrs. Agnes Stewart Ross 
or Mackintosh, who claimed as fifth in descent from a Charles Ross, alleged 
by her counsel to be the seventh son of Andrew Ross, the " common 
ancestor," and therefore considerably younger than David, the fifth son. It 
was part of Mrs. Mackintosh's case that, following David, the common 
ancestor had no fewer than five other sons — Walter, Charles, Robert, 
Farquhar, and George. But evidence was only forthcoming as to the 
existence of the last-named of these, and the others, according to the con- 
tention of Captain Reid's and Mr. Duncan's counsel, either died in infancy 
or never lived at all. There could be no question that Mrs. Mackintosh was 
descended from a certain Charles Ross, and that he had a brother Walter. 
But the question was, were these two sons of Andrew Ross of Shandwick, 
the common ancestor? Against this hypothesis there was very strong, 
although indirect, evidence. In the first place there is not in the correspond- 
ence of the Shandwick family — a great mass of letters extending over many 
years — the least mention of Charles Ross. His son Walter is mentioned in 
the correspondence as a "cousin;" but it was proved that this cousinship. 
such as it was, arose from the circumstance that Charles Ross and David 
Ross, the entailer's father, had married sisters. A curious piece of evidence 
against Mrs. Mackintosh's claim was that two old wills by Walter, Charles 
Ross's brother, were found in the Probate Office, in which legacies were 
left to his *' unfortunate brother William." and his sisters, Katherine and 
Florence. Now in the Shandwick family there were indeed a William and 
a Katherine ; but the William was not unfortunate except in his death, which 
happened, as we have seen, in 1739, or thirty years before Walter's will was 
made. Moreover, Katherine Ross of Shandwick died two years before the 
execution of the will, and in the Shandwick family there never was a Florence 
at all. 

Mrs. Mackintosh's claim was thus disposed of: but there remained another 
set of claims of another class. Two persons alleging descent from George 
Ross, the youngest son of the common ancestor, put in claims as portioners. 
and could their pedigree have been established, their title to succeed would 
have been preferable to that of Captain Reid and Air. Duncan. This George 
Ross was not at all an apocryphal descendant of old Andrew the common 
ancestor; he was a very real personage indeed, but a shiftless, incapable sort 
of man, described in a letter by one of his brothers as a " positive fool." 
He went at an early age to Gothenburg to be under the wing of his thriving 
brother Hugh, who had begun so ill by killing his name-sake of Achnacloich, 
but was afterwards for nearly half a century the good genius of his family. 
It is known that George Ross married at Gothenburg, and had a number of 
children, of whom only two sons and a daughter survived their childhood. 
Both the sons died unmarried in India, whither they had been sent by their 
uncle Hugh or his wife, " equipt very genteely." The daughter's fate has 
never been ascertained; but as efforts made by advertisement and otherwise 
to find out any lawful descendant of hers have been utterly unsuccessful, it 
may be presumed that she either died unmarried, or that her family, if she 
had any children, is extinct. But those who claimed the Shandwick estate 
as descendants of George Ross did not pretend to any connection with the 
offspring of his Gothenburg marriage. So long ago as 1856 — it being even 
then certain that on the decease of the then possessor of the estate the ques- 
tion of the succession would arise — an old man resident in Lochee preferred 
a claim on the ground that his grandfather, George Ross, a wright and 
miller at Meikle Tarrell, was the youngest son of the common ancestor. He 
died some time ago, leaving three daughters, two of whom died before the 
case came on for trial. One of them, Mrs. Ann Ross or Robertson, had 
left a son, Mr. Andrew Ross Robertson, to whom of course her claim 

SJiandzuick Succession. 117 

descended, and the other claimant on this basis was Mrs. Jane Ross or 
Macpherson, the two claiming as portioners. Their story was that before 
George Ross went to Gothenburg he married one Merran Manson, a servant 
girl, by whom he had a son named Andrew, a farmer in Tullich, the father 
of the claimant of 1856, and of course grandfather of Mrs. Macpherson and 
great-grandfather of Andrew Ross Robertson. But of this alleged marriage 
of George Ross not a tithe of evidence could be produced. The deposition 
of the claimant of 1856 set forth that his father Andrew died in 1789 at the 
age of sixty. In that case he must have been born in 1729, when George 
Ross of Shandwick, his alleged father, was but twelve years of age. Further, 
there was found in certain Sutherlandshire Presbytery records a statement 
that George Ross, wright and miller, and Merran Manson were brought up 
for ecclesiastical discipline in 1743, when George Ross of Shandwick was 
settled as a merchant in Gothenburg. Thus the case of those who were 
known as the Lochee claimants came to utter grief, and the only conclusion 
at which the jury could possibly arrive was that Captain Andrew Reid's 
trustees and Mr. Ross Duncan were the lawful heirs to the Shandwick prop- 
erty; which, oddly enough, reverts in part to the descendants of the very 
man who was chiefly instrumental in bringing about the duel that cut short 
the career of William Ross, who brought back the estate into the family. 

Referring to this article, the firm of Stuart & Cheyne wrote as follows 
to the Scotsman : 

In your article of to-day on the Shandwick succession case, it is stated 
that the two sons of Hugh Ross, the second son of the " common ancestor," 
Andrew Ross, died without lawful issue ; and the dismissal of the claim 
of a descendant of one of these sons is referred to in such a way as to lead 
your readers to the inference that it was dismissed because of his illegitimacy. 
1 As agents for Hugh Ross' descendants, we must take leave to correct both 
the statement and the inference. 

The eldest son of Hugh Ross had several legitimate children, of whom two 
still survive. Another was the lady, whose careful preservation of a large 
number of family letters and papers has been of signal service to the success- 
ful claimants, in enabling them to meet and overcome the contentions of their 
opposing competitors. 

The claim of the " eldest " representative of Hugh Ross, in the person of 
his great-grandson in the direct male line, was dismissed, not on any ground 
of illegitimacy, but purely and simply because the Court decided as matter of 
law that the estate must go, not to the entailer's " heir of conquest," but 
to his " heir of line." No descendant of Hugh could claim in the latter char- 
acter while descendants of any younger brother survived. 


WHILE the guest of the Duke and Duchess of Sutherland in 1877, 
, General Meredith Read visited George Ross of Pitcalnie, the chief 
of the clan of Ross. Ross of Pitcalnie and his wife, nee Catharine 
Gilchrist, had recently met with a severe carriage accident which had the most 
serious results. Mr. Ross was shattered by the shock and his wife became 
blind in consequence of it. They received him with the greatest cordiality in 
the old house, which is beautifully situated in the midst of charming gardens 
surrounded by venerable trees. There was much ancient and quaint furniture 
in the drawing rooms and many family relics. Air. George Ross succeeded 
to the estates and to the chieftainship of his clan on the death of his brother 
on the 12th April. 1829. George Ross, of Pitcalnie, died without issue 
August 29, 1884, and was succeeded by his sister's grandson, George Ross 
Williamson, now of Pitcalnie, who assumed the name of Ross. 

The writer, in 1882, visited Ross of Pitcalnie, and was kindly received by 
the old chieftain and his estimable wife, at which time the writer also visited 
Balblair and Balnagown Castle (see "A Visit to Balblair and Balnagown 
Castle." page 150). A short time afterward General Meredith Read 
received the following letter from Mrs. Catherine Ross, wife of Ross of 
Pitcalnie. dated Rhives Park Hill. X. B., September 8, 1882: 

My Dear General Read: 

Many thanks for your kind card. It gave me great pleasure to make the 
acquaintance of your son Mr. Harmon Read, and I am gratified to hear that 
he gave such an interesting account of his interview with me. I was very 
much pleased with your son and thought how proud the father of such a 
youth must be. I am sorry to say I do not know how far he succeeded in 
seeing places of interest connected with our family of Balnagowan, but I 
hope after leaving me that he made his way into the old castle of his 

The Chief sends greetings, and with kind regards I remain. 

Yours sincerely, 

Cathr. Ross. 

Following the death of Ross of Pitcalnie, in August, 1884, his widow wrote 
as follows to General Meredith Read: 

Rhives Park Hill, Ross-shire, 

October 27, 1884. 

My Dear Kinsman. — Accept my grateful thanks for the kind sympathy 
you have sent me as well as for the expression of regret for my dear husband. 

My sore bereavement has left me one consolation, the knowledge that he 
was much beloved and deeply regretted by a large circle of friends. The 
tokens of esteem from you I value highly, showing me that even the wide 
ocean that separates us does not prevent the heart beating warmly towards 
those who, though distantly, ; re still connected by the ties of blood. I can- 
not forget the short but pleasant interview I had with your most agreeable 
son, to whom I beg to be especially remembered. Please accept from me 

Ross of Pitcalnie. 119 

a lithographed portrait of your kinsman, with a short printed notice of him 
and his lineage. They have been despatched by steamer in a small tin case 
to prevent injury. The likeness is thought admirable. 
With my cordial regards to you and your family 
Believe me always 

Very sincerely yours, 

Catherine Ross, 

By the pen of a friend. 
To General Meredith Read, 

16 Everett Place, Newport, Rhode Island, 

United States of America. 

The lithograph has beneath it the following : 

" Your's truly 

George Ross." 

Mr. Ross was the Chief of the Clan of Ross. He is represented as a hand- 
some man of sixty-five, with a fine forehead and well-shaped head, a large, 
frank eye, aquiline features and a full flowing white beard and moustache and 
a full well-rounded figure. 

Rhives House is in Kilmuir Easter Parish, Ross-shire, and is seven fur- 
longs north of Delny Station. Its late owner, George Ross, Esqre., of Pit- 
calnie (1803-1884), owned 10,618 acres of the shire. It is some miles from 
Balnagowan. The ancient home of our ancestors is now occupied by Sir 
Charles Ross, Bart., who, of the family originally of Lockhart, took the name 
of Ross from the Lords Ross of Hawk-head, who were not in any way 
connected with our family which sprang directly from the ancient Earls of 
Ross. Yet Sir Charles Ross endeavored to figure as the head of a clan to 
which he does not belong. 

Balnagown Castle (also in Kilmuir Easter Parish), one and a half miles 
north of Nigg Bay, near Cromarty Firth, one and a half miles northwest 
of Kildary Station and five and a quarter miles southwest of Tain, stands 
amid romantic grounds, and commands a magnificent prospect. It was the 
seat of the Earls of Ross in feudal times. It is partly very ancient, partly 
an erection of 1836, and presents an imposing appearance in the old Scottish 
baronial style. It is the seat of Sir Charles F. A. Ross, Baronet, born 
1872, succeeded 1883, ninth baronet since 1672, and the owner of 110,145 
acres in the shire, valued at 12,633 pounds per annum. Creation, 28 February, 

According to Mr. Skene, the Scottish Historian, Ross of Pitcalnie was the 
representative of the ancient Earls. * * * In 1778, Monro Ross of Pit- 
calnie presented a petition to the King, claiming the Earldom of Ross as male 
descendant of Hugh Ross of Rarichies. This petition was sent to the House 
of Lords, but no decision appears to have followed upon it. 


The Northern Chronicle, of September 10, 1884, contained the appended 
obituary notice of George Ross, Esq., Chief of the Clan of Ross : 

Mr. George Ross of Pitcalnie died at Rhrves, Ross-shire, on 29th ult.. and 
was buried among the birches he loved so well in the burying place of 
Annait-na-h-eaglais (Amat of the Church), on one of his own estates, lying 

120 Rossi an a. 

at the head of Strathcarron, in Ross-shire. The funeral took place on 
Wednesday the 3rd inst., which, strange to say, though it had been fixed 
without reference to the circumstance, was the 81st anniversary of the 
deceased's birth. 

Mr. George Ross succeeded to the estates and to the Chieftainship of his 
clan on the death of his brother on 12th April, 1829, and from his succession 
to his death, has continuously resided in Ross-shire. Actively engaged in 
county business and all the ordinary pursuits of a country gentleman, adding 
further what few Highland lairds have cared to do during the same period — 
a close personal attendance to the management of his estates and superin- 
tendence of his tenants, and engaging extensively in farming operations, 
sheep and agricultural, both on his own lands and on the lands of others. 

As landowner, farmer and gentleman, he was thoroughly and intimately 
known, and found to be a man of the highest probity and most sterling worth, 
who discharged all the duties of his position and occupations in a manner 
which commanded the ardent affection and esteem of all with whom he came 
in contact. He was of course personally known throughout the length and 
breadth of the county, and he was intimately acquainted with every man, 
woman and child on his lands. His perfect knowledge of the circumstances, 
requirements and capabilities of his country and people gave real value to 
his personal superintendence of his estates, and during the more than half 
a century which intervened between his accession and his death, he was 
never known to provoke or suffer from discontent or contention with crofter 
or tacksman of his own lands, or with laird or factor on the lands he leased 
from others. 

The deceased was a very decided and consistent Conservative in politics, 
and no believer in the regeneration of the race by Act of Parliament or 
restoration of agricultural or other prosperity by extension of the Franchise. 
Pitcalnie married on 1st June, 1837, Miss Catherine Gilchrist, daughter of 
Dugald Gilchrist, Esquire of Opisdale, by whom he is survived. There was 
no issue of the marriage. He was 9th of Pitcalnie, and 24th in direct lineal 
descent from Syart Thane of Ross, who was created Earl of Ross by 
Malcolm III. at the Parliament of Forfar in 1062. The title passed from 
the 8th Earl, William, who had no son, to his daughter Euffen, Countess of 
Ross, who married Walter Leslie, second son of Sir Andrew Leslie of that 
Ilk. In right of his wife, Leslie took and enjoyed the title of Earl of Ross. 
The issue of this marriage were (1) Margaret, who married Donald of the 
Isles, and (2) Alexander, who succeeded to the title, and married a daughter 
of Robert, Duke of Albany, by whom he had one child, a daughter, Euffen. 
This Euffen, succeeding to the title of Countess of Ross, became a nun, and 
resigned the title to her maternal uncle John, Earl of Buchan. who became 
Earl of Buchan and Ross. This gave grave offence to Donald of the Isles, 
who had married Euffen's aunt Margaret, who now claimed the title as his 
in virtue of this marriage, which is the origin of the Lord of the Isles' claim 
to the Earldom of Ross. The contention caused by the Countess Euffen's 
resignation to Earl Buchan ultimately led to the battle of Harlaw. When 
the title of Earl of Ross passed to the daughter of the eighth Earl William, 
William's brother Hugh, first of Balnagowan, succeeded to the Chieftainship 
of the Clan Ross. From him it passed on from father to son to Alexander 
ninth of Balnagowan, who had two sons — the elder George, who succeeded 
him ; and the younger. Nicholas, who founded the family of Pitcalnie. The 
Chieftainship in the Balnagowans ended with the thirteenth Laird, David, 
last Ross of Balnagown, who died in 1711 without issue. The Chieftainship 
then passed to Alexander, fourth of Pitcalnie, from whom it passed in regular 
descent to Alexander, sixth, of Pitcalnie, the father of poor Callun Oag of 
the '45, who died without issue in exile. On the death of Alexander, sixth 
of Pitcalnie. he was succeeded by his younger son, Munro Ross, who, dis- 
appointed in love and in law, died childless at Amat. and opened the way 
to the Chieftainship for the descendants of his grandfather's brother, the 
last male of whom is the gentleman who has just died. He is succeeded in 
the estates by a grand-nephew, who will doubtless take the name of Ross. 
But the Chieftainship is extinct, unless indeed there still exist male descend- 

Ross of Pitcalnie. 121 

ants of Malcolm of Kindeace — for we fear it is almost too late to search 
with success for a male descendant of Little Tarrel, Auchnaclaugh, Inver- 
charron, Priesthill, Shandwick, or Tayne. There is perhaps no county in 
Scotland where the lesser gentry native to the soil have been so numerous, 
and have so completely disappeared, as in this county of Ross. 


The young laird of Pitcalnie. Mr. George R. Williamson Ross, who suc- 
ceeded to the estate of Pitcalnie on the death of George Ross, tenth laird, 
became of age on November 3, 1894, and entered upon his estate, at which 
time the tenantry arranged a notable celebration, which was thus described 
by the Ross-shire Journal of November 9. 1894: 

Coming of Age of a Young Laird — On Saturday Mr. George R. William- 
son Ross, Ankerville Cottage, Tain, the young laird of Pitcalnie and Amat, 
came of age. In honor of the event huge bonfires burned all night at Nigg, 
and at Amat on Monday the tenants held rejoicings on a large extent. 
Dancing was kept up heartily at both places, and the tenants and their friends 
did all in their power to honor the occasion. At Ankerville Cottage, Tain, 
the residence of the young laird, similar rejoicings were held. At a private 
party held in his house the young laird received many handshakes from 
friends who wished him joy and happiness. Mr. Ross's uncle, says a corre- 
spondent, the late Mr. George Ross, tenth of Pitcalnie, was twenty-third 
chief of the Clan Ross, and the oldest, if not the only, known male repre- 
sentative of the ancient Earls of Ross. His successor, Mr. George R. 
Williamson Ross, is a sister's grandson who has assumed the additional 
surname of Ross. He is ninth in descent from Nicolas, first of Pitcalnie, a 
younger son of Alexander Ross, ninth of Balnagown, who died in 1592, 
whose male descendants by his eldest son, George tenth, became extinct on 
the death, without issue, of David, thirteenth of Balnagown, in 171 1, when 
the chieftainship devolved on Malcolm, fourth of Pitcalnie. Alexander of 
Balnagown, already referred to, was ninth in descent from Hugh, fifth Earl 
of Ross, who fell at Halidon Hill in 1333, and who, in 1308, had married 
Lady Maud, sister of King Robert Bruce, by whom he had William, the 
sixth and last of the old Earl of Ross family, while their third son was 
Hugh, who became first of Balnagown, and who died in 1371. Between 
Malcolm, the first Earl of Ross (A. D. 1153-65) and the subject of this 
notice, there are twenty-three generations, only once broken in the female 


George Ross, tenth of Pitcalnie, possessed a number of ancient charters, 
papers and documents, which, in 1876, were reported on by William Fraser 
(App., p. 715). The charters contain grants by Cardinal Beaton, the Bishop 
of Ross, and others, of lands in Ross-shire and Inverness to the Lairds of 
Balnagown and Pitcalnie. A bond entered into by certain persons named 
Rollok, whereby they received certain sums of money from George Ross 
of Balnagown to satisfy them for the " slaughter of Patrick Rollok, our 
brother germane," by Nicolas Ross of Pitcalnie, illustrates the convenient 
method used in 1595, of settling a serious case to the satisfaction of all 
concerned. There is also printed in full an agreement among a number 
of persons of the name of Ross, which throws some light on the relationship 
between the clansmen and their chief. Among the letters is one from John 
Earl of Sutherland in 1638. respecting the innovations in the Service Book. 

122 Rossiana. 

and two letters from Duncan Forbes of Culloden, expressing his anxiety to 
prevent the son of Ross of Pitcalnie from continuing to take part in the 
Rebellion of 1745. 

Report of the Manuscripts of George Ross, Esor.. of Pitcalnie. in the 
County of Ross, by William Fraser, Edinburgh. 

Mr. Ross of Pitcalnie is the heir male of the ancient Earls of Ross, who 
were also Lords of Skye. This once powerful family was ennobled at a very 
early period of Scottish history. An Earl of Ross appears in the reign of 
King Malcolm the Mawen. who reigned from 1153-1165. Farquhar, Earl of 
Ross, founded the Abbey of Fearn, in the reign of King Alexander the 

More than one of the family of the Earls of Ross intermarried with the 
Royal Family of Scotland, and the power of the Earls of Ross, especially in 
the north of Scotland, was so great as frequently to cause serious trouble to 
the monarch. 

But in the fifteenth century this family suffered an eclipse. In the year 
1476 the Earldom of Ross was forfeited by an Act of Parliament of Scotland, 
and inalienably annexed to the Crown. 

William, Sixth Earl of Ross, who was Justicial of Scotland north of the 
Forth, obtained from King David the Second a charter dated 3 October, 1370, 
of the Earldom of Ross on Lordship of Skye. He had issue, two daughters ; 
the elder. Lady Euphemia Ross, who succeeded her father as Countess of 
Ross in 1372. married, first, Sir Walter Leslie, second son of Sir Andrew 
Leslie of that Ilk, and Sir Walter, in term of the Crown Charter of 1370, 
became, before 14 August, 1379, Earl of Ross. Of the marriage there was 
issue a son and daughter, the former of whom, Alexander Leslie, became 
Earl of Ross. He married Lady Esabel Stewart, daughter of Robert, Duke 
of Albany, by whom he had only one daughter, Lady Euphemia Leslie, who 
succeeded her father as Countess of Ross. Resolving to become a nun, she 
resigned in 1415 the Earldom of Ross to her uncle, John Stewart, Earl of 
Buchan ; but her aunt. Lady Margaret Leslie, wife of Donald, Lord of the 
Isles, successfully claimed the Earldom and title of Ross, and the Earldom 
of Ross and the Lordship of the Isle continued conjoined till the year 1476, 
when, as stated above, they were forfeited. 

Through the marriage of a Monro ancestor with a lady of the family of 
Lord Macdonald, the heir general of the ancient Earls of Ross and Lords of 
Skye is George Home-Brunning Home, Esquire of Argate, in the County of 

The younger daughter of William, Sixth Earl of Ross, Lady Johanna Ross, 
married Sir Alexander Fraser, who obtained with her the lands of Philorth, 
in the county of Aberdeen, which still form part of the inheritance of Lord 
Saltonnas, the descendant and representative of the Lady Johanna Ross or 

Hugh Ross, of Rarichies, second son of Hugh, Earl of Ross, and Jean, 
daughter of Walter the High Steward of Scotland, obtained a charter in 
1374 from King Robert the Second, in which he is designated his brother- 
in-law, of the lands of Balnagown and Rarichies. That Hugh Ross con- 

Ross of Pitcalnie. 123 

tinued the family in the male line. After the forfeiture of the Earldom of 
Ross the Lairds of Balnagown were regarded as the head of the clan Ross, 
and they continued as such for many generations. David Ross, last of Balna- 
gown, sold the estate to General Ross, brother of Lord Ross of Hawkhead, 
who, although of the same name, was not of the same family. David Ross 
died in the year 171 1, without issue, and the representation in the male line 
then devolved on the Pitcalnie branch of the family. 

In 1545 Cardinal Beaton granted a charter of Confirmation to Charles 
Carncors of the lands of " Pitcallene," etc., belonging to the Bishoprick of 
Ross, as superior, to Alexander Ross of Balnagown and Katherine Mac- 
kenzie, his spouse. In 1587 Alexander Ross of Balnagown granted a charter 
to his son Nicholas Ross, of the lands of Pitcalnie and others, and Nicolas 
was afterwards known as the first Laird Ross of Pitcalnie. 

The agreement of date 20th July, 1676, entered into between Balnagown, 
the head of the clan Ross, and some of his kinsmen illustrates a point regard- 
ing the relation of the chief to the clan about which there has often been 
misconception. It has sometimes been supposed that the chief could do no 
wrong in the eyes of his followers, and was not in any way responsible for 
his bearing towards them. But this agreement, the occasion of which was 
that the Laird of Balnagown had cut with his " whinger " the head of one 
of his kinsmen, shows this to be an error, being that in the event of Balna- 
gown's acting unjustly towards his kinsmen, they would withdraw from 
following and wrong him. In the correspondence is a large number of letters 
from William, eleventh Lord Ross of Hawkhead, to the Laird of Balnagown. 
Lord Ross of Hawkhead wis anxious to be recognized as the head of the 
clan Ross, and made great promises of advancing the interest of all who 
bore that name, if Balnagowan should favor his views. 

The letter from Archibald, Earl of Argyle, to the wife of Balnagowan 
probably refers to Lord Lovat's first trial. Balnagowan was Lovat's cousin, 
and seems to have interested himself in the defence. The letters from 
Duncan Forbes, Lord President of the Court of Sessions, were occasioned 
by the son of Mr. Ross of Pitcalnie joining the party of Prince Charles 
Edward in the year 1745. Young Mr. Ross, while at Aberdeen College, had 
impressed his professor as a student of great promise, but at the same time 
as one who required strong rein and a steady hand to govern him. 

The subsequent actions of the young man showed the correctness of the 
professor's opinion, for all the entreaties of his father and the reasonings of 
the Lord President were not sufficient to draw him from the cause which he 
had espoused. 

There are a great many other letters in this collection which it has not 
been necessary to note, as well as other papers, among which is the petition 
of Munro Ross of Pitcalnie in 1778, regarding his claim to the Earldom of 
Ross, with relative papers. 

The charters previous to 1600 are noted and annexed hereto: 

1. Notarial instrument, certifying that on the 24th day of January, 1456. 
a nobleman, John of Ross, Laird cf Balnagown, craved of Alexander of 
Southerland, Laird of Dunbeth. a bond for 2of usual money received and 
paid back. To which Alexander of Sutherland made answer saying that 

124 Rossiana. 

he was fully paid and entered and claimed John of Ross for the sum, al- 
though he could not find the bond, yet he engaged that the said bond should 
never come in prejudice of the said John. Whereupon the said Laird of 
Balnagowan paid Alexander of Sutherland a certain sum of money for the 
wadsett of the lands of Culynorey and Moyblare, and asked the charter of 
wadsett to be returned to him. But Alexander of Southerland refused to 
give up the charter till John of Ross gave him a merk usual money beyond 
the sum for the maill of the land from the term of Martimas for the eight 
days past before payment, which John of Ross refused. Whereupon, with 
consent of both parties, the charter, with letter of reversion, was given to 
William Momlaw, notary public, to keep till the plea was settled who had 
a right to the merk. Done in the Church of Tayn, the above date. Present, 
Magnus Buze. rector of Olryk ; Thomas Colyson and William Momlaw, 
chaplains of Tayn ; Donald McFirissome and Christsan of Forres. 

2. Charter of Assendation by Robert Bishop of Ross, commendator of 
Feme, to Charles Carncors, of the lands of Culderere Colnahaa, Pitcallene 
Amot Strononmadde, and Amot Aegglies. To be held of the Bishop of 
Ross in perform and heritage forever. Paying for the lands of Culderere five 
merks. half a mart, two sheep, six capons, six poultry and two kids, and 
forty eggs for six pennies, one boll of oats, commonly called " niggerging 
ates " and for gressum twenty-two shillings and three pennies. For the 
lands of Culuahaa forty shillings, a fourth part of a merk, etc. For the 
lands of Pitcallene, five merks. half a merk, two sheep, six capons, six poul- 
try, two kids and forty eggs for sixpence one boll of oats, and for gressum 
twenty-two shillings and three pennies, etc. And for arriages and carriages 
and other services from these lands two merks Scots. And giving three 
suits at the three head Courts at Chanoury. With a duplican on entry. 

Dated and signed by the bishop at the Chanoury of Ross, 18 May, 1543. 
[Seals wanting.] 

The preamble of the charter refers to the statutes passed by the King and 
Parliament of Scotland for leasing of lands, and the benefits thereby to accrue 
through building of sufficient houses, in breaking of land, amelioration of 
barren ground, planting trees, etc.. enriching of the tenantry and possessors 
" bestowed for the adornment and policy of the commonwealth of the King- 
and for defence of the Kingdom against ancient enemies, or any other 

3. Precept of Sasine by Robert, Bishop of Ross, commendator of Feme 
for infefting Charles Carncors in the above lands of Culderer, Culuahaa, Pit- 
callene, Annot, Stranamaddow and Amott Eagglis. 

Dated and subscribed by the bishop at the Chanoury of Ross. 18 May, 1543. 

The bishop's rental was increased by the lease by the sum of two merks 
" bestowed for the adornment and policy of the commonwealth of the King- 
dom," besides a sum of money paid by the infeoffee. 

4. Precept of Sasine. by Robert, Bishop of Ross, commendator of Feme, 
for infefting William Carncors in the lands of Vestir Ferbal, Sandvik Can- 
lochmore, Boithbege, Roiarchireachtrach, Rearchirorthrach, Canoichtrach. 
Dated at Chanoury of Ross, 18 May. 1543. A memorandum on the back 
states that Sasine was given on the 3 July, 1543. 

5. Charge by Cardinal Beton, releasing the lease by Robert, late Bishop 
of Ross, to Charles Carnecors, layman of Glasgow diocese, of the church 
lands of Cuderere, Culnahaa, Pitcallene, Annott, Stronamaddo and Amot 
Eagglis ; and a petition by Charles Carnecors for confirmation by the 
Apostolic See. commanding the sub-Chantor of Moray, and Gaoin Leslies, 
and Thomas Gadderar. canons respectively of Aberdeen and Moray, to call 
together the dean and chapter of the Church of Ross, etc., and to ascertain 
whether the said lease was for the weal and benefit of the Church of Ross- 
and bishops of the See, and if so to confirm and ratify the same. 

Ross of Pitcalnic. 125 

Dated at Edinburgh, in St. Andrew's diocese IX Kal., Februarii, 1545. 
The Cardinal appears to exercise his authority in this matter because of 
the decease of the Bishop of Ross. 

6. Charter of Alienation by William Carncors of Cowmislie to Alexander 
Ross of Balnagowan, his heirs and assignees of the lands of Boith Beg, 
Kendlochmore, Rewfarquhare, Earththraich, Rewfarquhare, Oichthraich, and 
Canochthraich, lying in the Lordship and Bishopric of Ross, and part of 
Inverness ; to be held from the granter, his heirs and assignees of the Bishop 
of Ross and his successors, infeouff and heritage forever for payment of the 
sum of five pounds, thirteen shillings and four pennies Scots, half a merk, 
three sheep, etc., and in yearly augmentation of the rental of the bishopric 
four shillings and six pennies, with three suits of court at the three head 
courts held in Chanoury in name of feufarm ; and a duplicate by the heirs at 
their entrv. Dated at Edinburgh, 28 July, 1548. 

7. Precept of Sasine by William Carncors of Cownislie for infefting 
Alexander Ross of Balnagowan in the lands of Borth Beg, Kandlochmor, 
Rewfarquhare Earththraich, Rewfarquhare, Oichthraich and Canochthraich, 
in the Lordship and Bishopric of Ross and Shire of Inverness, according to 
the preceding charter. Dated at Edinburgh. 28 July, 1548. 

8. Precept of Sasine by John Duncan, Lord of the third part of the town 
and lands of Arkboll, for infefting Alexander Ross of Litill Terral, and 
Elizabeth Ross his spouse, in the third part of the town and lands of Arkboll. 
in the Earldom of Ross and Shire of Inverness. Dated at Terral Litill 12th 
day of January, 1566. 

9. Confirmation by Mary Queen of Scots, under the Great Seal of Charter 
by John Duncan, with consent of Katharine Ross his spouse, to Alexander 
Ross of Litil Terral, and Elizabeth Ross his spouse, of the third part of the 
town and lands of Arkboll. To be held from the granter of the Crown 
Charter dated at Terrall Litill 12th January, 1561. Witnesses, John 
McCulloch of Litill Tarrell, etc. Confirmation dated at St. Andrews 24 
February, 1662. 

10. Charter by Henry, Bishop of Ross, as superior to Alexander Ross of 
Balnagowan and Katherine Makkenzie his spouse in conjunct fee, and the 
heirs male of their bodies, whom failing to the heirs of the said Alexander 
whomsoever of the town and lands of Culderrie, with brewhouse, etc., extend- 
ing to a half davoch of land, lands of Culahaa with brewhouse, etc., lands 
of Pitcalnie extending to a half davoch, fourth part of the lands of Ferbelt, 
lands of Annnot, Amot, Eglis, Borthbeg, Kenlochmoir, Eistir and Westir, 
Reinfaronharris, Kayndwochtheraich, fourth part of the croft of the said 
lands of Terbett, called Laird Croft (Croftadomin), fourth part of Brew- 
house of Terbett. fourth part of the fisher's croft, and fourth part of the mill 
of Terbett lying in the Diocese of Ross and Shire of Inverness, which for- 
merly belonged to Alexander Ross of Balnagown, heritable infeufing, and 
were resigned by him in the Bishop's lands of Roslyne. to be held of the 
Bishop of Ross. The reddendo is given at length. Among the services to 
be rendered were the leading " nyrae scoulaidis off, well, peillis to the 
bishop and his successors in manse of Nyg or Terbet when required, at their 
own charges, but the fuel to be cast and were at the bishop's charges, and to 
send ten horses for three days laboring and to give assistance in leading the 

sheaves of Nyg and Terley. and the tenants to assist in upholding the 
" 3 air " of Ryncame as formerly ; with three suits at the three head courts 
at Chanoury of Ross, with a deep license. 

The said Alexander and Catharine his wife and their heirs to make oath 
of fealty and homage, to the bishop at their entry, to maintain and defend his 
good lands, tends, and the orthodox faith to their power ; with other clauses 
and conditions, one being that if he rode or went on foot with any person, 
secular or ecclesiastic, against the bishop, or deforced his officers, he should 
lose the feufaim. Contains a Precept of Seisin and is dated at Roslyne, 22 
April, 1563. Witnesses, William Sinclair of Roslyne, Sir John Robesoun, 

126 Rossi a n a. 

Provost of Roslyne, St. James Gray, prebendary of Corstorphine, Sir Mark 
Jamesoun, Vicar of Kershindy, Alexander Pedder, Vicar of Urray, Notaries 
Public (seal needed entire). On the back is the instrument of Sasine. 

ii. Charter of Mary Queen of Scots, under the great seal, confirming a 
charter granted by John Donvoue, eportoner of Arkboll, with consent of 
Katherine Ross his wife, to his cousin William Donvoue of Petnely, his 
heirs and assignees of the third part of the town and lands of Arkboll, lying 
in the Earldom of Ross and Shire of Inverness to be held of the Crown. 
Charter dated at Petnely, 6th February, 1566. Witnesses, Andrew Ross, 
Bailie of Tayne, and others. Confirmation dated at Stirling, 4 July, 15.64. 
Witnesses, John, Archbishop of St. Andrew's; James, Earl of Mortoun; Wil- 
liam, Earl of Marischal, etc. [Seal.] 

T2. Charter by Nicholas Ross of Dunsraithe to Donald Ross of Litill 
Kinteis, his brother, in life rent of two oxgangs of his Kirkland of Duns- 
raith in the Earldom and Bishopric of Ross and Shire of Inverness. Dated 
and subscribed by the grantor at Pitcallene in Ross, 25 June, 1571. [Seal 

13. Tack by .Master Alexander Les, the parson of Kincairne (Kincaidine) 
with consent of the chapter of the Cathedral Kirk of Ross, to George Ross 
of Balnagowin. for a sum of money paid in name of person of the teind 
vicarage and parsonage of the lands of Argyle. Laichtclouek, " Ivercharroun, 
Scoll Langrie, Grunzeard, etc., lying in the Parish of Kincaidine, pertaining 
to him as part of his benefice, for nineteen years from the feast of Lainmas, 
158O. Paying yearly at the Chanoury of Ross, seven score merks yearly for 
payment to the minister of Kincaidine of his stipend assigned to him furth of 
the thirds of the benefice. Dated at Elgin penult June, 1586. [Seal wanting.] 

14. Charter by Alexander Ross, Laird of Balnagown, as ten bernle of the 
lands to his son Nicholas Ross of Pitcalnie, in fulfilment of his part of a 

• contract of marriage entered into between the said Alexander Ross and 
George Ross of Balnagown, and the said Nicolas, on the one part, and Hugh 
Munro of Assin as taken burden for his daughter Margaret Munro, relict 
of the late Alexander Ross of Litill Terrall on the other part, dated at Ark- 
boll, 23 January, 1587; of his few farm lands of Pitcalnie, Culderrerie, Cul- 
naha, Annett, with the quarter of the deuchy of Westy Terbart. Lands of 
Amot. Eglis, Litill Both, two Caindlochis, two Rinferquharis, and Caindwoch- 
treach. To be held from the granter of the Bishop of Ross for payment of 
the several Malls, fens grassums, etc. Reserving the life rent to the granter. 
Contains a precept of same, and is dated and subscribed at Eister Gany, 24 
January, 1587. [Seal nearly entire.] 

15. Letters of slains by John Rollok, burges of Dundee, and others, to 
Geo. Ross of Balnagowan, for the slaughter of Patrick Rollok by Nicholas 
Ross of Pitcalnie, 10 August. 1595. 

To all and singular quhome in offer is to quhais knowledge this present 
letters sail cum, Johnne Rollok, burges of Dundey, and George Rollok, my 
brother, brethingermane to one qulule Patrick Rollokquha was serin tutor in 
nos lyine to Sir Thomas Lyoun of Auld Sar Knicht, master of Glammis, 
with aduyse consent and assent of the richt honourabill Walter Rollok of 
Pitmeddee, tutour of Duncreeb, Peter, Bishop of Dun Relo, William Rollok 
of Balbegy and Andrew Rollock of Coistorne, breithir to the said Walter, 
Umpleras Rollok at the mylne of Fyndany, Robert Rollok of Marstoun and 
Robert Rollok of Bakak. the chief men and principallis of our kin on the 
father syde, and of William Schaw. of Lathangye and Harg Balfoure of 
Carprwie. two of the chief men and principallis of our kyn on the mother 
syde, greting in God everlasting. Wit ze ws, or dyney and sindriegreib 
Kowmes of money presentlie pay it and dely meritows, realy and with effect 
in numerat money, be ane honorabill man George Ross of Balnagowne. and 
for dyvers otheris greib respectis and gude considerationnes moving us. whaif 
remit'tib and forgivne and be the tensione heir of reintlas and for gevis hair- 
tlie with our hairtis to Nicolas Ross of Pitcalyne. brother to the said George 
Ross of Balnagowne. Walter Ros, William sone, Johnne Ros, Alices Reoch 
and Walter McCulloch and all other thair kyn; freindis, men leuneutis, ser- 
vancis adherentis, all ya assisteis and air taken all offence wiang, cryme, deid 

Ross of Pitcalnie. 127 

and iniurie, counth be thaune, or any of thame, thereat the slaughter of the 
said inequhide Patrick Rollok our brother germane ; and als all feid rank our 

16. For as meikle as upon the day of June, Jm Vie seventy-six years 

David Ross, Laird of Balnagowne did cut with his whinger the head of his 
kinsman, Walter Ross, bailie of Tayne, in the house of James Hay, late 
bailzie then, upon a de beat fallen out betain them ; and now seeing both the 
said parties are content and consent that the said act, and what might follow 
thereupon may be rather then legally amicably and Christianity mediat and 
composed ; therefore both the said parties do unanimouslie submit the de- 
cision and accommodation of the said act as said is to the arbitrement and 
determination of the friends underwreitin mutually chosen and nominal be 
as to that effect; that is to say, Walter Ross of Moeichanon, Malcolme Ross 
of Kindease, John Ross of Achnacloigh. Mr. Androw Ross, Minister at 
Tarbat ; Mr. Alexander Ross, Minister at Fearne ; Alexander Ross of Litle 
Tarrell, James Ross of Jye, Alexander Ross of Easter Ferae, John Ross, 
Bailzie of Tayne; William Ross Lachlinsone, late bailzie there; Robert Ross 
of Aldie, and Mr. Robey Ross, Minister at Tayne ; and to that effect we, 
the said parties. David Ross of Balnagown as chief and Walter Ross do 
hereby impower the forsaid freinds to appoint and propose not only betwixt 
us, but lykewise betwixt me the said Laird of Balnagowne as chiefe, and me 
the said Walter Ross as kinsman in the above. Within act and consequence 
thereof and all other our kinsmen in tyme causing as to our respective car- 
riage and behaviours in our several stationes. To which final sentence and 
determination of the above writtin friends or the greater part of them to be 
pronounced betwixt and the day of July ie seventie six 

years to be filled up upon the blank upon the back hereof, we the said Lairds 
of Balnagowne and Walter Ross bind and obligers, our aires, executors and 
successors faithfullee to adhere to and performe the said decerneing and 
decreet arbitrall mall point, under the failzie of one thousand marks usual 
Scots money, to be payed be the partie faileing to the partie willing to per- 
forme. And for the more securitie we, the said parties consent to the regis- 
tratione hereof in the Books of Council or Session or any other books com- 
petent to have the strength of a decree of other of thes judicatories that 
letters of promeing and all other executoriallis needfull may informe as 
effeirs pass thereon ; and to that effect constituts our procurators, etc. 

In witness whereof we the said parties have subscribed their presents 
wreitin be the said Mr. Robert Ross, with our hands at Tayne, the twentie 
day of Julie Jm Vie seventie sex years, before their witnesses David McCul- 
loch, Andrew Ross, younger merchant of Tayne, Lachlan Ross, merchant 
there, and Thomas Ross, seratortome, the said Laird of Balnagowne ; Sic sub- 
scribetur David Ross of Balnagowne [etc.]. 

The arbitrators find that the " act of bloodine " done by the said 
Laird of Balnagowne on the said Walter Ross was the result of a mistake 
and groundless jealousy, and that having regard to the welfare of both parties, 
they cannot excuse the said act. They oblige the said Laird of Balnagowne 
to acknowledge the wrong and injury done by him to the said Walter Ross, 
and to be more friendly for the future: And they determine that if any of 
the kinsmen of the said Laird offend or injure him then the offender, real 
or supposed, shall be convened before them, and the matter decided " by the 
sober advyce and counsell of us the said friends : " And further they resolve 
that if any friend be found to have done real injury to the Laird of Balna- 
gowne, and shall not subject himself to the regulation of the said Laird 
according to the advice of the said friends, then they shall concur with the 
Laird in reducing the " refractorie " person to order ; " and in case he con- 
tinue contumacious that he be declared and held by the Laird of Balnagowne 
and his friends as a stranger." And finally " if it shall happen (as God forbid) 

128 Ross i a ii a. 

that contrary to the above wreitin course and determinatione, the said Laird 
of Balnagowne shall injure or wrong any of his kinsmen in other then per- 
sones or interests then and in that case " all the Lairds of Balnagowne's 
kinsmen shall concur to behave themselves as accord in law of any injunc 
•done be the Laird of Balnagowne to any of them." 

And further it's hereby judged and determined that if the said Laird of 
Balnagowne shall not be advysed be his friends, as said is (as Lord forbid) 

then the said freinds shall withdraw from following or serveing him 

as kinsmen. The Decree to be registered in the Books of Council and 
Session or other books competent, 21 July, 1576. 

17. Letter by John, Earl of Sutherland, and others to the Laird of Findres- 
sie, calling a meeting at Fores about the innovations of the Service Book : 

Inverness. 16 April, 1638. 

Wery honerabill. — We have receivit letters from the rest of the nobilitie 
daitit at Edinburgh the 26 of March, desyring us to meit heir at Inverness 
on the 25 of this moneth, which we have obeyth to the effect that their com- 
missioneris might informe us trewlie of their proceedings concerning the 
novatione of the Service Book and others abussis, so much threating the 
overthrow of religion, laws and liberties of this kingdome ; On we 

find our selffis sufhcientlie satisfiet, and they have done nothing in all their 
proceiding is hot qukat is by all. to the glorie of God, the honour of our 
dreids overagued the King, our minister which is and sal be warrand it be 
the laws of the Kingdome. And following their good example all we have 
communicat the same with the whole gentrie. ministers and borrowis of the 
schyris of Caithnes. Sutherland, Inverness. Cromertie. We have find all 
kynd of people weill satisfeit, and for your better s a tisfactioune we have 
resolved to be at Forres on Saturday in be aughthoms the 28 of this instant, 
quhairze will be pleased to meet me. and to receive the lyk satisfactione,_ or 
giff your oppinionn in a matter so neither concemeing us all so expecting 
to see you there as we sal ever remayne. 

Your Affectionat good friends. Signed by John, Earl of Sutherland, Lords 
Lovat, Reay and Sinclair, and the Lairds of Balnagowan and Strichey. 

To our werie honorable and lubfine friend anil cussing the Laird of 

18. Archibald, tenth Karl of Argyll, to the wife of Balnagowan: 

Edinburgh, January 18th. 

Madame. — This goes by the Lord Lovertt, who 1 have done my best 
endowmens to serve, in prosecution of the severall recommendations I have 
had from Ballengown chiefly, and from bis other friends. I have hitherto 
had successe in what I attempted, and since matters are come so good a 
lenth, it were sad if now anie thing should miscarry. He resolves to stand 
his tryall to clear himself of these false calumnies laid to his charge. Non 
has hitherto appear'd so publickly for him as Ballengown, so that both for 
Lord Lovatts interest, and Ballengowns own honor, in my humble opinion it 
is highly reasonable Ballengown comes hither with him, and own him at his 
tryall. He*el gain no new enemies by it. but show his firmnesse to his 
friend in supporting him in so criticall conjuncture. This I offer as my 
opinion, and must entreat of you to advyse him the same. I am. Madame, 
Your most affecttionatte nephew, and humble servant. 


19. Duncan Forbes of Culloden, to Alexander Ross of Pitcalny : 

Culloden, 25 Oct., 1745. 
Dear Sir. — I never was more astonished, and but seldom more aflicted in 
my life, than I was when I heard of the madness of your son. I cannot con- 
ceive by what magick he has been prevailed on to forfeit utterly his own 

Ross of Pitcalnie. 129 

honour ; in a signall manner to affront & dishonour me whom you made 
answerable for him ; to risk a halter which, if he do not succeed must be his 
doom, without any other tryall than that of a court marshal, & to break the 
heart of an indulgent father as you are, which I am persuaded must be 
the case, unless he is reclaimed. The villain who seduced him profiting of 
his tender years & want of experience, tho I hope I am a Christian, I never 
will forgive, tho him I will, if he return quickly to his duty without com- 
mitting further folly. But if, trusting to indulgence on account of our rela- 
tion, he presists in the course in which I am told he is at present engaged, 
I think it but fair to declare to you, in the most solemn manner, that the 
very relation and connection to which he may trust will determine me to 
pursue him. with the utmost rigour, to that end which his conduct will most 
undoubtedly deserve. And, when I have said this, I can take God to wit- 
ness that he is the only person concerned in the present unhappy commotion, 
lor whom my heart would not lead me to be a solicitor, when things have 
that issue, which I believe they will soon have. In justice and friendship 
to you, and in hopes that he may repent before it is too late, I give you the 
trouble of this letter, and have desired your friend Air. Baily to deliver to 
you, not doubting that to save your son and to prevent my dishonour, you 
will do all that is in your power. 

I am, dear Sir, under great concern, your most obedient and most humble 

Dun Forbes. 

(Address) To Alexander Ross of Pitcalny, Esqr. 

20. The same to the same : 

Culloden, 7th November, 1745. 

Dear Sir. — I need not tell you what concern Malcolm's folly has given 
me. I sent him repeated messages to come and see me, which produced 
no other effect but a letter from him promising to do so, if I would give 
it him under my hand that he should be at liberty to return to Perth, whether 
he was by his parole of honour bound to return. I without lossing an 
moment, wrote him that effect a letter in the strongest terms last Monday, 
which was that day delivered to him, but to no purpose. Either his own 
apprehension or evill councillors have got the better of him ; and I confess 
my concern for him is very great. The only thing, however, like an ouvert 
act he has done, is the dispersing the men that were assembled in order to 
form the Independent Company. Xow if none of thise should actually 
follow him, I should hope that discouragement will be so great that he will 
choice not to venture further than he has done, but rather return to where 
he was confined than to make such a figure as in that case he must make 
should he follow the opinion of his present advisers. It is for this reason, 
dear Sir, that I give you the trouble of this line to entreat that you will 
lend your assistance to the other gentlemen of the name to whom I have 
wrote, not only to prevent the debauching any of the men, but also to prevail 
with them to form the Independent company now forming, that all the world 
may see that the unhappy youth's folly had no encouragement from you. I 
need to make use of little argument with vou to enforce an advice so agree- 
able to what I daresay are your own inclinations, nor need I spend time in 
assuring you that I am with great simpathy as well as sincerity 

Your most obedient and most humble servant. 

Dun Forbes. 

To Alex. Ross of Pitcalney, Esqr., at Arboll. 

The other papers and correspondence on the Pitcalnie collection .do not 
require special notice, as not coming within the scope of the commission. 

William Fraser. 
Edinburgh, 32, Castle Street, 4 September, 1876. 


GENERAL MEREDITH READ, being a direct descendant of David 
Ross of Balblair, and, through him, of the houses of Balmachy, 
Shandwick and Balnagown, and of the ancient Earls of Ross in 
Scotland, naturally took a deep interest in the history and descent of this 
illustrious family, and gave much time and care to making researches among 
the ancient charters and documents still in existence bearing on the Ross 

In answer to an inquiry sent to R. R. Stodart, Esq., of the Lyon Office, 
Edinburgh, General Read received the following letter, under date of August 
— 1872: 

" There is no published history of the family of Ross, of the County of 
Ross, or of the Parish of Fearn. The Registers of that Parish only begin 
in 1749 for baptisms and in 1783 for marriages, so that the baptism of the 
Rev. George Ross is not to be found there. The lands of Balblair of old 
belonged to the Abbey of Fern, founded in the thirteenth century by Ferqu- 
hard, Earl of Ross, head of one of the most powerful houses in Scotland 
which ended in the direct male line on the death of William, seventh earl, 
about the year 1375 when the earldom passed to females and was finally 
annexed to the Crown. 

" Many of the younger branches of this family continued to hold lands 
within the County of Ross. The chief of these was Ross of Balnagown, the 
heir male of the earls. The Balnagown estate passed by sale, upwards of a 
century ago, into the possession of a family of the same name, but belonging 
to a different race and carrying dissimilar arms, and is now the property of 
Sir Charles Ross, Baronet. 1 

" Mr. Ross, of Pitcalnie, is the representative and heir male of the ancient 
Earls of Ross. 

" The arms of the Earls were three lions rampant as in the arms of Ross 
of your house, but the colours were reversed, namely the lions were or and 
the field gules. 2 ( In Scotland the reversal of tinctures was the sign of a 
cadet house.) 

" The motto, ' Nobilis est ira leonis/ appears in the Lyon Register as 
allowed in 1767 to David Ross, of Priest Hill, descended from Balnagowan. 
It is also borne now by Ross of Invercharron, who claims the same origin, 
but his right to arms has not been established here. 3 

" The family of Ross maintained a close connection with the Abbey, 
founded by Earl Ferquhard. 1 nd several of the Abbots were of that surname. 
In the reformation the commandatorship was held by three generations in 
succession: Nicholas Ross, 1561 to 1566, died in 1569; Thomas Ross, 1566 to 
1569, and Walter Ross, whose appointment was in 1584. The Abbey lands 
feued out and alienated, and I find that in 1550 Balblair was granted to 
Ross of Balnagown. 

lThis family, however, gave up their arms and assumed those of Balnagown. 

"I am sorry to say that the learned gentleman is wrong. The arms of the Earls of 
Ross never bore a' gold lion. Gold lions appear on an ancient stone carving at Balna- 
gown, but this painting is a recent ornamentation. 

3 This fact does not invalidate his claims; for in Scotland many of the most ancient 
houses are not registered in the Lyon Office, which was only instituted in 1673, and their 
descent and standing being clear they deem it unnecessary to pay the fees. 

Ross of Balblair. 131 

" David Ross, of Balblair, was dead before the 14th of January, 1710, the 
date of the general service of his son, Andrew of Balblair, to him. These 
are, of course, the father and brother of the Rev. George Ross." 

On September 6, 1872, Mr. Stodart wrote General Read as follows : 

" The marriage Registers of Ross were burnt early in this century at 
Tain, and no record of Wills prior to this exists. I may state that there is a 
mass of papers, some of the Wills, in a very damp, decayed state in a belfry 
of the Tower Hall of Tain, quite unarranged. The expense of going over 
these would be very great as a person would have to be sent from here. 
I hear, however, that there is some prospect of these documents being brought 
to this Register House and put in order ; but this may be a work of years. 
The records of the burgh of Tain only extend back to 1824. 

" Balblair was sold to William Ross, of Shandwick, writer in Edinburgh, 
who died in 1739, but socine is not recorded." 

A few days later (September 11, 1872) Mr. Stodart again wrote General 
Read, an extract from which letter follows : 

" I am very glad to hear that you propose visiting Tain and making personal 
investigation among the mouldering records there. I presume that you will 
pass through Edinburgh on your way and trust that I may have the pleasure 
of seeing you here. I do not see that there is anything more to be done, — the 
records being in such a very imperfect state, — unless you are inclined to 
incur the expense of a thorough search in the register of deeds, the cost of 
which might perhaps be thirty pounds. It contains contracts of marriage, 
bonds for money, disposition of lands and so forth and various other legal 
documents- The Register is very voluminous and not indexed alphabetically. 
The searcher whom I employed on your behalf is at present employed on an 
extensive investigation in connection with the family of Ross of Shandwick, 
and I hope to hear from him when and for what price Balblair was sold." 

Much interesting information concerning Balblair was contained in a 
communication from Mr. Stodart to General Read, dated January 3, 1873, 
as follows : 

"On the nth of March, 1709, David Ross of Balblair disponed the Mansion 
House and the Wester half of the property in life rent to his wife Margaret. 
He was dead 21 February, 1710, when his widow had sosine of the lands. 
David Ross on the 8th March, 1707, had disponed Balblair, reserving a life 
rent to himself and his wife, to his grandson Andrew (son of his own eldest 
son Andrew), and the heirs male of his body whom failing to the other 
heirs male of Andrew, whom failing to the Rev. George Ross and the heirs 
male of his body, whom failing to Hugh Ross third lawful son of the said 
David and the heirs male of his body. 

'After David's death his eldest son Andrew had sosine of the land of Ballon 
in the County of Ross as heir to his father. Balblair was sold before 1732, 
probably after the death of Andrew junior to whom it had been conveyed 
by his grandfather David. Andrew was living on the 31st July. 1728, and 
died 2nd June, 1730, when his Aunt Bessie, second lawful daughter of David 
Ross of Balblair, and her husband were confirmed executors dative as next 
of kin. I have obtained a note from a letter dated 31st March, 1764, 
addressed by Dr. Gordon to John Ross, Esquire, Counsellor at Law of 
Philadelphia, in which he says he had applied to David Monro, Writer to the 
Signet, grandson of David Ross of Balblair, for information, and Mr. Monro 
believed his grandfather to be descended from Shandwick or Little Tarrell." 

In a later communication, dated January 30, 1873. Mr. Stodart says : 

" 1 have not seen a copy of the Chronicle of the Earls of Ross, which is 
out of print and only to be met with at sales. There is no printed list of 

ijj Rossiana. 

graduates of the University of Edinburgh at an early period; the calendar 
is quite a modern annual publication. Little Tarrell is in Ross-shire." 

General Meredith Read having met. at the Congress of the Archaeological 
Institute of Great Britain at Exeter in August, 1873. the well-known antiquary 
and book collector, John Whitefoord MacKenzie, of 16 Royal Circus, Edin- 
burgh, addressed a letter, dated August 17, to this gentleman, in which he 
said : 

" In 1700 one of my ancestors, the Rev. George Ross, son of David Ross, 
Esquire, of Balblair, graduated at the University of Edinburgh and passed 
through the Divinity School. He went over to the Church of England, and, 
having been ordained by the Bishop of London, emigrated to the Province of 
Delaware where he became one of the founders of the Established Church in 
America. He died Rector of Emmanuel Church, New Castle. Delaware, in 
1754, in the seventy-fifth year of his age. His eldest son, the Hon. John 
Ross, was an eminent lawyer and Royal Attorney General. His second son 
was a distinguished Judge and became one of the signers of the Declaration 
of Independence. His daughter Gertrude married my great grandfather, the 
Hon. George Read. Royal Attorney General, afterwards Chief Justice and 
one of the six Signers of the Declaration of Independence who were also 
Signers and Framers of the Constitution of the LJnited States. The third 
Mm. the Rev. Aeneas Ross, was a distinguished clergyman who was ordained 
by the Bishop of L »ndon. Aeneas Ross was named after his father's dear 
friend, the Rev. Aeneas McKenzie, Chaplain to the Earl of Cromarty, Secre- 
tarj of State for Scotland, who emigrated to Staten Island at the same time 
as the Rev. George Ros>. Senr., went to America. 

Mr. MacKenzie. on his return home from Exeter, received the letter of 
General Read, and answered it as follows, under date of September 22, 1873: 

" When I had the pleasure of seeing you at Exeter, I understood you to 
say that your ancestor was a son of Ross of Little Tarrell; but in your 
letter you said that he was a son of Ross of Balblair. The last Ross of 
Little Tarrell was an intimate friend of my father and of myself after I came 
to college. Me was also proprietor of the estates of Kerse and Skeldon in 
Ayrshire all of which had been sold before I knew him. 1 have always under- 
stood that his father had been a merchant in London and had purchased 
Kerse and Skeldon, the former of which had long been possessed by an old 
family of the name of Crauford, and the latter by a branch of the Campbells 
of which name there are many proprietors in Ayrshire. I recollect that he 
was possessed of a splendid dinner set of old Indian China, having blasoned 
upon it the arms of the old Earls of Ross, namely. Gules, three lions ram- 
pant, argent, two and one. without any difference. There are no arms 
matriculated for Little Tarrell. or for Balblair in the Lyon Register. The 
only families of the name registered up to the time your ancestor left this 
country were Balnagowan, Moran. Knockbreck, Pickerrie and Kindace. 

" Mr. Ross left several sons, who are all dead, except one, Alexander, who 
has lived at Dresden for many years. He comes sometimes to this country 
and always comes to see me. Prior to 1577 Little Tarrell belonged to 
McCullo or McCulloch. as in that year Margaret was served heir to her 
father John. 

" There is a John Ross of Little Tarrell in 1581, who must have died prior 
to the 31st July, 1596, as on that day Marjory and Isabella, daughters of 
Alexander Ross of Little Tarrell. are served heirs portioners to Alexander 
their father, who was probably John's son. Mickell Tarrell. prior to 1627, 
was the property of Sir Roderick Mackenzie of the Coegache, and is now 
the property of his representative, the Duchess of Sutherland, Countess of 
Cromartie. I think that I mentioned to you that the Rosses, particularly of 
Balnagowan or Rarichies are called Clanlanders or Clanlandric. This is 
accounted for in 'Ane Brieffe Discourse ' of the family in these words, 

Ross of Balblair. 133 

'While Cluganach (about 1394) Gulia had to his Wyffe Paull McTyres 
Dochter call it Katherene, quhairby the Ross are call it Clanlanders.' Should 
I be able to learn anything further of the Rosses of Little Tarrell and Bal- 
blair, I shall inflict another long letter on you." 

Memoranda by General Meredith Read. 
The following notes concerning the Ross family and the Abbacy of Fearn 
were made by General Meredith Read in the library of the Marquess of Bute, 
at Mount Stuart, Rothesay, Isle of Bute, September 7, 1877, and are from 
" Origines Parochiaies Scotiae " ("The Antiquities, Ecclesiatical and 
Territorial, of the Parishes of Scotland"), volume two, Edinburgh, 1855, 
published by the Bannatyne Club, and contributed by the Duke of Sutherland 
and the Right Hon. Sir David Dundas: 

Between the years 1561 and 1566 we have the following rental of the 
Abbey given by Nicholas Ros (Ross) as commandator of Feme to the 
Collector of Thirds — " First, the landis contennit in the laird of Bal- 
langownis feu chartour, Invercarroun, Vestir Ferine, Downy, Westray, Mul- 
darg, Knockydaff, Myltoun, Balanock, Midilgany. Pitkery, the Manes of 
Fearine, Eister Gany, Wastir Gany. Meikill Rany, Baillieblair (Balblair) the 
Dow Croft, Brighous, Mylecroft, and Weitland and the fishing of Bonach ; 

* * * p. 437 of this book. 

* * * In 1570 King James VI, for the good service done by Alexander 
Suthirland during the regency of James Earl of Murray and subsequently, 
granted to him for life a yearly pension of 80 bolls of victual out of two 
thirds of the bishoprick of Ross, then vacant by the forfeiture of John bishop 
of Ross for treason and lese majesty; and as security he granted to him the 
tenual victual of the lands of Eister Gany, Midgany, Westir Gany Balleblair 
and Mekill Gany in the parish of Tarbet. * * * Pages 438-439. * * * 
In 1606 James Gordoune of Letterfurie was served heir to his father Patrick 
Gordoune of Letterfurie in the manor of Feme the lands of * * * Bal- 
blair * * * page 440. * * * In 1643 Sir James Sinclair of Cannesbye, 
Baronet, was served heir male to his grandfather George Sinclair of May in 
half the manor of Feme of old called the Monastery of Feme, the lands and 
town of Eistir Gany and called Mid Ganye * * * the lands of Belblaire 

* * * all in the baronye of Ganyes and Shereiffdom of Inverness, and 
united into the barony of Cadball * * * p. 440. In the Abbey Church of 
Fearn there is a stone effigy of Ferquhard, Earl of Ross, page 441. 

For an account of the arms and clan of Ross, see Hist, of the Scottish 
Highlands, Highland Clans and Highland Regiments, edited by John S. 
Keltie, F. S. A. Scot, published by A. Fullerton and Co., Edinburgh and 
London, 1875, Vol. II, pp. 235-237. 


THE family of Monro (or Munro) of Allan were in early times vassals 
of the Earls of Ross, and their lands lay along the north shore of the 
Cromartie Firth. Their possession of Foulis Castle has been ascribed 
to a period beyond written record. They are chiefs of the Clan Monro. 
Robert Monro, who succeeded his father of the same name but fell at Pinkie in 
1747, married first a daughter of James Ogilvy and had two sons, Robert and 
Hector. He married, secondly, Katherine. daughter of Alexander Ross, by 
whom he had George Obsdale, ancestor of the third and succeeding baronet; 
the Fourth, John of Daan ; the Fifth, Andrew of Daan. 

Daan House is situated in Edderton Parish on the borders of the burn 
called Daan. in Ross-shire. The latter is formed by two head streams and 
running 2% miles N. N. E., reaches the North Dornach Firth at Ardmore 
Point, 1 34 miles West by North Mickle Ferry. Daan House is about 
one mile from the old mansion of Balblair. the ancient residence of the 
Rosses of Balblair, which has long since disappeared. 

Tbe Monro arms are: Or, an eagle, head erased gu. Crest — An eagle 
perching proper. Motto — Dread God. Tbe seat of .Monro of Allan is Allan 
House, Tain, Co. Ross. 

The descent of the family from Hugh Monro, thirteenth Baron of Foulis, 
to David .Monro, of Allan, who married Elizabeth, daughter of David Ross, 
of Balblair, is as follows: 

Hugh Monro, 13th Baron of Foulis. in 1425. married, first a daughter of 
Keith, Earl Marischal. which lady died in giving birth to her first 
son. He married, second, the Lady Margaret Sutherland, daughter 

of Nicholas, Earl of Sutherland, and had by her one son 

John Monro, ancestor of the Monros, Lairds of Milntown, Co. Ross. 

His grandson 

Andrew Monro, of Milntown, acquired large possessions by his wife, 

married in 151 1. He was succeeded in the estate of Milntown 

by bis eldest son, George Monro, and gave the lands of Allan 

and Allanmore to his second son, William Monro. 

William Monro, of Allan, Esq.. born 1535. married Catherine, 

daughter of Brigadier Shaw. Their son 

Andrew Monro, of Allan. Esq., born 1560, married Mary Ross. 

Their son 

David Monro, ot Allan, Esq.. born in 1600, was married, 

and his son 

David Monro, of Allan, born in 1640, was captain in 
Earl of Rothes' Horse; fell at the battle of the 
Bovne. He married Mary, daughter of Sir John 
Davis, of Whitehall, Carrickfergus, and grand- 

Monro of Allan. 135 

daughter of Sir John Davis, Attorney-General of 

Ireland. Their son 

David Monro, of Allan, Esq., was the ancestor of 
the present David Monro, Esq., of Allan, Co. 
Ross. J. P. and D. L. for Cos. Ross and Cro- 
marty. (Burke, Landed Gentry.) He mar- 
ried Elizabeth Ross, daughter of David Ross, 
of Balblair, and his wife, Margaret. 


In the early part of May, 1888, in the course of his researches, General 
Meredith Read discovered that Monro of Allan, Ross-shire, was, like himself, 
a descendant of David Ross of Balblair and Balloun. He accordingly 
addressed a letter to David Monro, Esq., of Allan, County Ross, J. P. and 
D. L. for the counties of Ross and Cromarty, formerly in the Seventy-sixth 
Regiment, and received the following reply : 

Allan By Tain, Ross-shire. N. B. 
igth May, 1888. 

Dear General Read. — I am in receipt of your friendly letter. I am 
proud to think that we are related. I am no genealogist, but my daughter 
is very strong in that line, and she will write to you about Ross of Balblair 
and Monro of Allan. 

Should anything bring you to Scotland we will be delighted to see you 
and most cordially welcome you here. 
I remain, Dear General Read, 

Yours very truly, 

D. Monro. 

This was followed by a letter from Miss Leila Monro, dated 19th May, 
1888, as follows: 

Dear General Read.— I have great pleasure in giving you all the infor- 
mation I can regarding our mutual ancestor. Unlike my father, I am 
very fond of genealogies and antiquities, and have often puzzled myself 
over the total disappearance of the Rosses of Balblair. We see in Burke 
your most distinguished career fully described and we did not know that 
the Rosses had any descendant of such talent and energy. I regret to say 
that I have nothing belonging to the family save one old book of 1696 
and a family dictionary well bound and full of wonderful prescriptions and 
so forth, — David Ross's name being well-written on its strong boards. The 
marriage contract between David Monro and Elizabeth Ross is also in my 
father's strong box. Many slips of Monro parchments and papers of very 
early date, but no Ross documents save this contract. I have never heard 
of any portraits of these Rosses and the estate has been sold and bought 
over and over again, divided and so forth. One-half is now a shooting and 
the other half is a large farm and huge Whiskey distillery. The nicest part, — 
the shooting — belonged to an English manufacturer. Almost every branch 
of the Ross family is extinct and their estates are merged in the great 
Balnagowan estate which once belonged to our barons of Balnagowan. 
The last Ross, Baron David, died childless in 1714, and hating his next 
heir, Ross of Pitcalnie, he sold the great Balnagowan estate to a Lowland 
Lord, no relation of his, but a great friend, called Lord Ross of Hawk-head 
in Renfrewshire, now represented in the female line by Lord Glasgow. This 
Lord Ross left Balnagowan to his sec?nd son John Ross, who married a 

136 Rosstand. 

daughter of Count Lockhart of Leslie. They had one David who became 
heir of Balnagowan and married another Lockhart of the same family, 
but her husband assumed his wife's name of Ross. These people are the 
immediate ancestors of the present baronet of Balnagowan, and, though of 
extremely ancient and distinguished ancestors, have no descent from the 
Highland Ross of Balnagowan which is quite extinct in the male line, as 
all the Ross families are. Ross of Pitcalnie. the first cadet branch, was 
always acknowledged as Chief of the Clan, though Pitcalnie was a very 
small estate and much in debt. The last laird died four years ago, childless, 
so, having no brother or nephew in the male line, this little property of 
ten thousand acres has gone to the grand-on of his sister, a boy called 
Williamson. My father has a very good oil painting of David Monro, the 
son of Elizabeth Ross. He was a distinguished Edinburgh lawyer and died 
in 1767 when he was succeeded by my grandfather Charles Monro, then 
a boy, who lived to be a great age, my father being in his eightieth year, so 
from the longevity in the family a few lives carry us far back. My father 
has masses of Monro parchments and an extraordinary genealogie of Monro 
and of the old branch, beginning witli the date 1025 and going on lineally 
and distinctly to David Monro and Elizabeth Ross when it closes. It is 
very old and very large and most curious. About nine years ago old Allan 
House was burnt to the ground, but all the valuables were secured with the 
old china and so forth. I hope you will excuse any mistakes in writing. 
I am, 

\ 1 mrs truly, 

Leila Monro. 

On the eighth July following Miss Monro again wrote to General Mere- 
dith Read as follows : 

Dear General Read. — I have been absent for a little visit at Coul, a 
lovely place of Wester Ross, and have lately returned finding your most 
interesting letters. Curiouslv enough, when you visited Scotland in '~J 
my father's old house of Allan was burnt on the 8th June. I was in London 
at" the time, my mother in Ayrshire and my father had just returned in 
time to find his house all burning after having had it painted and done up 
for the rest of his days. Being uninsured, or very triflingly insured, it has 
been a most seriou> misfortune, & all the furniture was burnt with the 
exception of some old cabinets and pictures on the first floor, which were 
got out before the fire approached and all the parchments and papers wh 
were in tin boxes were all saved, but very tine and curious old china was 
lost; some of great value and five good pictures, ornamental not family ones. 

The Duchess of Sutherland is one of our oldest and best friends. Her 
father's place wh she now inhabits is 5 miles only from here — called Tarbet. 
We have often been to Dunrobin in their old gay days. They are now very 
quiet in comparison. Tarbet was once called Milntown and belonged to 
my father's own ancestors Monros of Milntown and New More with a 
dozen other places. These Monros were hereditary sheriffs or maors of 
Ross from 1425 until 1646 when the old castle of Milntown was burnt to the 
ground and all in it — from lighting fires when the chimneys were full of 
jackdaws nests made of dry sticks and straws. In those days there \vere no 
means of arresting a conflagration and then these Monros were ruined and 
sold Milntown to the first Viscount Tarhat who directly changed the name 
to his own title. He was the ancestor of the present Duchess of Sutherland 
and her son bears the title of Viscount Tarbat. She is Countess of Cro- 
martie. We had only this place left — Allan — and here we have been 
ever since then and have not risen to our old standing of great barons. 
Fire pursues the name. Our chief's Castle of Foulis has been burnt 3 
times and the war cry of our clan is " Castle Foulis on fire." I cannot spell 
the Gaelic (translated) which was used in war to gather the forces together. 
You give me all the information I ever had of the extinct Rosses of Balblair. 
All I ever knew was that David Monro's mother was Elizabeth Ross, 
daughter of David Ross of Balblair and his name in that old book. I have 

Monro of Allan and Ross of Balblair. 137 

never heard any one speak of them. When land is lost a family is soon 
forgotten. David Ross's signature though well written is so faint in that 
old faded ink that it would not photograph. I will try to copy it. I wish 
I knew anything to help you in your researches, but except what you have 
yourself told me I know nothing. The house you mention (Daan) belonged 
to Monro of Milntown. They had an enormous property in the tigh of 
Moray, their power was much greater than that of our chief at Foulis. 

Father will hope to see you at the New Allan, not to call but to pay him a 
visit though he is so old that he cannot reckon on many years — though the 
old last often when the young go. 

With many thanks for your letter and my best regards to your ladies, 
believe me dear General Read 

Yours truly, 

Leila Monro. 

The last remark in this letter, — that the old often last when the young 
go — seemed to be prophetic, for General Meredith Read received, on the 
fifth September, a letter addressed to him by Mrs. David Monro, the 
mother, dated Allan by Fearn, Ross-shire, N. B., 3rd September, 1888, as 
follows : 

My Dear Sir. — You will I feel sure be grieved to hear very sad news 
of my beloved daughter who lately corresponded with you. She died on 
the 21st August after a short illness, the result of repeated and neglected 
chills when visiting from home some weeks before. 

Almost the last effort of her pen was answering your last letter and 
though not in her usual health no fatal termination was then expected. To 
her aged father and to me the loss is irreparable. 

She was my only link with the outer world, as I am an invalid & never 
leave our home. She was much loved & appreciated by a large circle of 
friends the names of some of them you will see in the newspaper I send 
you with the account of her funeral : many more wreaths and crosses 
arrived too late & were placed on her grave. My son, Captain David Monro, 
his wife and family are here at present, he, after fourteen years military 
service in India retired, & was appointed Her Majesty's Inspector of Police 
for all Scotland. His wife was a Miss Pelly, whom you will find in Burke 
among the Pelly Baronets. He has three lovely daughters, aged from twenty 
to fifteen years' and three sons. If you ever visit Edinburgh, his home, and 
care to make their acquaintance, I enclose his card. 

Captain D. Monro, 

H. M. Inspector of Constabulary 

for Scotland, 

Nczv Club, Edinburgh & 13 Blantyre Terrace. 

He is of course often absent on his official duties, but his family are only 
absent when here. My poor daughter was looking forward to seeing you 
some time but alas are we not daily learning that " L'homme propose et Dieu 
dispose." Death has robbed every house in this county of one of its chief 
members, to God's will we must all bend. 

I think my dear daughter told you that our house was burnt about the 
time you visited the North, and we were away pending the building of a 
new one. Excuse this badly expressed, and still worse written letter, but 
it has been an effort I have been wishing to make. 

I remain most truly yours, 

Elizabeth Monro. 

Extract From the Northern Chronicle, Wednesday, August 29, 1888. 

The Late Miss Monro of Allan. — The funeral of the late Elizabeth 

Leila Monro, eldest daughter of David Monro of Allan, took place at Kilmuir 

on Saturday and although intended to be strictly private, many friends kindly 

138 Rossi cvia. 

attended. The service was conducted by the Rev. Canon Thoyts, St. 
Andrews, Tain. Beautiful wreaths and crosses were sent by the Duchess 
of Sutherland; Mrs. F. M. Reid; the hon. Mrs. E. Willoughby; Sir Hector 
and Lady Monro of Foulis ; Sir Charles and Lady Ross of Balnagowan, and 
Miss Barnes ; Lady and Miss Mackenzie of Coul ; Mrs. Monro-Ferguson 
of Raith and Novar; Mrs. Romaines of Geanies House; Miss Murray of 
Geanies ; Mrs. Murray, Kirkton; Mrs. Brydone, Cromarty; Sir Kenneth 
Matheson of Lochalsh and Ardross ; the servants at Allan and many others. 
The chief-mourners were Mr. Monro of Allan ; Captain and Mrs. David - 
Monro and their sons and daughters; Sir Hector Monro of Foulis; Sir 
Arthur Mackenzie of Coul; Admiral Mackenzie, Coul, and Major F. M. 
Reid, Golspie. 

Mrs. Monro wrote again from Allan on the 29th March, 1890. 

Dear General Read. — In your last letter, written at the time of my dear 
daughter's death, you kindly said that you and Mrs. Read would be pleased 
to see any member of our family if they visited Paris. 

A niece of Mr Monro, Mrs Fraser, a widow, and her only daughter 
propose going there for a short time. The health and spirits of the latter 
have been sadly shaken by the sudden death of her only sister nearly a year 
ago at the age of 18. Her husband was Mr Fraser of Eskadale an estate 
in this county, sold at his death to Lord Lovat as a provision for her chil- 
dren. They have lived abroad frequently, speak French fluently and I hope 
you may all find them agreeable. 

The universal epidemic we observed, was very severe in Paris. I trust 
you and your family escaped its attacks. 

In this country it assumed rather a milder type, but everyone felt it more 
or less. Many sad events have occurred since our short correspondence. 
The loss of our oldest and dear friend the Duchess of Sutherland we have 
deeply deplored. Her family estate and one of her houses — Tarbet House — 
is only four miles from here, and she never failed to visit us when staying 
there, and a fortnight before her death and on the eve of her last journey 
southwards, she sat an hour with me. then suffering from bronchitis and 
quite unfit for the long journey and all the last fatiguing efforts she maae 
to see her husband. It was all a tragedy, and what a result ! ! We knew 
her from her childhood and I write of her now remembering you have 
mentioned your visit to Dunrobin. I have been reading an interesting book, 
" Motley's Letters, etc." and have been fancying you may have known him 
or met him in the diplomatic service. He was a short time U. S. Minister 
to London and Vienna. His eldest daughter married Sir Harcourt. 

Please accept our united kind regards. * * * 

Mr Munro was eighty-one years his last birthday and I only four years 
younger, so you may fancy our time here must soon come to a close. I wish 
we had known vou in earlier davs. 



THE Highlanders of old were extravagant in their funeral and marriage 
and ordinary social functions. The following list of the people invited 
to the funeral of Hugh Munro, of Teaninich, shows to what pitch 
funeral extravagance could rise, even in the case of a family of moderate estate 
at the beginning of Queen Anne's reign ; for be it remembered that all who 
attended were profusely entertained as invited guests. The list, however, is 
more deserving of publication on another account than the pointing out a 
moral and a contrast of changed customs. It indicates the men of influence, 
and importance over a wide district who were connected with or known to 
the Teaninich family. How many of them are represented to-day by descen- 
dants in the places which belonged to them? How many names have in two 
centuries dropped out of local existence altogether? 

Copy of the Funeral Letter Used in Connection with this Funeral. 

Much honored, — The honour of your presence on Thursday next be ten 
of the cloak in the forenoon, being the twenty-third inst., and to convoy ye 
corps off Hugh Munro of Teaninich, my grandfather, from his dwelling- 
house, att Milnetoune off Alnes, to his buriall place at Alnes.-— Is earnestly 
intreated, much honored, your most humble servt.. HUGH MUNRO. 

Milnetoune of Alness, 18th Sept., 1703. 

Ane List of the Gentlemen Invited to the Deceased Hugh Munro off 
Teaninich His Buriall, 17TH Sept., 1703. 
Contoune Paroch (Contin). 
Mr iEneas Morison, minister, yr. (there) 
Sir John Mackenzie off Cowll 
Mr Symon Mackenzie off Torridon 
Kenneth Mackenzie, younger off Torridon 
Alex. Mackenzie, son to Mr Symon Mackenzie off Torridon 
Kenneth Mackenzie in Tarvie 
Lachlane Mackenzie off Assint 

Mr Wm. Mackenzie, broyther German to ye Laird of Cowll 
Mr Duncan Murchison, chaplan to ye Laird of Cowll 

Note. — Among the names appearing here are those of David Ross of Balblair; 
Andrew Stronach of Little Allan; David Ross, Chief of the Clan of Ross, Laird of 
Balnagown (who married Lady Anna Stewart, daughter of James Earl of Moray), who 
died eight years later, in 1711, and was succeeded as Chief by the Laird of Pitcalnie 
v.'hose name is also found in this list of 1703. 

140 Rossi an a. 

Ffodertie Paroch. 

Mr George Mackenzie off Ballamuchie 

The Laird of Davochmaluack 

Mr John Mackenzie 

Mr Rorie Mackenzie, broyr. German to Davochmaluack off Cross 

Kenneth Mackenzie, broyr. German to Davochmaluack 

John Bain in Inch Rorie 

John Macleod, chamberlain to ye Viscount Tarbot 

Kenneth Mackenzie, broyr. German to Ballamuchie. 

Urray Paroch. 
Roderick Mackenzie off Farburne 
Colline Mackenzie off Dunglust 
James Macrae off Ballnaine 
Murdoch Mackenzie in Brahan 
George Fraser in Brahan 

Colline Mackenzie, broyr. German to ye Laird of Farburne 
Win. Ffraser in Brahan 
John Tuach off Logie Rich 
John Ffraser, chamberlain to Garloch 
Mr Hector Mackenzie off Kinkoll 
George Tuach in Cribo House 
John Munro in Aulogourie 
Mr John Cameron, town elk. off Dingwall 
The Laird off Killiehulldrum 
and Ken. Mackenzie, his son 
Kenneth Mackenzie in Ord 
Thomas Mackenzie of Ord 

The Laird off Tulloch, elder 

Mr Kenneth Bain, son to Sir Donald Bain off Tulloch 
Roderick Dingwall off Ussie 
Donald Dingwall, late Baillie of Dingwall 
Donald Bayne, broyer to Knockbayn 
Kenneth Mackenzie, late Baillie of Dingwall 

The Much Hond. the Magistracy and haile Incorporation off Dingwal 
Donald Maclennan in Knock Coptor 

Urquhart and Loggie Paroch. 
The Laird off Culloden, younger 
Collin Mackenzie off Findon 
The Laird of Scattwall 
Donald Rhiach in Killbockie 
Mr And. Ross, minister att Crquhart 
Donald Simpson off Neyr. Calcraggie 

Alex. Simson in Fferintosh 

Alex. Ffraser in Fferintosh 
Rorie Mackenzie in Fferintosh 

Funeral of Hugh Munro of Teaninich. 141 

Duncan Munro in Knocknairraid 

Robt. Alex, and John Munro in Ballnabing 

Alex. Mackenzie in Fferintosh 

Hector Urquhart in Fferintosh 

The Laird off Red Castle, elder and younger 
Mr Charles Mackenzie off Cullbo 
Rorie Tuiach in Red Castle 
Mr Andrew Junor, Governour to younger Red Castle 

Kilmuir Wester. 

The Laird off Ballmaduthy younger 
Captain John Macintosh off Drynie 
John Mackenzie in Wester Kossock 
The Laird off Allangrange 
Colline Mackenzie in Easter Kossock 

Suddy Paroch. 

The Laird off Suddy 

John Matheson off Bonnedgeffeild 

Mr Thomey Ffraser, minister in Suddy 

The Laird off Ballmaikduthie elder 

Mr Roderick Mackenzie, Muir off Avoch 

Hugh Baillie, Sheriff-Clerk off Ross 

The Laird off Drynie 

The Laird off Inchcultor 

George Graham, bailie of Ffortrose 

Alex. Baillie, notry pub. in Ffortrose 

Wm. Tolmie Baillie off Chanory 

The Magistrates and Incorporation off Chanory 

Mr George Gordon, minister off Rosemarkine 

John Millar, portioner off Rosenmarkney 

Andrew Millar off Kincurdie 

Alex. Gowan. son to Baillie Gowan off Rosenmarkney 

Alexr. Lessley off Ratherys 

The Laird off Kinock 

The Laird off Findrossie 


Alex. Davidson, Sheriff-Clk. off Cromarty 

Thomas Cluies, mert. off Cromarty 

Alexr. Cluies off Dunskoith and 

Jo. Cluies, his son 

George Macleoud in Doubistoune 

George Macculloch off Ketwall 

Mr Thomas Macculloch, schoolmaster in Cromerty 

Wm. Ross. mert. in Cromerty 

David Macculloch of Davidstoune 

i_p Rossiana. 

Kirkmihell Paroch. 
The Laird off Newhall eldor 
David Ffraser of Main 
Wm. Urquhart off Braelangvvell 
Gilbert Barclay in Ballcherry, and his son 
George Macculloch, Fferytoune 
Thomas Urquhart, the Laird of Kinbeachie 
Mr David Kingtoune in St Martins 

Kilteam Paroch. 
Alexr. Munro off Killchoan 
And. Munro in Loamlair 
George Munro off Loamlair 
Captain John Mackenzie off Clynes 
John Junr, Loamlair 
Sir Robert Munro off Ffoulis 
Ffarquhar Maclean in Ardulzie 
Mr John Bethune off Culnaskea younger 
Wm. Munro off Swordoll 
Hector Munro off Drumond 
Ffarquhar Munro, tutor off Teanaird 
James Munro, tutor off Ardulzie 
Bailie Davie Rose 
Mr Wm. Stewart, minister 
John Munro off Teanrivan 
Ffrancis Robertson in Kiltearn, and 
Gilbert, Colline. James, and George 
Robert Douglas, and Mr Do. Bain in Teannord, and John Ffearnc- 

Mr John Mackenzie in Assint 
Hugh Munro in Teanacraig 
David Munro, tutor off Ffyres 
Mr Jo. M'Gilligen off 
Arthur Fforbes in Contullich 
Patrick Beaton in Cowll 
Mr. John Fraser, minister of Alness 
Mr John Munro off Cowll, Dr. of medicine 
Alex. MTntosh of Lealdie 
Donald Munro of Easter Lealdie 
Wm Munro off Cullcraggie 


Murdoch M'Kenzie off Ardross 

John Mackenzie, Broyr. german to Ardross 

Colline Robertson off Kindeace 

Wm. Robertson, younger off Kindeace 

George Robertson, son to Kindeace 

Robert Mason in Neonokill 

Funeral of Hugh Munro of Tcaninich. 143 

Wm. Grant in Bridgend 

John Grant in Dallmore 

The Laird off Cullrayte 

Mr Alex Gordon, broyr. to Dallfolly 

Adam Gordon, broyr. German to Dallfolly 

Mr Wm. Gordon, his governor 

Wm. Dallas younger off Breachly 

The Laird of Newmore 

Walter Innes at Inverbreakig 

Hugh Innes younger 

Hugh Innes in Rosskeen 

Walter Innes in Braddanneish 

George Abernethy in Inverbreakig 

Colline Mackenzie off Pittlundie 

Mr Wm. Mackenzie, minister of Rosskeen 

Donald Aird in Neonakill 

John Aird in Kincraig 

Hugh Suyrland in Inverbreakie 

Donald Ross in the Ord of Inverbreakys 

H. Ross his broyr. 

Alex. Sword in Inverbreakie 

Killmuire Easter. 

Mr Daniell Macgilligin, minister off Killmuire 
The Minister of Tarbot Ranald Bayn 
The Laird of Knockbayne, younger and eldor 
John Macdonald off Knocknapark, younger 
Alex. Macdonald off Badie Bea 
Roderick Bayn off Green Hill 
Donald Macgoir in Tullich 
And. Munro in Delny 
George Munro in Priesthill 
Alex. Suyrland off Inchfure 
Murdoch Mackenzie, chamberlain to ye minister 
And. Tailler off Tarbot, Milnebuie 
. The Laird off Ballnagowne 1 
David Ross, chief of the Clan 

Mr D. Fforbes, late minister off Killmuir, and his broyr. Alex. Fforbes 
John Munro off Loggie 

iThe Laird of Balnagown, in 1703, was DAVID ROSS, chief of the Clan of Ross, 
being thirteenth of Balnagown, son and heir to his father the 6th October, 1657, in the 
lands of Strathoykell, Inverchasley and others, Commissioner of Supply, Ross-shire, 
1678-1685, M. P., Ross-shire, 1669-1674, Sheriff, 1689. He obtained the charter to himself 
and Frances Stewart of the lands and barony of Balnagown undei the Great Seal, 
20th July, 16S8. He was born the 14th September, 1644, and consequently when he 
attended the funeral of Hugh Munro of Teaninich, in September, 1703, he was 59 years 
old. He died the 17th July, 1711, without issue, having married (Sasine on marriage- 
contract 10th April, 1666) Lady Anne Stewart, daughter of James, Earl of Moray: she 
died 1719. Various settlements were proposed for establishing the succession to the 

144 Rossiana. 

Loggie Paroch. 
Mr Kenneth Mackenzie, minister of Loggie 
George Mackenzie in Blackhill 
Mr Robert Ross off Loggie 
Angus Macculloch in Drumgillie 
David Macculloch off Glastulich 
Hugh Munro in Glastulich 
Hugh Ross off Langwell 
David Ffearn in Callrossie 
Donald Mackenzie off L. Meddatt 
David Ross in Calrossie 

Ffearne Paroch. 
Win. Ross off Eastor Ffearne 
George Munro in Muckle Allan 
James Ross off Uge 
John Ross off Auchnacloich 
John Fforester off Danskoith 
Alexr. Fforester off Cullnanild 
Mr Hugh Duff, minister off Ffearne 
Mr John McCulloch 
David Ross off Ballblair 
And. Stronach off Little Allan 
Mr Wm. Cockburne off Millne Riggs 
Mr Alexr. Ross off Pitkery 
Hugh Ross off Little Tarrell 
Rory Ffowler, portioner off Mukle Allan 

Tarbal Paroch. 
The Laird off Ardloch 
Alexr. Ross off Little Tarrell 
Alex. Munro, Chamberlain to the Mr off Tarbot 
James McKenzie in Mukle Tarrole 
The Laird off Dumbeath 

Alexr. McCulloch, Chamberlain to Gordonstonne 
The Laird off Pitcallney 
The Laird off Auldie, elder and younger 

broad lands of Balnagown, which, bj document registered at Fortrose in 168S, consisted 
of forty-eight properties. Eventually it passed out of the hands of the old family to 
Lieutenant-General Charles Ross, of an ancient Lowland family, in nowise connected 
with the Earls of Ross, and finally came to Sir James Ross Lockhart, and is now in 
the possession of his descendant, Sir Charles Henry Augustus Frederick Ross. 

The Laird of Pitcalnie. in 1703, was Malcolm Ross, fifth of Pitcalnie, who, on the 
death of his cousin, David Ross, thirteenth of Balnagown without issue in 1711, became 
the male representative of the Earls of Ross of the old creation, and chief of the family. 
In 1706, he was Commissioner of Supply. On the 12th March, 1708, he had a charter 
of adjudication and resignation of his lands under the Great Seal. By Sasine 23d 
August, 1720, Alexander Forrester of Culnald ceded to him the quarter-lands of Annate 
in the Parish of Nigg. In 1721 he is styled Burgess of Tain. He married, first, in 
1706, Jean, eldest daughter of Mr. James McCulloch of Piltoun. 

Funeral of Hugh Munro of Tcaninich. 145 

Nigg Paroch. 
Thomas Gair, portioner off Xigg, and his son 
James Ross in Pittgllass 
David Ross in Annat 
James Rose, Chamberlain to Killravock 
And. Ross in Shandwick 
Alex. Gair in Nigg 

Ta inc. 
Wm. Grant off Ballkoith 
And. Ross off Pitteggarty 
The Provost of Tayne 

The Magistrates and Town Councill of Tayne 
Mr Hugh Munro, minr. off Tayne 
Charles Manson, Town Clerk 
David Ffearne off Tarloggie 
Rorie Dingwall off Cambusburry 
John Munro in Tayne 

Eddertoune Paroch 
David Ross in Eddertoune 
Arthur Ross his son 

Mr Arthur Suyrland, Muir off Eddertoune 
Alexr. Munro off Dahan 
Hector Munro, younger off Dahan 
Hugh Simpson and his son 
Mr Wm. Innas in Ffearne 
And. Ross off Shandwick 
David Ross in Airdguise 
Mr Hector Ffraser, minr. off Kincardine 
Robt. Ross Munro off Auchnagart 
John Munro off Inveran 

Hugh Munro, younger, and K. Munro, son to Inveran 
Wm. More off Linsed More 
John Munro off Little Atas 
John Munro in Invernauild 
Hector Munro in Teainleig 
James Ross of Knockan 
Wm. Munro in Auchnaluibach 


Mr James Ffraser off Phopachy and Alexr. his son 

The Laird off Auchnagairne 

The Laird off Rilitt, eldor and younger 

And. Ffraser off Bannanie 

Provost Duff 


Alexr. Duff off Drunmuire 

Baillie Barbour . ' 

146 Rossiana. 

Go. Macintosh, baillie 

Robt. Rose, baillie 

Captain Alexr. Stewart 

Murdoch Ffeilcl 

Tho. Lindsay 

Ja. Thomson 

Thomas Ffraser 

John Locart 

Mr Hector Mackenzie, minister 

Mr Robt. Baillie 

John Robertson, apothecary, yr. (there) 

John Taillor, slir., yr. 

George M'Gilligen, apothecary, yr. 

David Stewart, mert. yr. (merchant there) 

David Maccay, mer, yr. 

John Macbean, mrt, yr. 

John Stewart, messgr., Inverness (messenger?) 

Castlehill, elder and younger, and Mr James his son 

John Cuthbert. Provost off Inverness 

David Cuthbert off Drakies 

The Laird off Inches 

And. Munro Wright 

MacLean, Baillie off Inverness 

Charles MacLean, Town Clk. off Inverness 
Alex. Maclean, mert., Inverness 
Mr John Mackintosh, advocat 
Mr James Maclean, Dr of medicine yr. 
John Maclean, mert., off Inverness 
Alex. Mackintosh, mert., off Inverness 
George Duncan, mert. yr. 
Alex. Dunbar of Barrmukaly 
James Dunbar, mert., Inverness 

The Magistrates and Town Councill and Incorporation off the Burgh off 

Suyrland (Sutherland). 

Mr George Gray off Creich 

John Gray off Newtonne 

Robt. Gray off Skibow 

Alex. Gray off Skibow 

Captain Hugh Mackay off Skowly 

Alex. Suyrland off Mukle Torboll 

Mr David Suyrland off Camisavy 

John Munro off Rogard 

Mr Robt. off Sallach 

Sir John Gordon off Enbow 

Wm. Suyrland off Ham 

W. U., F. S. A. SCOT. 


[From Narratives of Sorcery and Magic, by Thomas Wright, Esqre., M, A., F. S. A., 
Etc., Member of the National Institute of France.] 

r t* I 1 HE next case, or rather cases of witchcraft in the Scottish annals, is 
of more fearful and more criminal character than either of the 
preceding. The chief persons implicated were Katherine Munro, 
Lady Fowlis, wife of the chief of the clan of Munro, and Hector Munro, the 
son of the baron of Fowlis by a former wife. The Lady Fowlis was by birth 
Katharine Ross of Balnagown ; and in consequence of family quarrels and 
intrigues, she had laid a plot to make away with Robert Munro, her husband's 
eldest son, in order that his widow might be married to her brother George 
Ross, laird of Balnagown, preparatory to which it was also necessary to effect 
the death of the young Lady Balnagown. The open manner in which the pro- 
ceedings of Lady Fowlis were caried on, affords a remarkable picture of the 
barbarous state of society among the Scottish clans at this period. Among 
her chief agents were Agnes Ross, Christian Ross and Major Neyne 
MacAlester, the latter better known by the name of Loskie Loncart, and all 
three described as "notorious witches:" another active individual was 
named William McGillevorddine, and there were a number of other sub- 
ordinate persons of very equivocal character. As early as the midsummer 
of 1576, it appears from the trial that Agnes Ross was sent to bring Loskie 
Loncart to consult with Lady Fowlis, who was advised " to go into the 
hills to speak with the elf-folk," and learn from them if Robert Munro and 
Lady Balnagown would die, and if the laird of the Balnagown would 
marry Robert's widow; and about the same time, these two women made 
clay images of the two individuals who were to die, for the purpose of 
bewitching them. Poison was also adopted as a surer means of securing their 
victims, and the cook of the laird of Balnagown was bribed to their interests. 
The deadly ingredients were obtained by William MacGillvorddin, at 
Aberdeen, under pretense of buying poison for rats; it was administered by 
the cook just mentioned, in a dish sent to the Lady Balnagown's table, 
and another accomplice, who was present, declared " that it was the sairest 
and maist cruell sicht that evir sho saw seing the vomit and the vexacioun 
that was on the young Lady Balnagown and hir company." However, 
although the victim was thrown into a miserable and long-lasting illness, the 
poison did not produce immediate death, as was expected. From various 
points in the accusation, it appears that the conspirators were actively 
employed in devising means of effecting their purpose from the period 
mentioned above till the Easter of the following year, by which time the 
deadly designs of the Lady Fowlis had become much more comprehensive, 
and she aimed at no less than the destruction of all the former family of her 
husband, that their inheritance might fall to her own children. In May, I577- 
William McGillevordin was asked to procure a greater quantity of poison, the 

148 Rossi ana. 

preceding dose having been insufficient; but he refused unless her brother, the 
laird of Balnagown, were made privy to it, a difficulty which was soon got 
over, and it appears that the laird was, to a certain degree, acquainted with 
the proceedings. A potion of a much more deadly character was now 
prepared, and two individuals, the nurse of the Lady Fowlis and a boy, 
were killed by accidentally tasting of it; but we are not told if any of the 
intended victims fell a sacrifice. The conspirators had now again recourse 
to witchcraft, and in June, 1577, a man obtained for the Lady Fowlis an 
" elf arrow-head," for which she gave him four shillings. The " elf arrow- 
head " was nothing more than one of those small rude weapons of flint 
belonging to a primeval state of society which are often met with in 
turning up the soil, and which the superstitious peasantry of various 
countries have looked upon as the offensive arms of fairies and witches. On 
the second and sixth of July Lady Fowlis and her accomplices held two 
secret meetings; at the first they made an image of butter to represent 
Robert Munro, and. having placed it against the wall of the chamber, 
Loskie Loncart shot at it eight times with the elf arrow-head, but always 
missed it; and at the second meeting they made a figure of clay to represent 
the same person at which Loskie shot twelve times, but with no better 
success in spite of all their incantations. This seems to have been a source of 
superstitious feeling, and this ceremony was to have insured Robert Munro's 
great disappointment, for they had brought fine linen cloth, in which the 
figures, if struck by the elf arrow-head, were to have been wrapped, and so 
buried in the earth at a place which seems to have been consecrated by 
death. In August another elf arrow-head was obtained, and towards 
Hallowmass another meeting was held, and two figures of clay made, one 
for Robert Munro and the other for the lady; Lady Fowlis shot two shots 
at Lady Balnagown and Loskie Loncart shot three at Robert Munro. but 
neither of them were successful, and the two images were accidentally 
broken, and thus the charm was destroyed. They now prepared to try 
poison again, but Christiane Ross, who had been present at the last meeting, 
was arrested towards the end of November, and, being put to the torture, 
made a full confession, which was followed by the seizure of some of her 
accomplices, several of whom, as well as Christiane Ross, were " convicted 
and burnt." The Lady Fowlis fled to Caithness, and remained there nine 
months, after which she was allowed to return to her home. Her husband 
died in 1588, and was succeeded by Robert Munro, who appears to have 
revived the old charge of witchcraft against his stepmother, for in 1589 he 
obtained a commission for the examination of witches, among whose names 
were those of Lady Fowlis and some of her surviving accomplices. She 
appears to have warded off the danger by her influence and money for some 
months, until July 22, 1590, when she was brought to her trial, her 
accuser being Hector Munro. This trial offered one of the first instances 
of acquittal of the charge of sorcery, and it has been observed that there 
are reasons for thinking the case was brought before a jury packed for that 
purpose. It is somewhat remarkable that while the Lady Fowlis was thus 
attempting the destruction of her stepchildren, they were trying to effect, 
by the same means, the death of her own son. Immediately after her 

Witchcraft in Scotland. 149 

acquittal, on the same day, the 226. of July, 1590, Hector Munro (her 
accuser) was put on his trial before a jury composed of nearly the same 
persons, for practicing the same crime of sorcery. It is stated in the charge 
that, when his brother Robert Munro had been grievously ill in the summer 
of 1588. Hector Munro had assembled "three notorious and common 
witches," to devise means to cure him, and had given harbour to them 
several days, until he was compelled to dismiss them by his father, who 
threatened to apprehend them. Subsequent to this, in January, 1588 (i. e., 
1589, according to the modern reckoning), Hector became himself suddenly ill, 
upon which he sent one of his men to seek a woman named Marion 
Maclngaruch " one of the maist notorious and rank witches in all this 
redline," and she was brought to the house in which he was lying sick. 
After long consultation and having given him " three drinks of water out 
of three stones which she had," she declared that there was no remedy 
for him unless the principal man of his blood should suffer death for him. 
They then held further counsel and came at last to the conclusion that the 
person who must be his substitute was George Munro, the eldest son of the 
Lady Fowlis, whose trial has just been described. The ceremonies which 
followed are some of the most extraordinary. 


MANY years ago I visited Balblair and Balnagown Castle, the ancient 
seat of my ancestors, and also the chief of the clan, Mr. Ross of 
At Balnagown Castle Lady Ross took me all over the house and was most 
kind in inviting me to dinner. The Duchess of Sutherland, the friend of 

Queen Victoria, invited 
me to come and spend 
ten days at Dunrobin 
Castle, one of the most 
beautiful places in all 
Scotland. 1 he Duchess 
of Sutherland was then 
one of the most charming 
and beautiful women in 
the United Kingdom. 
Her grace and loveliness 
were noted. She was 
also a descendant of the 
Earls of Ross, and very 
proud she was of that de- 
scent. My father was a 
great friend of Her 
Grace and was on inti- 
mate terms with both her 
husband, the Duke, and 
herself. He spent many 
happy hours at Dunrobin. 
I was unfortunately un- 
able to go as I was called 
back to America by the 
death of my mother's 
father. I have a number 
of photographs of the 
Duchess, all signed with 
her name. which she 
gave to my father at dif- 
ferent times. Perhaps it 
may not be out of place to tell a little story in regard to one of 
these photographs. It was framed in an ornamental frame of wood 
and stood on the mantel in the guest room in my house in Albany. In that 
room had hung the portrait of the famous Hon. John Ross, Royal Attorney- 
General, and it had been removed only a short time before to place it along 

Duchess of Sutherland. 

A Visit to Balblair and Balnagozcn Castle. 151 

with that of his daughter, Mrs. Captain Gurney, in the drawing-room 
downstairs. One night a young cousin of ours. Miss Julia Ross Potter, who 
was a direct descendant of the Ross family, was awakened by some one 
moving in this room where she had been sleeping, and as if the person had 
been startled by something and had let the picture slip from between his 
fingers, there was a slight crash and all was silent. Miss Potter sprang out 
of bed, lighted the light and found, to her dismay, that the photograph of 
the Duchess of Sutherland had fallen near her bed, which was on the other 
side of the room, and that the frame was in pieces. The most extraordinary 
thing about it all was that the photograph leaned against the wall and 
something had been put in front of it to prevent its falling. It was abso- 
lutely impossible for it to have fallen without something moving it. 

It was in the year A. D. 1881 I had walked from the city of Tain, w r here 
I was stopping at the Ross Arms, to Balblair, the seat of my ancestors, the 
Ross's. There I found a new, large and comfortable house that a few 
years before had taken the place of the original picturesque and rambling 
manor house, with its pepper-box tower and coat of arms carved over the 
door. Mr. James Ross, a member of the clan, received me with great kind- 
ness and showed me all over the place and took me to the famous Daan 
house, now a peasant's dwelling. Towards evening we rambled back to the 
house at Balblair and were received by the charming lady who did the 
hospitalities of Mr. Ross' mansion. Many of the gentry came to dinner that 
night, and we sat over our cigars and whiskey (at least they did, for I only 
could take sherry in those days) and amusing stories were told, and the 
laugh went around the board as the evening grew older. At about eleven 
o'clock I arose to say good-night, for I had a long walk before me. They 
all came down to the gate to say good-bye, and with many a kindly word 
from each and all I left them. 

For a part of the way the road ran between a wood and an arm of the 
sea, and. in deed, the waves were not far away from the side of the road 
away from the wood. 

It was a sad, solemn night. Even- little while the moon would come 
out of the clouds for a moment and then half go back. I had walked 
about a quarter of that part of the road which ran between the wood and 
the sea when I stopped, my blood frozen in my veins, my hair standing on 
end, for there, about one hundred feet away from me, stood a figure of white 
light, the figure of a man, which looked at me and flickered like a gas light. 
I tried to advance ; I could not do so ; a great horror and fear was upon me. 
I said a silent prayer and took a pin that I happened to have with me and 
stuck it into my leg. The figure continued to flicker in the middle of the 
road. I could not go back to Balblair and have all those great, strong men 
laugh at me, and I could not advance upon this awful thing in the road. 
Suddenly an old nurse's tale of how at the sign of the cross all evil must 
give way came into my brain. No sooner thought than done, with a look 
of determination I advanced upon the horror in the road, and, as I came 
up to it, I made the sign of the cross and the figure went out as a gas light 
does when you turn it out. I crossed the place where it had stood, and 
after a moment or two was again taken with the strange fright, and, looking 

15-2 Rossi a n a. 

back, saw the figure standing, now turned the other way. looking at me. 
I then lost all courage and took to my heels and ran as hard as I could for 
the good city of Tain, and I can yet remember the feeling of relief when I 
saw the light in the first house on the outskirts of the town. Gratitude is 
too mild a word to use to explain my feelings when I at last saw at the end 
of the street the old painted sign with the Arms of Ross upon it that hung 
over the door of my inn. What was this figure? Was it the result of 
acute indigestion, the play of the imagination and the shadows cast by the 
moon and clouds, or was it truly the spirit of old David Ross, who, during 
his life, had often walked over this road, who had come to warn me? I know 
not what it was. I only know that a day or so after I received a despatch 
telling me that I must return to America as my mother's father was dying. 

H. P. R. 

Descendants of the Earls of Ross 
in America. 






REV. GEORGE ROSS (igye. in Ross Chart) was the second son of 
David Ross of Balblair (197b), and his descent from the ancient 
Earls of Ross is clearly traced through five generations of the Earls, 
four generations of the noble house of Balnagown, one generation of the 
house of Shandwick, five generations of the branch of Bahnachy and two 
generations of the branch of Balblair. He was born at Balblair in 1679, and 
was educated for the Presbyterian ministry, but left that denomination and 
took orders in the Church of England. He came to America in 1703 as a 
missionary of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign 
Parts, locating at Newcastle, Del. He soon rose to prominence, becoming 
one of the pillars of the Episcopal church in the American colonies, and 
acting as chaplain to several of the proprietary governors of Pennsylvania. 
He married, first, Joanna Williams, of Rhode Island, by whom he had six 
children. She died September 29, 1726. act. 36. Her tomb, near the eastern 
gable of Emmanuel Church, bears this inscription : " Memor vertutum Johanna? 
conjugis, honesto genere natal, hoc sepulchrae monumentum maritus georgius 
Ross, Ev : Angelii praeco, extreundum curiast anno acquivit ilia aebatis 
trigesimo Septimo, 29 Sept., 1726. Dixit ei Jesus. Quisquis vivit et credit in 
me 11011 morietur in eternam. Calcanda semel via lethi." 

Rev. George Ross married, secondly, Catherine Van Gezel. of New Castle, 
by whom he had SEven children, among them Colonel George Ross ( 1730-1770). 
a signer of the Declaration of Independence, and Gertrude Ross, who married, 
first, Isaac Till, and, secondly, Hon. George Read, of New Castle, also a signer 
of the Declaration of Independence, thus connecting the two ancient families 
of Ross and Read. Rev. George Ross died at Newcastle, Del. in 1754. 


The descent of Rev. George Ross, of New Castle, Delaware, from the 
ancient Earls of Ross, is contained in the following abstract (the black-face 
figures having reference to the Key Chart of the Ross family shown 
elsewhere) : 

1. Malcolm, first Earl of Ross. (See "Earls of Ross," page 1). 

2. Ferquhard, second Earl of Ross. He had — 

3. William, third Earl of Ross, who married Jean, daughter of William 

Comyn, Earl of Buchan, by whom he had — 

4. William, fourth Earl of Ross, married Euphemia , and 

had — 

5. Hugh, fifth Earl of Ross, married (1308), first, Lady Maude Bruce, 

sister of the King, and, secondly, Margaret, daughter of Sir David 
Graham, of Old Montrose. The Earldom descended to Hugh's 
son William by his first wife. Hugh's son Hugh became — 

156 Rossiana. 

8. Hugh Ross, 1 of Rarichies, first Laird of Balnagown, who married 

Margaret de Barclay, and had — 

9. William, second of Balnagown, who married Christian, daughter of 

Lord Livingstone. Their son and heir was — 

10. Walter, third of Balnagown. He married Katherine, daughter 

of Paul McTyre, and had — 

11. Hugh, fourth of Balnagown, who married Janet, daughter of the 

Earl of Sutherland. The succession of Balnagown passed to 
their son, John, fifth of Balnagown, while their son William, 
who married Greizel McDonald, became the father of — 
143. Walter, 2 first of Shandwick, who married five wives, the first of 
whom, Janet Tulloch, is said to have been the mother of his 
sons. The line of Shandwick passed to Walter's first son, 
Donald, who became second of Shandwick. W'alter's third son 
became — 

191. Hugh. 3 first of Balmachy, or Balla-Muckie. His son — 

192. Donald, second of Balmachy, married Margaret Innes. He 

had — 

193. Walter, third of Balmachy, who married, as second wife, Jean 

Douglas. He had — 

194. Hugh, fourth of Balmachy, who married Katherine Macleod, 

and had — 

195. George, fifth of Balmachy, who married Margaret McCulloch. 

The line of Balmachy passed to Walter, their eldest son, as 

sixth of Balmachy- Andrew, second son of George, 

became — 
197a. Andrew, 4 first of Balblair. He had — 
197b. David, second of Balblair, who married Margaret Stronach, 

and had three sons, Andrew, George and Hugh, the second 

of whom was — 
197e. Rev. George Ross, of New Castle, Delaware. 


The following autobiography of the Rev. George Ross, with the letter pre- 
fixed to it, was copied in 1835, by William Thompson Read, grandson of 
George Read, the " Signer," from an ancient manuscript (itself a copy) in 
the possession of his brother. George Read (3d), of Delaware, the words 
contained between brackets, thus [ ], having been supplied by him, as 
suggested by the context : 

Letter from Rev. George Ross to His Son, John Ross, Esq. 

My very good son — You have, inclosed, an answer to your repeated 
request, wherein you may observe the easy and regular steps [by which] 
Providence conducted me to settle in this country. If my posterity contract 

1 See " Line of Balnagown," page 8. 
2 See " Line of Shandwick," page 31. 
3 See " Branch of Balmachy," page 40. 
4 See " Branch of Balblair," page 44. 

Autobiography of Rev. George Ross. 157 

any blemish, it must be from themselves ; no original gulf can be imputed 
to them. It is well the rise of many families in these parts, like the head 
of the Nile, is unknown, and their glory consists in their obscurity. It is 
your satisfaction that it is otherwise with you ; your escutcheon is without 
blot or stain. Contend, therefore, for the honor of your family by a kind 
and generous behavior toward the several branches of it, relieve them from 
contempt by your beneficence, and put them above the world by exercising 
that ability towards them which God has blessed you with, which, if you 
do, God will gather you, in His good time, to your honest and worthy 
progenitors. I have a quick sense of your filial favors, and you may be 
assured, dear son, that I am your most obliged and affectionate father, 

George Ross. 
John Ross, Esquire. 


George Ross, Rector [as he is styled in his presentation], of the Church 
in New Castle, was second son that came to man's estate of David Ross, of 
Balblair, a gentleman of moderate fortune, but of great integrity, born in 
the north of Scotland, in the Shire of Ross, in the Parish of Tain [near the 
town of Tain], about four or five miles [from that part of] the shire between 
two firths, the one the Firth of Murray, and the other the Firth of Dornoch. 
The land lying between the two firths terminates in a noted point called 

He was put to school very early, and made some progress in the Latin 
tongue under the care of the schoolmaster [in Tain], and, being of a 
promising genius, his father asked him, as they were going to a farm a little 
distance from home: "What would he be?" To which he answered: "A 
scholar," young as he was, credonis pcrationc. "A scholar you shall be," 
replied his father. When he was about fourteen years of age his eldest 
brother Andrew requested his father to send him to him at Edinburgh. 
Accordingly he was sent, but for the first twelve months little to his advan- 
tage, for instead of advancing him in his learning he made him attend his 
office and write from morning till night, often without his dinner — to his 
great disappointment, not through want of affection to his brother — but 
hurry of business and much company. His father, being informed of this 
low or no education, ordered him to be put to school and fitted for the 
university. Andrew lost his slave, and George was once more put in the way 
of being a scholar. 

He took his degree of master of arts in Edinburgh in 1700. With this 
feather in his cap he returned home and became tutor to the Lord of May, 
his son, for which [tutorship] he was allowed ten pounds sterling per 
.annum — great wages in that part of the world and at that time of day. 
[Having some] cash of his own, and somewhat anxious to see Edinburgh 
again, and taking [leave of his father] the [last time he ever saw him], not 
without some coolness on the son's side, for that the father did not add 
weight enough to his blessing, as the son expected — and even at that time 
he was not without the thought of foreign countries. I say, taking leave of 
his father, he proceeded on his journey to Edinburgh, and there entered 
his name among the students of divinity, worthy Mr. Meldrum being the 
professor. There was great hope of seeing worthy Mr. George mount the 
Presbyterian pulpit ; but, helas ! the closer he applied himself to reading, 

158 Rossiana. 

the stronger his aversion grew to the party then uppermost in Scotland. He 
observed the leading men of that side to be some conscientious and hypo- 
critical. He could not digest the ministers' odd gestures, grimaces, dry 
mouths and screwed faces in their pulpits. He could not comply with their 
practices even to save him from want of bread. Their " horrible decretum 
[as Calvin, the author of it, calls it] of reprobation," gave him a surfeit 
of their principles, and as to their church government, he was satisfied it 
was a spurious brat [the genuine product of Core's rebellion] of proud 
Presbyters [revolting] against their lawful bishops. 

While he passed among the students for an orthodox brother, he was 
diligently informing himself of the principles of the Church of England, 
which [he] approved of so well that he was resolved, as soon as he could 
find encouragement, to set out for England. Mr. Thomas McKenzie, Chap- 
lain to the Earl of Cromarty, Secretary of State for Scotland, was then at 
London, to whom he wrote on this subject. Mr. McKenzie [being of the 
same way of thinking, answered that] he might depend upon [being pro- 
vided for] during the war. " the least," says he, " you can expect." Mr. 
McKenzie's letter he communicated to his brother, who, upon mature deliber- 
ation with some of the leading men of the Episcopal party in Scotland, 
procured him a bill of exch inge for £18 us. gd. sterling. Thus strengthened 
and provided, and honored with a recommendation from the Bishop of 
Edinburgh, then ousted by the revolution, he bid adieu to his native country 
[after suffering much in the flesh by college diet among a set of canting 
Pharisees] and went to London, who received him very kindly and ordered 
him to attend the next ordination, at which he and his friend, McKenzie, 
with several other candidates, were put in deacon's orders. This happened 
nine days after his arrival at London, which proved no small mortification 
to the [dominant] party in Edinburgh and triumph to those of the contrary 

He was soon promoted to a chaplaincy of eighty pounds sterling [per 
annum] on board a man-of-war. But the captain, being a haughty fellow, 
he soon grew sick of that station, and resolved to quit it as soon as he could 
be provided for. Returning to London, he found his friend McKenzie making 
application to the Society for Propagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts, then 
newly incorporated, for a mission. He was easily prevailed [upon] to join 
him in so commendable a design. Upon the Society's being satisfied, after 
full trial of their character and abilities, they were both admitted mission- 
aries : McKenzie for Staten Island, and Ross for New Castle, who 
arrived there in 1703 [and continued], save for a few years, when he removed 
for his health's sake, till this time, being in his seventy-third year. How he 
behaved is known from the constant regard [of the Society for him]. 

George Ross. 







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Descendants of Rev. George Ross. 159 


Rev. George Ross, by his first wife. Joanna Williams, of Rhode Island, 
had the following children : 

J l. David, 2 rector of St. Peter's Church at Albany, N. Y., where he had 

been a Church of England Missionary. He married 

, and left a son, John. 

2. Margaret, married, first, Rev. Walter Hackett, Rector at Appoquin- 

ing, who was born in Frasersburg, in Banff, a province of Scot- 
land, and was descended from the ancient and respectable family 
of Hackett. He died March 7, 1733, aged 33 years. His tomb is in 
Emmanuel Church burying ground, near the monument of his 
mother-in-law, Mrs. George Ross. (See monumental inscription 
above.) Margaret Ross married, second, the Rev. Mr. Currie, of 
Philadelphia. She was born in 1747; died 20th August, 1766. 
Had issue. 

3. Hon. John Ross, Attorney-General of Delaware, under the Crown, 

was the most eminent lawyer of his day in Philadelphia. Was 
baptized at Emmanuel Church, Newcastle, Del., October 21, 1714; 
died 8th May, 1776. Hon. John Ross married Elizabeth Morgan, 
daughter of Benjamin Morgan, gentleman, of Philadelphia, De- 
cember 28. 1731, at Christ Chureh, Philadelphia. She died 7th 
October, 1776, and was buried in St. Paul's Church, Philadelphia. 
They had — 

(1.) Elizabeth, born 2d May, 1740; died 13th August, 1741. 

(2.) Margaret, born , 1747; died 20th August, 1766. 

(3-) Catherine, born 21st July, 1748; died s. p. 27th August, 
1782, having married Captain Henry Gurney, an officer 
in the British army. (The above dates are from the 
Bible of John Ross, now in the possession of General J. 
Meredith Read.) 
•*• /Eneas, rector of the English Church at Oxford, Penn., became 
rector of Emmanuel Church, Newcastle, in 1758; baptized there 
17th October. 1716; died there in 1782, having married Sarah 
Leach, by whom he had an only daughter, Joanna, who 
married, by license, 13th October, 1775, Captain Thomas Hol- 
land, an English officer, killed at the battle of Germantown, s. p. 
5- Anne, baptized 14th August, 1719 ; married Jasper Yeates, and had 

a son, John, baptized 16th May, 1798. 
6. Jacob, married Jane Sayre. Their children were: John, baptized 
October 31, 1758, aged two weeks; James, baptized March 8, 
1 76 1, aged one year and one month. 

iThe black face figures refer to the Chart of the Descendants of Rev. George Ross, 

2The Rev. Walton \V. Battershall, D. D., the present rector of St. Peter's Church, 
however, believes that he was not the rector of the church, but took the place of the 
rector. There is no doubt whatever that he was the only clergyman in charge of the 
church at the time of his death. He was, like his father, a man of great learning. 

160 Rossiana. 

Rev. George Ross, by his second wife, Catherine Van Gezel, had seven 
children, as follows : 

7. Colonel George Ross (born 1730; died July 16, 1779). was a 

signer of the Declaration of Independence, and lived in Lan- 
caster. Pa. He married Ann Lawler, a Scotch lady, and had 
three children — George, James and Mary. (See Descendants of 
George Ross, the " Signer," post.) 

8. Gertrude (died September, 1802) ; married, first, Isaac Till, and, 

secondly, on January 11. 1763, Hon. George Read, a signer of 
the Declaration of Independence, and who was United States 
Senator, Chief Justice of Delaware, and Judge of the High 
Court of Admiralty. He was born in Cecil county. Maryland, 
December 17, 1733, and was descended from the old family of 
Read of Ipsden, in Oxfordshire. Gertrude Ross, by George 
Read, had three sons — George. William and John. (See 
Descendants of Colonel John Read, post.) 

9. Catherine (died 1809) ; married Brigadier-General William 

Thompson, one of Washington's aides-de-camp. Had issue. 

10. Elizabeth ; married Colonel Edward Biddle, June 26, 1761. Had 


11. Susanna; married Rev. William Thompson, of Maryland. Had 


12. Mary; married Mark Bird. January 6. 1763. Had issue. 

13. James ; married Eleanor . Had issue. 


Appended is a list of Ross portraits known to be in existence. The 
descriptions were written many years ago by General Meredith Read, who 
made a careful study of each : 

1. Rev. George Ross, painted in wig. gown and band, seated with an open 

volume before him, doubtless the blessed gospel of which he was so 
able and faithful a minister. The face is oval, eyes hazel, complexion 
florid, features regular and sufficiently strong to indicate the intelli- 
gence and energy which were certainly his. without the occasional 
harshness of the Scottish physiognomy. The gravity expressed by the 
countenance seems to have been from a sense of the sacredness and 
dignity of his profession, superimposed over a natural hilarity of 
temper and humorousness which lurk under it, and over which it 
with difficulty holds the mastery. It does not appear by this picture 
when and by whom it was executed, but, as it represents Mr. Ross 
of about middle age, it must be at least 170 years old. It is in a 
good state of preservation and well painted. It hangs in the mansion 
of Mrs. Major Reeves and Miss Emily Read at Newcastle, Del. 

2. Hon. John Ross, son of Rev. George Ross. This portrait is a fine 

specimen of the work of Alexander, a famous Scotch artist, who made 
a tour through the Southern States, and was afterward first master 
of Gilbert Stuart. It represents a gentleman of full face, regular 

Note. — The portraits of Gertrude Ross, Hon. John Ross and Mrs. Captain Gurney 
are now (1908) in possession of the author. 

Descendants of Rev. George Ross. 161 

features, hazel eyes, black velvet costume, with a full bag wig, seated 
in his library in an arm chair similar to those which were in the 
library of General Meredith Read. This portrait bears date 1766 and is 
now in possession of General Read. 

3. Elizabeth Morgan, wife of Hon. John Ross (b. 1714; d. Oct. 7, 1776, aged 

62). This is also an excellent specimen of Alexander's art, the lace 
and hands being particularly well painted. Mrs. Ross has an oval 
countenance, with regular features, dark liquid eyes and rich com- 
plexion. This portrait bears date of 1766, and is in possession of 
General Meredith Read. 

4. Catherine Ross (b. 1748; d. Aug. 27. 1782. aged 34), daughter of Hon. 

John Ross and wife of Captain Gurney. She is arrayed in a white 
satin court dress with large pearl pendants, and was painted when 
she was quite young. She is thinking perchance of her birds, her 
lover, or her flowers, and unconsciously touches the keys of the 
harpsichord by which she is standing. This picture and the preceding 
ones were hanging in the family mansion in Philadelphia when it 
was occupied by British officers during the Revolution, who hung 
their swords upon the carved frames and unintentionally scraped, 
without really damaging, the canvas, and the marks are to be seen 
to this day. The portrait of Mrs. Gurney hung in the mansion of 
the late Chief Justice John Meredith Read at Philadelphia, over the 
high mantel-piece, in a great bedroom occupied by his young son, 
afterwards General Meredith Read. On one occasion, the servant 
having neglected to close the blinds, and a terrific thunderstorm hav- 
ing arisen in the night, the little child was awakened by the lightning 
playing across the white figure on the canvas, and it seemed to his 
frightened imagination that this relative, so long dead, was stepping 
down from the frame and advancing toward him. The impression 
remained to the day of his death. This portrait, dated 1776, is also in 
possession of General Meredith Read. 

5. Gertrude Ross, wife of George Read, the " Signer." Painted by an 

unknown artist. She has an oval face, dark eyes and blonde hair, 
and is dressed in the fashion of the day, a rich blue brocade costume, 
with jeweled ornaments. This portrait was formerly in possession of 
General Meredith Read. 

6. Margaretta Ross, daughter of Hon. John Ross. The portrait shows a 

comely girl, with hair as dark as the raven's wing and eyes of the 
deepest blue, and the figure points to an urn with this inscription, 
'* Margaretta Ross, obiit 20 Aug. 1766. Ae. 19. Si queris animam 
meam, respice coelum si forman en est." 


Extracts from Letters Relating to the Descendants of Rev. George Ross. 

Mr. Francis Nevfle Reid wrote to his distant kinsman through the Ross 
family. General Meredith Read, from Minori, per Ravello, Province of 
Salerno. Italy, February' 12. 1892: 

" I am writing for the Scottish Antiquary, or Northern Notes and Queries, 
an account of the family of Ross, and the families descended from them. 
Among these families is Ross of Balblair, your ancestors. 

" Mrs. David G. Eshleman, of Newcastle, Penn., has greatly helped me. 
Thus, the descendants of the second marriage of George Ross, who went 
to Lancaster in 1705, are all in the pedigree, where your name appears. Of 
the first marriage of George Ross with Joanna Williams of Rhode Island, 
I can only learn that there were nine children, of whom some of the descend- 
ants are living in Delaware. I am anxious to obtain some information about 
them, especially if there is any male representative of this branch." 


1 62 Rossi a 11 a. 

General Meredith Read replied on the 16th February, 1892, and, among 
other things, said: 

" As to the descendants of the first marriage of George Ross with Joanna 
Williams, I think it will be difficult to trace many of them. 

" Here is an extract from the family bible of the eldest, the Honourable 
John Ross, of Philadelphia, Attorney-General under the Crown: 'John 
Ross, Esquire, of Philadelphia, son of the Rev. George Ross, rector of the 
Church of Newcastle, on Delaware, was solemnly married to Mrs. Elizabeth 
Morgan, of Philadelphia, eldest daughter of Mr. Benjamin Morgan, of 
Philadelphia, gentleman, on the 18th day of December, 1735, by the Rev. 
Mr. Archibald Cummings, Commissary and Rector of Christ Church. Phila- 
delphia.' Their children were: 

" Elizabeth Ross, born May 2, 1740: died August 13, 1741. 

" Margaret Ross, born 25, 1747; died August 20, 1766. 

" Catherine, born July 21, 1748: died August 27, 1782: married Henry 
Gurney, Esquire, of Philadelphia, late of the British Army, who served in 
the German wars in the middle of the eighteenth century. 

" Captain Gurney's bookplate is in the family bible of John Ross, Esquire, 
which bible was published at Oxford, by John Basket, in 1727. John Ross, 
Esquire, was born in 1714, and died at the opening of the American Revolu- 
tion. There are no descendants living." 

Mr. Nevile Reid replied on the 23d February, 1892: 

"• I am exceedingly obliged to you for the kind answer to my letter, and 
for the extracts from John Ross' bible. On a separate paper I note what I 
know about the first and second families of the Rev. George Ross, who went 
to Newcastle. In both accounts it is stated that John Ross married Elizabeth 
Ashe, whereas, from the bible, his wife's name is Elizabeth Morgan, which 
must be correct. I am anxious to learn whether there is any male represen- 
tative of the first marriage of the Rev. George Ross. Of the second there is 
but one, George Ross, an old man. Unless there is some male of the first 
family, I am afraid the old branch of Balblair. like so many of the Ross 
families, will soon be extinct. 

May I ask you two other favours: will you give me your descent, and 
from whom is' General Edward Burd Grubb descended? From a daughter 
of the Rev. George Ross, who married the Rev. W. Thompson, of Mary- 
land? Balblair descends from Balmachy. or Ballamuckie, this from Shand- 
wick, and this from Balnagown. I descend from Mary Ross of Shandwick, 
from whom this property came into my family, and is now owned by my 
nephew, my elder brother's son. 

With regard to the family name of Stronach, it seems to be the same as 
the word Stron-'each (Stronfitheach)." 

In Black's Guide to Scotland, page 561, we find the following: 

" Shieldaig derives a considerable amount of natural beauty from the 
charming wooded isle which lies in the bay, the strange looking craig of 
Stron-'each (Stronfitheach). so named from its resemblance to the beak of 
the raven, at the base of which the village is situated, and the distant table- 
land of Gairloch stretching out into the sea. 

Edmund H. Bell, of Philadelphia, to General Meredith Read. 

Chestnut Hill, Philada, Nov. 28th, 1893. 
My dear Sir: — 

I beg to acknowledge receipt of your valued favor of 7th inst. and your 
kindness tempts me to trespass further on your time. I think I have suc- 
ceeded in locating the thirteen children of Rev. George Ross, and some of 
their children, but as to their ages and relative position I am considerably 
puzzled, as I cannot get dates of birth. I am inclined to arrange them as 

Descendants of Rev. George Ross. 163 

Children of Rev. George Ross and Joanna Williams. 

1. David: b. . d. . m. . Had issue. 

2. Margaret: b. , d. ; m.. 1st. Rev. Walter Hackett: m., 2nd, 

Rev. William Currie. Had issue. 

3. John: b. 1714: d. May 8th. 1776; m. Dec. 28th. 1735. Elizabeth Morgan. 
Had issue. 

4. Aeneas: b. Sept. 17th. 1716; d. bet. 9th and 29th of April, 1783; m. 
Jany. 3, 1745, Sarah Leech. Had issue. 

5. Anne: b. 1719: d. ; m. , Jasper Yeates. 

6. Jacob: b. , d. ; m. April 10th. 1755, Jane Sayre. Had 


Children of Rev. George Ross and Catherine J 'an Gezel. 1 

7. George: b. 1730: d. July 16th, 1779; m. Aug. 17th, 1751, Ann Lawler. 
Had issue. 

8. Gertrude: b. . d. Sept.. 1802: m., 1st, , I. Till; m., 2nd, 

Jany. nth. 1763. George Read. Had issue. 

9. Catharine: b. , d. Dec, 1809: m. , Genl. William Thomp- 
son. Had issue. 

10. Elizabeth: b. , d. ; m. June 26th, 1761, Col. Edw. Biddle. 

Had issue. 

11. Susanna: b. . d. ; m. , Rev. William Thompson. 

Had issue. 

12. Mary: b. , d. : m. Jany. 6th. 1763, Mark Bird. Had issue. 

13. James: b. , d. ; m. Eleanor. Had issue. 

George, Gertrude and Catharine, I am sure, were the children of Catharine 
Van Gezel, and I believe Elizabeth and Mary were, but I don't feel sure about 
either Susanna or James, although some information I have indicates they 
were. You will note the order in which I have placed the children of 
Joanna Williams, and, as this does not exactly agree with your views as 
expressed in your letter to Mr. Francis Nevile Reid, permit me to explain 
my reasons : 

First. Mr. William T. Read, in his " Life of George Read," page 62, in 
referring to portrait No. 10, says : " John, son of Mr. Ross' eldest son David." 

Second. We know from records of Immanuel Church, John', son of Rev. 
George Ross, was baptized as an infant Oct. 21st, 1714, and that Aenaes 
was born Sept. 17th, 1716, an interval of less than two years, and it is, there- 
fore, most unlikely a child was born between. 

Third. David was the name of Rev. George Ross's father, and it is fair 
to presume he named his first son after him. 
As to Margaret : 

Her first husband, Walter Hackett, according to records of Immanuel 
Church, died March. 7th, 1793, leaving her a widow with two children, and 
she must certainly at that time have been 20 years old, which would make 
her birth antedate John's. 

Mr. Francis Xevile Reid, in one of his letters, gave the name of Rev. 
George Ross's mother as Margaret Stronack, so that he called his first 
daughter after his mother. 
Dr. Jacob Ross : 

Appears in the records of Immanuel Church, in 1758, as a vestryman, 
and. I conclude, must have been at this time well past his youth. Joanna 
Williams is said to have had a brother, Jacob, another reason for thinking 
Jacob her son. 

Jacob Ross was a practicing physician as early as 1752. (See letter 
of Rev George Ross to I. Till, " Life of George Read," p. 60.) 

'Van Gezel Arms — Azure three boys' heads affrontee proper, on the head of each a 
cap argen*. Crest — A head as in the arms between two wings displayed azure. 

164 Rossiana. 

Will you do me the favor to inform me what you think of my deductions 
and supply any dates, etc., you have which will assist in completing my 
record. I have now. I think, a complete list of the children of the following 
of the Rosses : John. George. Catharine and Elizabeth. I have children of 
Gertrude by George Read, but do not know if she had children by Till, her 
first husband, or not. I have an account of three children of James, one of 
Mary, one of Susanna, two of Margaret (without their names), four of 
Aeneas, one of David and two of Jacob. As to Anne, I know nothing 
beyond the fact she is said to have married John Yeates. This letter will 
give you some idea of the present condition of my work, and. if it contains 
any information not before in your possession, I am most happy to have 
been of some service. 

Very sincerely yours, 

Edmund H. Bell. 

To Gen. John Meredith Read, Paris. France. 


The appended document, fn a handwriting unknown to the author, is to be 
found among the Read archives in the Ross book. It is inserted here, as there 
are many things of interest given in it: 

[From Notes sent me by Gen. Read.] 

.Miss Katherine van Gezel, a descendant of Gerrit van Gezel, nephew of 
Governor Alrichs, who on the rst March. 1057, embarked tor New Amster- 
dam; igth December, 1656, the Directors of the W. India Comp. transferred 
to the Burgomaster of Amsterdam all the land from Christian Creek to 
Bombay Hook. 

'1 lie tracing of the signature of David Ross is from a family Bible 
published 1696. 

In 1760 Honorable John Ross was one of the founders of St. Paul's church, 
Philadelphia, and is buried in it. 

Mrs. Marcia G. Ross, widow of David Ross, grandson of Rev. George. 

John Ross, son of Rev. George, was baptized October 21, 1714. (Register, 
Emmanuel Church, Newcastle, Delaware.) 

Rev. George Ross was second son who grew up of David Ross of Balblair 
and Margaret his wife. 

John Ross died May 5. 1776, aged 61 ; his wife, October 7, 1776, aged 62. 

Catherine, wife of Captain Gurney, died August 27, 1782, aged 34. 

Rev. David Ross, missionary of the Church of England, Albany, New 
York, died there ; he had a son, John. 

In the Register of Marriages, Emmanuel Church, appears the following: 

George Read, , 1763, to Gertrude, daughter of Rev. George Ross, by 

his second wife. 

George Ross, the " Signer," had a son, Colonel James. 

Rev. William Thomson, of Maryland, married a daughter of Mr. George 
Ross by his second wife. 

Rev. Aeneas Ross, son of Rev. George Ross, was rector of the English 
church at Oxford, Pa. ; was appointed rector of Emmanuel Church, Newcastle, 
in 1758, and died there in 1782. 

Hon. George Ross, Royal Attorney-General. 165 

Query Answered. 
Query — -George Ross, who signed the Declaration of American Independ- 
ence; wanted to know if he was married, and if so, did he leave any issue? 
Belher, John Bridges. 

Answer — My mother was the granddaughter of George Ross, who mar- 
ried Ann Lawler, a Scotch lady. There is but one male descendant living of 
the name, my first cousin, George Ross, whose only son was killed in the late 
Southern Rebellion. His sister, Miss Mary Ross, a maiden, lady, is living in 
Philadelphia. The grandfather of George Ross was David Ross, of Ross- 
shire, in the North of Scotland, would like much to know if any of the Scotch 
branch of the Ross family are living. 

(Signed) Mrs. David G. Eshleman, 

Lancaster, Pennsylvania. 

Answer — George Ross, one of the signers of the American Declaration of 
Independence, resided in Lancaster, Pa. According to Harris' Biographical 
History of Lancaster, Pa., he was married to Ann Lawler, who is, said to have 
been a lady of most respectable family. One of the sons, George Ross, 
Junior, was, from 1788 to 1790, Vice-President of the Supreme Executive 
Council of Pennsylvania. Another son, James Ross, was an officer in the 
American Revolution and subsequently judge in Louisiana. The Ross family 
is now nearly extinct, being limited, I am informed, to a brother and sister, 
both unmarried, who reside in Philadelphia. There are several families in 
Lancaster who are descended from George Ross in the maternal line. 

Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 

Jos. Henry Dubbs, D. D. 


Hon. John Ross was a son of Rev. George Ross by his first wife, Joanna 
Williams, of Rhode Island, and was thus half brother of George Ross, the 
" Signer." He was born at Newcastle, Del., in 1714, and died in Philadelphia, 
May 8, 1776. He was admitted to the bar in 1735, and rose so rapidly in 
his profession that in 1743 he was the chief rival of A/wwrftter Hamilton 
before the Pennsylvania courts. In 1744 he engaged in the manufacture 
of pig iron in Berks county, his interest continuing in the business until 
his death. He took part in the organization of St. Paul's Episcopal church 
in 1760, and became its first warden. In 1759, with others, he was consulted 
by the governor and council in relation to a law for recording warrants and 
surveys, and thus render the title to real estate more secure. 

Alexander Graydon says : " Mr. John Ross, who loved ease and Madeira 
much better than liberty and strife, declared for neutrality, saying that, 
'let who would be king, he well knew that he should be subject.'" 

John Adams, in his diary (September 25, 1775), speaks of him as "a 
lawyer of great eloquence and heretofore of extensive practice, a great Tory, 
but now they say beginning to be converted." 

Hon. John Ross was a friend and correspondent of Benjamin Franklin, 
and an early member of the American Philosophical Society. His portrait 

1 66 


was in the possession of General Meredith Read, and now hangs in the 
drawing-room of the author's home. It represents him sitting in his library. 
He was a large man of florid complexion and vigorous constitution. This 
portrait, dated 1766, was by Alexander, who came to this country about the 
middle of the 18th century, and while at Newport, seeing there a youth, Gil- 
bert Stuart, and finding him endowed with great talent, took him with him 
upon his southern tour during which this and other family portraits formerly 
in the possession of General Meredith Read were painted. There is also a 
most admirable portrait of Mrs. John Ross and one of her daughter Cath- 
erine, wife of Captain Henry Gurney of the British Army, all painted in the 

Hon. I. .iin Ross (1714-1776), 


same year. One evidence of a great artist is the beautiful modeling of the 
hands, and in each i>\ these portraits the hands are exquisitely painted. Mrs. 
Gurney is standing with her hand upon the keys of a spinnet, in a white 
court dress with a crimson mantle. 

Entries in the Family Bible of the Hon. John Ross. 

Hon. John Ross's family Bible, which is still in existence, was published 
at Oxford by John Baskett. in IJ2J. It contains the following entries: 

" Be it remembered that John Ross. Esq., of PhiK counsellor-at-law, son 
of the Rev. George Ross. Rector of the Church at XewCastle-on-Delaware. 
was solemnly married to Mrs. Elizabeth Morgan of PhiK eldest dan. to 

Descendants of George Ross, the " Signer." 


Mr. Benjamin Morgan of Philadelphia, gentleman, on the 18" day of Dec. 
anno domini 1735, by the Rev. Mr. Archibald Cummings. Commissary and 
Rector of Christ Church. Phil a . Their children were : Elizabeth Ross, b. 
2 May 1740, d. 13" Aug. 1741. Margaret Ross. b. 25 May 1747. d. 20 Aug. 
1766. Catherine Ross. b. 21 July 1748, d. 27 Aug. 1782, m. Henry Gurney, 
Esq., late Capt. in the British Army," who took part in the Seven Years' War. 
The arms of Captain Gurney are also contained in the Bible : A paley of 
six or and az ; crest, a lion's head erased or ; in the centre an escutcheon 


£<i&urn*r^i: , 

Bookplate of Hon. John Ross (1714-1 /Til). 
Royal Attornev-General. 

of pretense, bearing the arms of his wife, Catherine Ross — Gules three lions 
rampant argent. 

John Ross used the crest of Balnagown and the motto, " Spem Suc- 
cessus Alit." instead of the crest of Shandwick and Balblair — a lion rampant 
gules armed and langued sable, and the motto. " Nobilis Est Ira Leonis " — 
used by his own father and grandfather. No reason has ever been given 
for this unless it was that he regarded the Balnagown crest and motto 
older than that of Balblair. The original bookplate was made by J. Turner. 

Mr. Ross had a large and valuable library, and each of his books contained 
one of these bookplates. 

Descendants of George Ross, the " Signer 



George Ross, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, was a son of 
Rev. George Ross by Catherine Van Gezel, his second wife. He was born 
in Newcastle, Del., in 1730, and died in Lancaster, Pa., in July, 1779. At 
the age of 18 he began the study of law, and on his admission to the bar, 
in 1751, settled at Lancaster. He was a member of the Pennsylvania 
Assembly in 1768-70, and was appointed by the convention that assembled, 
after the dissolution of the proprietary government, to prepare a declaration 
of rights. Mr. Ross was elected to the first General Congress at Philadel- 
phia in 1774, and continued to represent his state until June, 1777. Owing 
to failing health, he resigned his 
seat in that year, on which occa- 
sion the citizens of Lancaster voted 
him a piece of plate worth £150, 
which he declined on the ground 
that " it was the duty of every 
man. especially of every represen- 
tative of the people, to contribute 
by every means within his power 
to the welfare of his country 
without expecting pecuniary re- 

On first entering Congress Mr. 
Ross was appointed by the Legis- 
lature to report to that body a set 
of instructions by which his con- 
duct and that of his colleagues 
were to be guided. He was 
among the foremost leaders in the 
Provincial Legislature in en- 
couraging measures for the defense 
of Pennsylvania against British 
Aggression. In 1775, Governor 
Penn having written a message 
deprecating any defensive measures 
on the part of the colonies, 
Mr. Ross drew up a forceful reply, and later was the author of the report 
urging vigorous action for putting Philadelphia in a posture of defense. He 
was appointed Judge of the Court of Admiralty for Pennsylvania, April 14, 
1779, which post he filled until his death three months later. 

Judge Ross possessed a benevolent disposition which often led him to 
espouse the cause of the Indians in their efforts to prevent the frauds prac- 
ticed on them by the whites. As a lawyer he was early classed among the 
leaders of the profession, and as a judge he was learned, conscientious and 
upright, and remarkable for the celerity and rapidity with which he disposed 
of business. 

George Ross, the " Signer," married Ann Lawler, a Scotch lady, by whom 
he had, according to the Ross Bible, three children. (See below.) 


wfii! - E 

Residence of Hon. George Ross, the 
" Signer," at Lancaster, Pa. 

I/O Rossi a 11 a. 

George Ross Eshleman, Esq., of Lancaster, Pa., a descendant in the female 
line of George Ross, the " Signer," who lias in his possession the Ross 
family Bible, wrote as follows to the author and compiler, in answer to an 
inquiry as to the descendants of George Ross : 

Lancaster, Pa., Aug. 19, 1907. 
My Dear Kinsman: 

I have just returned from my summer outing and find that your letter has 
been awaiting my return for nearly two weeks. I enclose a genealogy of 
the descendants of George Ross, taken mainly from the Ross Bible, of 
which you can use as much as you care to. * * * 

I am, affectionately. 

Your cousin, 

George Ross Eshleman. 

From the information given by Mr. Eshleman the following descent from 
George Ross, the "Signer," has been compiled, and is much more complete 
than that which had been prepared from data previously at hand: 

Descendants of George Ross, the " Signer." 
Colonel George Ross, the "Signer," was a son of Rev. George Ross by 
his second wife. Catherine Van (ie/el. Me married Ann Lawler. a Scotch 
lady, and had — 

i- George. (See below.) 

2. James (born November 28. 1753; died in Louisiana. August 20, 

1809, without issue ). 

3. Alary (born December 3. 17(15; married James Wilson). 

1- George Ross (born June 1. 1752; died November 13. 1832) married 
Mary Bird (born December 23, 1754; died January -'4. 1813), daughter ><i 
Colonel William Bird, of Birdsboro, Berks Co., Pa., April 3, 1775 They had 
nine children — 

4. Ann. ( See bel< >\\ . 1 

5. Patton (horn March 13. 177S), married Elizabeth Witmer, June 

15. [805. No children. 

6. William Bird (born April 6. [7X.2; died February [3, 1828). 


In the record of the Iowa Sons of the American Revolution, published in the "Year 
Book of the Societies Composed of Descendants of the Men of the Revolution" (1890), 
appears the following entry: 

Huitt Ross, Stratford. Hamilton county — Great grandson of George Ross, ot 
Delaware, Signer of the Declaration of Independence. On the maternal side, great 
grandson of Stephen Hopkins, of Rhode Island. Signer of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence. Mr. Ross's grandfather, Huitt Ross, was wounded at the battle of Maumee, 
under " Mad " Anthony Wayne. His father. Thomas Ross, fought at Tippecanoe under 
Genera] William Henry Harrison. He was himself with General Zachary Taylor at 
Palo Alto, Mexico, and Monterey; and then with General Winfield Scott at the capture 
of the City of Mexico, while a son marched with Sherman to the sea in the Sixteenth 
Iowa Regiment. 

If this statement is correct, George Ross, the Signer, must have had a son Huitt. 

The Ross Bible, however, contains no mention of this son, and Mr. Eshleman does 

not include the name in his chart of George Ross' descendants, in which he makes 

the late Mary Elizabeth Ross, daughter of Ceorge W. Ross, the last descendant 

bearing the name of Ross, though he does state that George Ross, son of George \\ ., 

left descendants in < Ihio, Indiana, Michigan, etc., but whether those descendants bore 

the name of Ross is uncertain. 

Rossi ana. 171 

7. Gertrude Read (born January 20, 1785; died May, 1786). 

8. George Washington (See below.) 

9. Thomas Rufflin (born November 12, 1791 ; died April 17, 181 1). 

No children. 
10. Robert Coleman (born December 20, 1793; died June I, 1818). 

No children. 
11- Caroline. (See below.) 

12. Eliza Juliana. (See below.) 

4. Ann Ross (born January 5. 1774; died December 9, 1816) married 
James Hopkins, June 21, 1791. They had — 

13. Washington. 

14. William. 

15. George. 

16. James M. (See below.) 

17. Ann. (See below.) 

8. George Washington Ross (born April 24, 1788) married Alary Witmer, 
December, 1812. They had — 

18. George (born April 4, 1817). Left descendants in Ohio, Indiana. 

Michigan, etc. 

19. Mary Eliza (born March 31, 1814; died November 19, 1906). Last 

descendant of George Ross, the " Signer,'' of the name of Ross. 

11. Caroline Ross (born February 15, 1796) married Samuel D. Orrick, 
May 31, 1821. They had — 

20. John Newton. (See below.) 

12. Eliza Juliana Ross (born October 25, 1797; died April 8, 1871) mar 
ried Dr. Abraham Carpenter, a Lancaster physician. July 2~, 1814. He died 
July 27, 1840. They had — 

21. Caroline Orrick. (See below.) 

16. James M. Hopkins was married and had — 

22. William... 

23. Henry C. (See below.) 

17. Ann Hopkins married Newton Lightner, Esq., of Lancaster, Pa. 
They had — 

24. James (unmarried), living at Lancaster. 

20. John Newton Orrick (born June 24, 1828) married Lizzie . 

and had — 

25. Caroline (unmarried), who lives in New York city. 

21. Caroline Orrick Carpenter (born November 5, 1828; died April 11. 
1906) married David G. Eshleman, November 14, 1848. He died April 30, 
1895. They had — 

26. Anna Julia. (See below.) 

27. Eliza Ross. (See below.) 

28. Harriette Borrows (born October 1, 1856), married E. C. Stimson, 

June 4, 1879, and now lives in Denver, Col. No children. 

29. George Ross (born September" 30. 1864), married Elizabeth, 

daughter of S. S. Spencer, of Lancaster, Pa.. June 1, 1893. No 

Hon. George Ross, the "Signer" (1730-1779), from a portrait, painted at an early 
now in possession of Mrs. John H. Rodney, Newcastle, Del. 

Descendants of George Ross, the " Signer." 173 

23. Henry C. Hopkins was one of a family of twelve children. He was 
married, and had — 

30. Henry C, who had eleven children. 

31. Ralph. 

32. Isabel. 

26. Anna Julia Eshleman (born October 20, 1849; died October 24, 1879), 
married John H. McMurdy, Alay 28, 1872. He died June 5, 1875. They 
had — 

33. John H., who married Mary Frances Kaufman. No children. 

Address, 72 Broadway, New York city. 

27. Eliza Ross Eshlem?n (born August 13, 1853), married Frank M. 
Taylor, November 28, 1876, and now lives in Denver, Col. They had — 

34. David Paul (born Aprii 7, 1881). Unmarried. 

The following articles are in possession of George Ross Eshleman, Esq. : _ 
Portraits of George Ross and Ann Ross," his wife, painted by Benjamin 


Miniature of John Ross (brother of George Ross, the " Signer ") and his 


Solid silver tankard engraved with the Ross coat-of-arms. 

Silver cream pitcher of George Ross, the " Signer." 

Bible of George Ross, the " Signer," containing family records. 


Hon. John Ross was a Staunch Tory Alive or Dead. — Warned all 
Patriots to Repent. — Dr. Kearsley's Weird Tale of the Royalist's 
Wraith Which Left With Him a Document and Ring. — Ghostly 

DR. JOHN KEARSLEY was one of the most prominent Philadelphians 
of his day. He was a gentleman of large fortune and great learning. At 
the era of the Revolution, Dr. Kearsley, though otherwise a citizen of 
good character and standing, became exposed to the scoffs and insults of the 
people by his ardent loyalism. As be was naturally impetuous in his temper, 
he gave much umbrage to the Whigs of the day by his rash expressions. It 
was intended, therefore, to sober his feelings by the argument of tar and 
feathers. He was seized at his own door in Front street, a little below High 
street, Philadelphia, by a party of militia, and in his attempt to resist them 
received a bayonet wound in his hand. Mr. Graydon has told the sequel 
He was forced into a cart, and amidst a multitude of boys and idlers, 
paraded through the streets to the tune of the " Rogue's March." The con- 
course brought him before the coffee house, where they halted, the doctor 
foaming with indignation and rage, without a hat, his wig dishevelled and 
himself bloody with his wounded hand, stood up in the cart and called for 
a bowl of punch — when so vehement was his thirst he swallowed it all 
before he took it from his lips. " I was shocked," says Graydon, " at the 
spectacle, thus to see a lately respectable citizen so vilified. It is grateful 
to add, however, that they proceeded to no further violence, thus proving 
that a Philadelphia mob has some sense of restraint. To prevent further 
injury, the leaders of the patriot cause in Philadelphia bad him sentenced 
to be imprisoned for a limited time in the back counties of Pennsylvania 
for high crimes against his country. 

Dr. Kearsley had as his most intimate friend one of the most noted 
lawyers in this country, for many years Royal Attorney-General, Hon. John 
Ross. Mr. Ross was a man of very large fortune for his day, and lived in 
very fine style. His country seat, Tusculum, was one of the most beautiful 
plate, his servants and liveries were noted. His wines and his dinners 
plate, his servants and liveries were noted. His wines and his dinners 
were believed to be the best in America. Dr. Kearsley was a frequent 
guest at the home of Mr. Ross, and on one of these occasions the two old 
friends had been talking of death and the next world, and they came to an 
agreement that the first to die would come back to this world and make 
himself known to the other to show that another world existed. 

'This story was printed in The Argus, Albany, N. Y., Sunday morning, March 20, 
1904.— H. P. R. 

Ghost Story of the Revolution. 175 

Back From the Dead. 

John Ross died before the Revolution closed in 177O. 'Much effort had 
been wasted to make him join the patriots, but all in vain, he stating that 
he well knew that no matter who was king he would always be the subject. 
On the night of the 20th of January, 1777, Dr. Kearsley saw his friend who 
had come back to him from the other world, but. perhaps, it will be just 
as well to let him tell his own story, which was found written in his own 
hand. The manuscript, much worn, tattered somewhat at its sides, and 
separated where creases were made by its folds, has been in the past much 
sought for, handled and read. This paper was the property of His Excel- 
lency, Governor Read, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, a United 
States Senator, a Chief Justice and Governor of Delaware. George Read 
married a sister of Hon. John Ross and was naturally interested in the paper : 

" For the Honourable, General William Thompson, on his plantation near 

Carlisle : 

"Dear Sir. — Last Monday night, the 20th January, 1777, be it remembered, 
I went to bed at ten o'clock, and as is common with me to order the servant 
to cover up the unconsumed part of the fire with ashes, after I had seen it 
done. A little before day-break I was awakened by an extraordinary dream, 
viz., that I was in company with our old friend John Ross, lawyer. As it 
then made a great impression on my mind, it is easy for you to conceive 
the emotions I felt on the occasion, nor will you be surprised when I tell 
you 1 jumped directly out of bed, and by the gleaming light of my fire, 
which had forced its way into a small flame through the ashes, I distinctly 
saw his figure on which, without any fear, I looked with great earnestness. 
At this instant the fire burst forth into a blaze, insomuch that I could see 
him very distinctly, with a paper in his hand, standing, in a speaking attitude, 
when he began and thus addressed me : 

My dear sir, you and I, in the state of body you are now in, ever lived 
in the greatest harmony and best friendship. I have been removed from 
you by the wise and kind providence of God, to a place of peace and ever- 
lasting felicity, while you are to remain some time in a world of trouble 
and great confusion, where you will hear of wars and rumors of wars, 
accompanied with pestilence, already begun, and famine which will ensue, 
and continue till your sins abate. These, my friend, are the scourges of sin, 
the vengeance of God poured forth on the American people for their ingrati- 
tude that superlative of sin which the Almighty always punishes.' " 

" Continued he : ' Lest you should doubt the authority of what I now say, 
I pray you take this paper,' which he held forth in his hand, 'and to con- 
vince you that I have really made an appearance to you, behold my signature, 
the initials of my name and profession in your world. These are placed first 
to every line, and I leave them along with this my signet ring, well known 
to you in the past, cut with the three rampant lions of my family coat and 
the sign known to you that you may as my steward keep them as a sign 
and token to be shown to my friends, but particularly to General Thompson, 
whom I love, and wish to hint something not unlike to what with you is 
termed prophecy.' 

" On thus speaking these words he disappeared, leaving the matter and 
ring behind him in my hand. In discharge of my duty to the above com- 
mission, and conceiving it also my duty to you "to discharge so important 
a trust, I send you a copy and whenever you will do me the favor of a visit 
you may see the original. I will seal this letter with the ring which you 
will readily recognize as the one always worn on John Ross' right hand. 
You will remember the stone, a Scotch chrystal, beautifully cut with the 
Ross coat of arms, and under, on the other side, a star formed of three 


Rossi a u a. 

triangles with two circles inscribed with strange letters. 1 Mr. Ross had a 
strange story, you will recall, of this ring. It was brought from Scotland 
by his father. Rev. Mr. Ross, and was the parting gift of the latter's father, 
David Ross, of Balblair. It had belonged to one Hugh Ross 2 of Shandwick, 
who was a necromancer and wizard, notwithstanding his lairdship, in the 
fifteenth century. The star on the back was always known as the ' wizard 
foot.' I am, my dear sir. with many compliments to you and Mrs. Thompson 
and family, your very humble servant, 

" John Kearsley." 

"A True Copy." 
" Inspired to leave with you my trusty friend 
Old counsels, which I dare not wish to mend 
Honor to you disgrace to Congress' laws 
Nor can their terrors make you join their cause. 
Nor yet their prisons make you love their laws. 
Right well we lived when justice ruled the land 
O know you're at the would-be-king's command. 
Sent forth to fight as tyrants rule their slaves. 
Still will Britain rule both land and waves 
Lawyer I was, and Magna Charta knew 
Averse to riot, studied to be true, 
When just laws ceased heaven kindiy gave her call 
You have felt — I now foretell — so will all 
Ever gracious Lord ! Avert the dreadful stroke 
Repent ye ingrates — nor your God provoke. 

lThe under side of the ring had a five-pointed star in outline, as told in the above 
story, and the Hebrew letters were those forming the names of the spirits Ye Kahal and 
Aziel, known to the magicians and ancient Free Masons as the first Pentacle of Mercury, 
which controls the spirits which are under the firmament. 

2This same Hugh Ross is said to have discovered much buried treasure one Sunday, 
between the 10th of July and the 20th of August, when the moon was in the sign of 
the lion. He went into a place which he had found by magical incantations, and with 
a magical sword described a circle of sufficient size to open the earth as the nature of 
the ground would allow. Three times during the day he burned incense in the hole, 
after which, clothed in a white silk garment, with mystic characters in red silk on the 
breast, and with white shoes on his feet. On his head was a gold crown, with the 
letters " Yod. He, Vau, He " on its front. Ross suspended, above the opening in the 
ground, a lamp whose oil was mingled with the fat of a man who had died in the 
month of July, and the wick was made from the cloth wherein he had been buried. 
Having kindled this with fresh fire, he fortified his ten workmen each with a girdle of 
the skin of a goat, newly slain, whereon was written with the blood of the dead man 
these words, " Nopa Padous." He then set the men to work, warning them not to be 
disturbed, but to work boldly, which they did. At the end of the second day their 
tools rang upon a huge metal-bound box of great age. They tried to lift the box, but 
in vain. The night had come, and looking down into the hole, lighted now by the 
overhanging lamp alone, he beheld the figure of a semi-luminous grey man, seated upon 
the lid of the box. Remembering himself, he said: "Adonai, Elohim El, Asher, Ehlieh, 
Existence of Existences, have mercy upon me! O ye good and happy spirits, depart 
in peace. Amen." As the last word was pronounced the old grey man arose, suddenly 
grew twenty feet high, and said: " I am that spirit Aziel, who guards the fortunes of 
your house; the treasure is yours; farewell," and disappeared. 

Ghost Story of the Revolution. 177 

"Agreeable to our many conversations about eternity that the first of us 
who died, if permitted, should visit the other, by the will of the Omnipotent 
who governs the universe. I am sent to comfort you, but also to redeem 
the land which is now overwhelmed with trouble, a sure consequence of sin 
and pride, a continuance in which will be a misery, destruction and death. 
Believe, O ye sinners, believe and repent ! The sins of ingratitude, wilful 
and corrupt perjury, persecution and cruelty, with the sin of falsehood con- 
tinually propagated to inflame and mislead the ignorant, has so provoked the 
vengeance of heaven that the Almighty is to come forth against you with 
a flaming" sword to burn you up and cast you off; and I am risen from the 
dead to give you this last most solemn warning. Moses and the prophets 
have admonished former generations and some have believed and been saved. 
But if ye will not believe me when risen from the dead, horrid judgments 
will attend you. Death is but the continuation of the life on earth in another 
form and in another world. 

"John Ross." [Seal.] 

Ghost's Last Appearance. 

General William Thompson was by birth an Irishman. He emigrated at 
an early period of the eighteenth century to Pennsylvania. He had received 
a good education and was descended from a respectable family. He settled 
on a plantation which he called " Soldiers' Retreat." near Carlisle, in Cum- 
berland county, Pennsylvania. He was at first a surveyor ; he then went into 
the war between France and England as a commissioned officer. He re- 
ceived a silver medal from the city of Philadelphia for distinguished services 
in this war. He became during the American Revolution one of the most 
patriotic and gallant officers in our army. He died on September 3, 1781. 

The story is that ten days before his death, as he sat one evening before 
a table sealing a letter with the famous ring of John Ross that had been 
given to him by Dr. Kearsley, the candles suddenly became dim, and near 
the fireplace in which there was a fire, a smoke made itself felt, and all at 
once the form of John Ross became plain, but all he said was, " Fear not, for 
it is well with thee, thy time is near," and with that the figure moved to the 
table and caught up the ring that the general had dropped, and then faded 
away. The portrait of John Ross, Esq., painted by Alexander, the first 
master of Gilbert Stewart, is still in existence and represents a gentleman 
in the fashionable clothes of one hundred years ago, with a wig and lawn 
sleeves, seated in his library. 


Albanv, N. Y. 


In connection with Tusculum, the mansion of John Ross, there is a curious 
old servant's tale, which will bear repetition in these pages. The old woman, 
who was a trusted servant and had been in the family many years, is said 
to have seen the spectre of Mrs. Captain Gurney, 1 daughter of John Ross, 
one night some five years after her death. The servant had been left in 

iGuRNEY Arms — Paly of six or and azure per fess countercharged. Crest — A lion's 
head erased or, gorged with a palisado coronet composed of spearheads azure on an 
esquire's helmet manteled gules doubled argent. (Captain Gurney.) 

1 7 8 


ssi a u a. 

charge of the house, as the story goes, preparatory to its being sold. It 
was a dark, stormy night in the late autumn, and the old woman was fast 
asleep upstairs, the only other person in the house being an old retainer 
in the family who had been the gardener years before. 

The servant was suddenly awakened by a loud crash down stairs. Believing 
the old retainer had fallen in some way, and thinking it strange that he 
should be awake at that hour of the night, she procured a light and went 
down stairs. To her great surprise she found the library illuminated and 
heard some one moving about in the room. As she entered the room, she 
nearly died of fright, for there in the old fiddle-backed chair Mr. Ross always 

Mrs. Hkxky GuRNEY (1748-1782), nee Catherine Ross, 
daughter of Hon. John Ross (1714-1776). 

used, sat her late mistress, Mrs. Gurney. In her hands she held a beautiful 
string of pearls and a magnificent jewel, in the shape of a cross, set with 
diamonds, swung from it. The wainscoted wall opposite her contained a 
large square hole, exposing an iron box, the lid of which had been wrenched 
off. and. falling to the floor, had caused the crash which had awakened the 
old woman. The box appeared to be filled with gold and jewels and costly 

Mrs. Gurney. who sat in the chair toying with the pearls, was dressed in 
white satin trimmed with coral. As the horrified servant started to rush from 
the room, the spectre turned and seemed to recognize the old woman. At 
this instant the lights were extinguished, and in the darkness of the hallway 
the old servant felt something sweep past her, open the front door and vanish. 

Interesting Family Incident. 179 

The next morning the old woman went into the library in great fear and 
found the room in its usual condition. There was no hole in the wall, but 
at the foot of the chair in which the spectre of Mrs. Gurney had sat was the 
beautiful cross. On the back was engraved the Arms of Ross — the three 
well-known lions — and around the shield, in ancient Scotch, the words, " Fear 
not, for I am with you." In the center was a long oval upon which was 
represented the Saviour and the Four Evangelists, in ancient enamel, and 
incrusted with diamonds. On the four branches of the cross were four 
angels, and the end of each branch was finished with a great pearl. A ring of 
gold and pearls served to attach it. This cross, which had never before been 
seen by any member of the family, was handed down by Mrs. Gurney's 
descendants for a number of generations. The pearl necklace was never 
found, although the family had searched for it after Mrs. Gurney's death. 

The old servant lived many years after her ghostly experience, and only 
told the story on her death bed. 


About the year 1883. Mrs. Gillespie of Philadelphia, a great grand- 
daughter of Benjamin Franklin, with whom General Meredith Read had long 
been acquainted, called upon General and Mrs. Meredith Read at their resi- 
dence at Newport, in order to show them a ring with which is connected an 
interesting family incident. Margaret Ross, or Margaretta, as she is styled 
on her portrait, the daughter of the Hon. John Ross, Attorney General, and 
his wife nee Elizabeth Morgan, was born on the 25th August, 1747. She was 
a beautiful and accomplished girl and an heiress. When she was eighteen 
years of age she was affianced to Richard Bache, who was born in Settle in 
the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, on the 12th September, 1737, and 
died 29th July, 181 1. He was the brother of Theophylact Bache of New 
York, merchant, also born in Yorkshire, and who had gone to New York 
as early as 1751, was identified with the resistance to the Crown in 1765, and 
in 1770 was one of the Committee to carry out the resolutions of Non- 
Intercourse. In 1777 he was chosen fifth President of the New York 
Chamber of Commerce. 

Richard Bache established himself in Philadelphia and accumulated a 
handsome fortune. Margaret Ross caught a severe cold at her father's resi- 
dence, Tusculum. which now forms a portion of the Episcopal Hospital, near 
Philadelphia, which the Ross fortune created, and this cold developed finally 
into a decline. Finding herself to be dying, the young girl sent for her 
friend Sally Franklin. — her intimate friend and the only daughter of Ben- 
jamin Franklin, — and also for her betrothed lover, Richard Bache. And 
when they came into her room she said, " Sally, I am about to die, and I wish 
you to marry Richard," and taking their hands she joined them and made 
them promise to marry after her death. Her last instruction was to have a 
ring prepared of the finest workmanship, upon which was to be enamelled 
this inscription : 

" Margaret Ross, ob. Aug. 20, 1766 " 
"Aged Nineteen " 

i8o Rossi a 11 a. 

And this ring was to be given to Sally Franklin upon her marriage, and 
to be ever afterwards worn by her. Richard Bache married Sally Franklin 
on the 3rd October of the following year, 1767. Franklin appointed him 
Secretary Comptroller and Register General to date from the 29th September, 
1775, and this office he held until November. 1776. when he became Post- 
master General and continued such until 1782. His wife, Sarah Franklin, 
was the chief of the patriotic band of ladies who made clothes for the half- 
clad soldiers and sought to mitigate their sufferings during the severe 
winter of 1780. She died on the 5th October, 1808, and bequeathed this 
ring to her daughter, from whom it came to her granddaughter Airs. 
Gillespie who. during the Rebellion, rivalled her grandmother in her philan- 
thropic labours on behalf of our soldiers during the Revolution. 

Mrs. Gillespie wrote the following acrostic for General Meredith Read : 

Maiden, whose bones have crumbled long ago, 
Above thy tomb we bend, yet not in woe ; 
Regrets we have none, that an early call 
Grim Death made thee. He comes for all. 
And taking thee, he left us cause for mirth ; 
Reaching far back, aye, even from our birth. 
Each one of us was called for, though, finally. 
'Twas that which made us flesh and blood with Sally. 
Requiems we sing not. for they're rather dull ; 
Odes we will write, with praises ever full; 
Sonnets and verses to that name we'll pen; 
Sally's our grandma ; she. the child of Ben. 
Newport, August 20th. 1883. 


THERE can scarcely be a question that the Rosses of Balnagown, Shand- 
wick, Balmachy and Balblair, from whom descended the American 
families of Ross and Read, were direct descendants of the Royal 
house of Scotland. If there were no other evidence to substantiate this, 
the fact that the arms of the Earls of Ross (gules three lions rampant, 
within a tressure argent) were taken from the shield of the King himself 
(which was or and the tressure gules, and displayed one lion rampant), 
to show that they were children of the Royal lion or Royal house, would 
unerringly point to a royal connection. The Lairds of Balnagown dropped 
the tressure and retained the three Royal lions as proof of their Royal 

George Crawfurd, historiographer of Scotland, in his early account of 
the Earls of Ross, recorded the fact that Hugh Ross of Rarichies, first Laird 
of Balnagown, was the son of Hugh, fifth Earl of Ross, and Lady Maud 
Bruce, sister of Robert II, thus establishing the connection between Balna- 
gown and the royal house. This view was later accepted by Rev. Compton 
Reade in his " Record of the Redes," who also added the statement that 
another connection with the royal house was formed by the marriage of 
Hugh Ross, fourth Laird of Balnagown, and Janet, daughter of the Earl of 
Sutherland by Helen Sinclair, a direct descendant of King Robert II. 

Mr. Francis Nevile Reid, however, in his very full account of the Earls 
of Ross, makes the assertion that Hugh of Rarichies was the son of Hugh, 
fifth Earl of Ross, and his second wife, Margaret, daughter of Sir David 
Graham. If this were true, it is necessary to look elsewhere for a royal 
connection. As to the marriage of Hugh, fourth of Balnagown, and Janet, 
daughter of the Earl of Sutherland, Mr. Reid says that " it is said " to 
have occurred, but that " at Dunrobin there is no trace of this lady or of 
the marriage of Hugh Ross." 

Francis Nevile Reid's account having been given in full, it is deemed only 
fair that the pedigree by Rev. Compton Reade should be reproduced in these 
pages. I am inclined to believe that Mr. Nevile Reid is right, inasmuch 
as he made a life-study of the subject and expended a greater amount of 
energy and money in getting the descent correct than any other person. I 
must add. however, that my great-grandfather, Hon. John Read, who was a 
lawyer of eminence, a learned man. and a writer of note, as well as a banker 
of distinguished ability, always believed in the direct royal descent, and that 
my father, General J. Meredith Read, believed in it also. 

The pedigrees given by Compton Reade are as follows : 


182 Rossiana. 


Isabel, naturalised daughter of William the Lion = Robert de Bruce. 

I . ^ 

Maud Bruce, sister of King Robert Bruce=HucH, Earl of Ross (whose sister 

I Euphemia = Robert II.) 

Hugh Ross, Baron of Rarichies and Balnagown = Margaret de Barclay. 

William Ross. Baron of Rarichies and Balnagown = Christiana, daughter of 
I Lord Livingstone. 

Walter Ross, Baron of Rarichies and Balnagown = Katherein McTyre. 

Hugh Ross II., Baron of Rarichies and Balnagown = Janet, daughter of the 

Earl of Sutherland 
by Helen Sinclair 
daughter of the 
Earl of Orkney. 

Rev. William Ross, of Little Allan, Sub-Dean of Ross = Griselle Macdonald, 

niece of the Lord 
of the Isles. 

Walter Ross, Laird of Shand\vick = Jane Tulloch. 

Hugh Ross, Laird of Balmachie, was succeeded by his elder son, 

Donald Ross, Laird of Balmachie, who was succeeded by 



Walter Ross. Laird of Balmachie, whose successor was 


Hugh Ross, Laird of Balmachie, followed by his elder son, 
George Ross. Laird of Balmachie, who = Margaret McCulloch. 
Andrew Ross, Laird of Balblair, was the father of 

David Ross, of Balblair. who = Margaret Stronach. 


^. Rev. George Ross, M.A. (ordained by the Bishop of London), Rector of jj^^f, 
Emmanuel Church, New Castle. Delaware =£ secondh^vi*/ tjuvsr^' 
Catherine Van Gezel. J \* V 1 *^ ^ 

- _ tv> S*" V 

Gertrude Ross (whose brother George Ross was one of the "Signers") = v " 

George Read, " The Signer." Y*\0- 

Descent from the Royal House of Scotland. 183 

The Hon. John Read. Senator, etc. = Martha, daughter of General Samuel 

Meredith, Treasurer of the United 
States of America. 

~~ I 
The Hon. John Meredith Read, Attorney General, and Chief Justice of 

Pennsylvania = Priscilla, daughter of 

I the Hon. J. Marshall, of Boston, U.S.A. 


General John Meredith Read, who = Delphine Marie, daughter of Harmon 

Pumpelly, Esq., of Albany. 


Robert Bruce (2nd in the preceding table)=as his first wife Elizabeth, 

daughter of Sir Adam Mure, 
J of Rowallan. 


Egidia Bruce = Sir William Douglas, of Nithsdale. 

Egidia Douglas = Henry Sinclair, second Earl of Orkney. 

Helen Sinclair = Gordon, Earl of Sutherland. 

Janet Gordon = Hugh Ross II., Baron of Rarichies (see preceding descent), 
direct lineal ancestor of the late General John Meredith 

Arms of Ross. — Gules, three lions rampant argent. Crest. — A lion 
rampant gules. Motto. — Nobilis est ira leonis. 


CATHARIXE VAN GEZEL, of Xew Castle, who married, as second 
wife, Rev. George K — . was a direct descendant ox Gerrit van Gezel, 
who was the nephew and secretary oi Jacob Alrichs, who was appointed 
the first Dutch Governor, or Vice Director, of Delaware, then receutly 
named Xienw Amstel. Governor Alrichs was also an uncle of Beck. 
the Vice Director at Curac a. Vice Director Alrichs arrived in the 
Delaware, then called the South River. April 21, 1057. and Governor Stuy- 
vesant, in obedience to the orders of the Dutch West India Company, form- 
ally transferred to Governor Alrichs the " Fort of Casimir, now named New 
Amstel, with all the lands dependent on it. in conformity with our purchase 
from and transfer by the natives, to us on the 19 July. 1651." Upon his 
arrival at Fort Casimir. Alrichs received from Vice Director John Paul Jere- 
quet a surrender of his authority, and the Colony of New Amstel was 
formally organized. During the few months of Alrichs' directorship New 
Amstel prospered. The municipal government was remodelled, the town 
was laid out, buildings were rapidly erected, including a town hall : a bridge 
was placed over the creek near Fort Casimir. a magazine was constructed, 
the fort repaired, a guardhouse, bakehouse and forge built, together with 
residences for the clergymen and other public officers ; industry promised suc- 
ce.-s and thirty families were tempted to emigrate from Manhattan to the 
flourishing colony on South River. But disease and famine set in in 
and the heat of the summer enfeebled the unacclimated survivors. The wife of 
Alrichs was one of the victims. In the midst of these troubles Vice Director 
Alrichs died, having entrusted the government to Alexander d'Hinoyossa. with 
Gerrit van Sweringen and Cornelius van Gezel as Councillors. 

There are two references to persons named van Gezel in a volume entitled 
" Annals of Pennsylvania from the Discovery of the Delaware." by Samuel 
Hazard, which, it is understood, covers the period from 1609 to 16S2. On 
page 299 Gerit van Gezel is referred to as Secretary of Xew Amstel : and on 
page 301 it is stated that Cornelius van Gezel was removed from office as 
Councillor in Xew Amstel. A note refers to Volume XVII. Albany Records, 
page 142. 

The van Gezel family is of Dutch origin. The earliest reference to mem- 
bers of the Xew Castle family is believed at this time to be that among 
Records of the Dutch Reformed Church of Xew York. Among the records 
of marriages, as published in the Xew York Biographical and Genealogical 
Record. Vol. VIII. page 40. is found that of Jacob van Gezel. i. m. (that 
is young man or bachelor") from Xew Castle and Geertruydt Reyniers. j. d. 
(that is young woman or spinster) of Xew York. The bans or other notice 
appear to have been given on April 13, 1688. the celebration of the marriage 
following on May 9. 16SS. In the records of baptisms of the same church 

/ 'an Gezel Family. 185 

(See Vol. XI. page 1.38, N. Y. G. & B. Record) it appears that Anna 
Catharina, daughter of Jacob van Gezel and Geertruydt Reyniers, was bap- 
tized October 20, 1689, the witnesses being Reynier Williams, Hendrick 
Boelen and Femmetje"*Kock. Also that Cornelius, son of Jacob van Gezel 
and Geertruydt Reyniers. was baptized May 26. 1691, the witnesses being 
Adolph Pieterzen and Christiana de Honnem. 

In the parish register of the parish of North Sassafras or Saint Stephens 
in Cecil County, Maryland, it is recorded that Rynerius van Gezel, son of 
Jacob van Gezel and Gertrug his wife, was born December 16. 1696. and was 
baptized December 10, 1697. (See copy of Register at Md. Hist. Society, 
Baltimore, page 56.) 

A number or original papers, deeds, leases, &c. which refer to members of 
the van Gezel family are in the possession of Mrs. John Rodney of New 
Castle, who is descended from the Rev. George Ross and Catharine van Gezel, 
his wife. Among these papers is a deed from John Hogg to Cornelius van 
Gezel dated June 7, 1715, and it is thus quite plain that the family were living 
there prior to that time. Indeed the marriage notice of 1688 describes Jacob 
van Gezell as of New Castle, but the baptism of two children in New York 
some years later may indicate that after his marriage Jacob settled in New 
York. On the other hand, he may have merely taken his children there to 
be baptized in the church of his own or his wife's faith. There is also a 
confirmatory deed from John Hogg to Gertrude van Gezell dated November 
17, 1718, which refers to the will of Cornelius van Gezell as dated November 
8, 1717, and as devising a certain lot to his mother Gertrude van Gezell for 
life, with remainder to his brother John van Gezell and his sister Catharine. 
There is also a lease of February 8, 1730, from Rev. Geo. Ross of New Castle 
to Gertrug van Gezell, widow. This paper was signed by George Ross and 
also by Gertrug Vangezell, and opposite the signature of each is a seal in 
wax bearing the impression of a coat-of-arms. The same seal was used for 
both Mr. Ross and Mrs. van Gezell, and the device was a shield in the upper 
portion of which two rather long-legged birds are standing. The lower 
two-thirds of the seal has across it a band or " bend." The crest rests on a 
helmet and is an arm bowed at the elbow and in armor, the hand grasping 
something which cannot be deciphered. This device is not that of the Ross 
family or of the Van Gezel family, but may have been that of Gertrude's 
own family, Reyniers. There is also a deed of release of March 30, 1730, 
from George Ross and Catherine his wife, late Catharine Vangezell. There 
is an indenture from George Ross, gentleman, and Catharine his wife, and 
John Vangezell. saddler, and Mary his wife, of the one part, and Gertrude 
Vangezell. widow, of the other part. This paper was signed by George 
Ross, Ann Catharine Ross, John van Gezell and Mary van Gezel. There 
is also an abstract of the title to a certain lot evidently prepared by legal 
counsel. In it reference is made to* the will of George Ross as devising 
the lot to Jacob Ross, a younger son by his wife Catharine. It also refers 
to an indenture of May 22, 1755, in which George Ross is referred to as 
the eldest son of George Ross by his wife Catharine. Some of these very 
interesting papers have apparently not been recorded, but the deed from John 
Hogg to Cornelius and the confirmatory deed seem to have been recorded 

1 86 Rossiana. 

in New Castle in Liber E. D. &c. folio 247, in which particular office seems 
not quite clear. It seems probable that the will of Cornelius and that of 
George Ross are of record in New Castle, and possibly an examination of 
the land records and records of wills there might establish some interesting 

The records of Immanuel Church, New Castle, show that among the Church 
Wardens were: William Read 1720-1731, and John Vangezell, 1745-1762. 
Another entry records the burial of Gertrude van Gezell on March 27, 1810, 
without any statement to identify her with the earlier members of the 

From the above records and memoranda the following statement is made: 
Jacob van Gezel of New Castle and Gertrude Reyniers of New York were 
married on May 9, 1688 at the Dutch Reformed Church of New York. 
Jacob probably died prior to 1717 when Cornelius devised a lot to his mother 
and his brother and sister. Gertrude was living as late as March 31, 1730, 
when Rev. George Ross leased a lot in New Castle to her. They had 
children, as follows : 

A. Anna Catharine, baptized at Dutch Reformed Church October 20, 1689. 
Anna Catharine married the Rev. George Ross, the first Rector of Immanuel 
Church, New Castle, Delaware, being his second wife. They had children, 
as follows : 

1. George Ross. 

2. Gertrude, who married I. Till and second George Read. 

3. Catharine, who married Gen. William Thompson of Perm. 

4. Elizabeth, who married Col. Edw. Biddle of Phila. 

5. Susanna, who married Rev. William Thomson, rector of St. 

Stephen's Church, Cecil County, Maryland. (He was a son 
of the Rev. Samuel Thomson and a cousin of Gen. William 
Thompson who married Catharine Ross ( 3 ) . 
They had a large family, among them a daughter, Mary, who 
married Dr. Thomas B. Yeazey of " Essex Lodge." Cecil 
County, Md. 
G. Mary, who married Mark Bird of Birdsboro. 

7. James. 

8. Jacob. Whether Jacob was in fact the youngest child is not plain. 

It is supposed he was Dr. Jacob Ross of New Castle. 

B. Cornelius van Gezell, baptized at Dutch Reformed Church, May 26, 
1691. His will is dated November 8, 1717, and, as he devised certain 
property to his mother and brother and sister, it seems probable that he 
died unmarried or without children. 

C. John van Gezell. Married Mary Was living March 30, 1730. 

There is no further positive record now known of John but it seems 
quite probable that he was Church Warden of Immanuel Church 1745 to 

D. Rynerius, born December 16, 1696, baptized at St. Stephen's Church, 
Cecil County, Md., December 10, 1697. 

Van Gezel Family. 187 

Jacob van Gezel and Gertrude Reyniers 
Married May 9, 1688. 

I _ d. 1717 
Anna Catharina John, who m. Rynerius 

m. Rev. Geo. Ross Mary 


In the name of God Amen I John Vangezell of the Town and County of 
New Castle on Delaware Shopkeeper being in health and sound in mind and 
understanding (praised be God therefor) duly considering that it is appointed 
for all men to die and being mindful thereof Do make this my last Will 
and Testament as followeth. First I Commend my soul to Almighty God my 
Creator hoping for free pardon and Remission of my sins and to enjoy ever- 
lasting happiness through the merits of Jesus Christ my Saviour. My body 
I commit to the Earth at the discretion of my Executor and as to my tem- 
poral Estate I dispose of the same as followeth. 

First I will that all my lawful Debts be paid by my Executor out of that 
part of my Estate hereinafter devised and bequeathed to him, it being my 
Intention and desire that no part of what shall be herein devised and 
bequeathed to my Daughter Gertrude be chargeable with any of them untill 
the whole which shall be hereby devised to my Executor if necessary be first 
Applied. Then I give and devise to my said Daughter Gertrude Vangezell 
all that my present dwelling house and Appurtenances in the front street 
of said Town of New Castle with the lot of Ground thereunto belonging to 
wit bounded South Easterly by the said front street Southwesterly by my 
lot purchased of George Read formerly belonging to Hon'ble James Hamilton 
North Westerly by the lot late of Sarah Janvier deced and North Easterly 
by the lot of Richard McWilliam. Also all that my front lot of Meadow 
Ground on the North West side of the Black Street of the said Town 
heretofore called Beaver Street and bounded South Easterly by the same 
street South Westerly by the lot of George Monro North Westerly by the 
centre of the old Bank dividing this from my Back Meadow Lot hereafter 
devised to my Executor and North Easterly with the Great Road leading 
from New Castle to Christiana Bridge to hold to my said Daughter Gertrude 
her heirs and Assigns forever. Then I also give and devise unto my said 
Daughter Gertrude all my Brick Messuage situate on the South Westerly 
side of the Thwart or Market Street in the Town of New Castle also 
adjoining the Brick Messuage late of the widow Blackburn deced with the 
Lot thereto belonging including therein A Moiety of the Ground between 
this devised Messuage and my frame Messuage to the Eastward thereof 
and that Breath from the Thwart Street to the South Westerly bound of 
both Lots with its apputenances to hold to my said Daughter Gertrude during 
her natural life and after to my Grandson John Vangezell son of Benjamin 
to him his Heirs and Assigns forever. Then I also give and bequeath to 
my said Daughter Gertrude in absolute Property to be by her taken and 
retained without .the usual form or Right of Assent by my Executor the 

1 88 Rossi a u a. 

following part of my Personal Estate that is to say One Bed bolster and 
Pillows with Winter and Summer Covering therefor a Beadstead Curtains 
and there furniture half a dozen of my best chairs A looking Glass dressing 
Table, Dining Table Tea Table all of which my said Daughter is to have 
the liberty of making choice off together A pair of hand irons Shovel and 
Tongs, Also one pair of high chest of Drawers in the front Chamber my 
Silver Cane Cream Pot all my Table and Tea Spoons China and Delf Ware 
all my Sheeting Table Linnen and Xapkins and all my Kitchen Furniture 
including therein all Pewter Knives and Forks etc. 

Then I give and devise unto George Read of the Town of New Castle 
Gent, as my Executor for the payment of all lawful Debts against me or my 
estate that is to say all those my two Messuages on the South Easterly 
Side of the Said front Street in the Town of New Castle also with my 
several Lots on that side of the same street extending into the River 
Delaware bounded North Easterly by the House and Lot of George Ross 
deced and South Westerly by the Thwart Street — And all that my frame 
Messuage on the South Westerly side of the Thwart Street with the lot 
thereto belonging including therein A Moity of the Ground between this 
frame Messuage and the Brick Messuage herein before devised to my 
Daughter to the Westward and extending that division of the intermediate 
Ground from the Thwart Street to the South Westerly bounds of both 
Lots. And also all that my back Lot of Meadow Ground bounded North 
Easterly by the Great Road leading from New Castle to Christiana Bridge 
South Easterly by the Centre of the old Bank dividing this from my front 
Meadow Lot herein before devised to my Daughter South Westerly by the 
Lot of George Monro and North Westerly by the Orchard Lot of Richard 
McWilliam deced and also all that Lot of Ground not heretofor Conveyed 
by me purchased by me of the said George Read as also Situate on the 
North Easterly Side of the Thwart Street and North Westerly Side of the 
front Street and all other my Estate Real and personal whatsoever and 
wheresoever not hereinbefor mentioned and devised to hold to him the said 
George Read his Heirs and Assigns for the express Purpose of Selling and 
disposing of all my Right and Interest therein or in any part to Enable my 
said Executor to satisfy and discharge Debts as also Willing and Authorizing 
the sale thereof in the whole or in such Parts & allotments and in such 
manner as my said Executor in his discretion shall think fit and to the 
interest that my said Executor may not be discharged from undertaking 
the Trust I will that he shall be saved harmless and indemnified out of 
my Estate of and from all Damages and Expenses which shall or may happen 
or come to him for or by reason of his taking upon him the Execution of this 
will and I devise that he be allowed all Reasonable Commissions Costs and 
Charges and thereafter in Case of any Residue Remaining with my Executor 
I give devise and bequeath the same equally between my said Daughter 
Gertrude and my son Benjamin Vangezell their respective Heirs and 

And whereas it may so happen through Casualties or otherwise that the 
part of my Estate which I have befor especially devised to my Executor 
may not produce sufficient for the purpose there mentioned in such case 

Will of Joint Van Gesell. 189 

I do hereby will and Authorize my Executor to sell and dispose of such part 
of my Estate before devised to my Daughter and Grandson or either of them 
as he shall find necessary to pay Debts with that, that it is my meaning and 
desire that the small Brick Messuage on the South Westerly Side of Thwart 
Street Adjoining the Widw Blackburns be first disposed off and applied and 
in Case of any Residue in the Sales under this last Authority to my 
Executor I devise the same to my Daughter Gertrude solely and absolutely. 
And lastly I do hereby Nominate Constitute and appoint the said George 
Read Executor of this my last will and in case of his death or other 
disability I do hereby Nominate Constitute and appoint Mr. Curtis Clay of 
the City of Philadelphia Merchant Sole Executor of this will giving and 
granting unto him the like Powers of Selling and Conveying and after- 
wards of Applying the monnies arising therefrom as are herein before 
given and intrusted to the said George Read and I do revoke and make void 
all former and other Wills and Testaments by me at any time or times here- 
tofore made and do declare this to be my last Will and Testament. In 
Witness whereof I have hereto set my hand and seal this second day of 
March in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty three. 

Jn. Vangezell (L. S.) 

Signed sealed and published by the before named John Vangezell as and 
for his last Will and Testament in the presence of us who subscribed our 
names thereto As witnesses at his request and in his presence. 

John Read. 
Ross Thomson. 

Personally appeared John Read one of the Subscribing evidences to the 
within and foregoing will and being duly sworn doth say that he did see 
and hear John van Gezell sign seal publish pronounce and declare the within 
and foregoing Instrument of writing as his last Will and Testament that at 
the time of his so doing and saying he was (to the best of his belief) of sound 
and disposing mind and memory that he did sign his name as an evidence 
thereunto at his Request. In his presence and in the Presence of Ross 
Thomson Esquire whom he did see sign as one other evidence at the same 
time. In Testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand at New Castle 
this 4th day of June Anno Domini 17S7. 

x Gun. Bedford, Regr. 

IGunning Bedford was a son-in-law of Colonel John Read (168S-1756), of Delaware, 
having married his only daughter, Mary, and was brother-in-law of Hon. George Read, 
the " Signer," named above as executor of John Van Gezel. 


ELIZABETH ROSS, better known as Betsey, was born in Philadelphia, 
Pa., January I, 1752, and was the daughter of Samuel and Rebecca 
Griscom. Her father, a member of the Society of Friends, was a noted 
builder, having assisted in the erection of Independence Hall. Skilful with her 
needle, she was fond of embroidery and other artistic and delicate work, and 
after her marriage to John Ross in 1773, who was a son of the Rev. Aneas 
Ross, assistant rector of Christ Church, and a nephew of Col. George Ross, a 
signer of the Declaration of Independence and a grandson of Rev. Geo. Ross, 
of New Castle, Del., they went into the upholstery business, which they 
conducted until January, 1776, when John Ross died from an injury received 
while guarding military stores. The young widow continued the business 
alone. When Congress appointed a committee to design a suitable flag 
for the nation in June, 1776, on which was Col. Geo. Ross, General Wash- 
ington and Robert Morris, the committee, at the suggestion of Colonel Rossr 
went to her shop, at Xo. 239 Arch street, and engaged her to make the flag 
from a design drawn up by Washington and Colonel Ross, who was learned in 
the science of Heraldry. The drawing represented the outlines of a flag of 
thirteen stripes with a center or union dotted with thirteen six-pointed stars. 
Mrs. Ross suggested changing the stars trom six points to five points, because 
one would cut them out so much easier, illustrating this by deftly folding a 
bit of paper, and with a single snip of her scissors producing the star. 
The sample flag made by her was accepted by the committee and adopted by 
Congress June 14. 1777. After this she received the contract to make all 
government flags and held it many years, her daughter, Mrs. Clarissa Wilson, 
continuing the business uniil 1857. Mrs. Ross was afterwards married to 
Captain Ashburn. and for the third time to John Claypole. She died in 
Philadelphia, Pa., January 30. 1836. 

In connection with Mrs. Ross' making the first official flag of the United 
States it may not be uninteresting to give a few facts about the origin of the 
most beautiful flag in the world. The first striped flag used by the Americans 
was that used at Washington's headquarters at Cambridge. Mass., January 2, 
1776. General Washington says of it : " We hoisted the Union flag in com- 
pliment to the United Colonies and saluted it with thirteen guns." This flag 
had thirteen stripes, alternate red and white, with the united crosses of 
St. George and St. Andrew on a blue field, the cross of St. George fimbri- 
cated to represent the original white field of the flag of St. George. It is 
said that Paul Jones first hoisted the flag of America in 1775 ; this is about 
two years before the Congress, in session at Philadelphia, resolved "that 
the flag of the thirteen United States be thirteen stripes, alternate red and 
white ; the union to be thirteen stars on a blue field, representing a new 

Betsey Ross and the American Flag. 


constellation, the stars to be arranged in a circle." Therefore, even though 
Elizabeth Robbins Berry, in her interesting article on the American flag, 
states that this flag is still in existence and that it has thirteen stripes and 
twelve stars (?) I think there must be some mistake, because it is contrary to 
tradition and history as far as we know. I believe the flag that was hoisted 
by Paul Jones was that which was used by Washington at Cambridge, and 
that either the flag now in existence is another of Paul Jones' flags of a later 
date or the same one with the union changed. Tradition states that Colonel 
George Ross was the real designer of the first American flag. He was a 

Arms of the United States of America. 

lawyer of distinction, a student and a man of great ability. He was much 
interested in heraldry. It is said that Washington was naturally anxious 
to preserve something of the striped flag that he had used at Cambridge 
and also that he was anxious to do away with the crosses which suggested 
a dependency on Great Britain. Washington's coach had emblazoned upon 
it his coat-of-arms argent two bars and three mullets or stars gules (a 
white shield and three red stars at the top and two red stripes across the 
shield) and for crest an eagle rising out of a ducal coronet. These arms gave 
Colonel George Ross his inspiration and he suggested to Washington the 
placing of thirteen stars in the blue union, thus representing to the world 
a new constellation. 

192 Rossiana. 

Some persons have thought that this new constellation represented that of 
Lyra, symbol of harmony. This idea was brought out when the coat-of-arms 
of the United States was invented and was suggested by the striped shield 
and the stars above, rind this constellation was actually engraved upon 
passports as the arms of the United States under the Adams' and other 
presidents. The first flag bore thirteen stars in a circle and the constellation 
Lyra has not this form ; the lyre, which is its emblem, however, reversed. 
looks a little like our national shield. Col. George Ross, who, like most of 
the officers in the army, was a great admirer of General Washington, wished 
to pay him a compliment by placing the stars in the union and at the same 
time please the general by retaining the stripes of the original flag, keeping 
the alternate white and red of Washington's shield. The coat-of-arms 
invented after naturally followed the flag in colors, but the chief of blue 
had no stars upon it and the stars of the arms were placed in a glory in the 
form of a double triangle. The eagle of the Washington crest was turned 
into an eagle displayed which, when it is alone and bears a shield upon its 
breast, denotes empire. The American eagle was naturally chosen as more 
emblematical of the new nation than an heraldic one. The thirteen arrows 
and the branch of olive in the claws are the only symbols not found in the 
Washington arms, and as they were symbolic of peace and war it was only 
natural to add them to the new design. 


The appended interesting matter is taken from a paper read by Airs. Eliza- 
beth Robbins Berry, of the Woman's Relief Corps, at the Y. W. C. A. flag 
drill, Albany, N. Y., 1907: 

It is claimed that the first using of the stars and stripes in actual military 
service was at Fort Stanwix, afterward Fort Schuyler, now Rome, X. Y., 
in 1777. On August second of that year the fort was besieged by the 
English and Indians. The brave garrison was without a flag, but one was 
made in the fort. The red was contributed by a woman, who tore stripes 
from a petticoat for the purpose, the white from shirts given by the men 
and the blue was a piece of Col. Peter Gansevoort's military cloak. 

The flag of thirteen stripes and thirteen stars was used at Brandywine, 
at Germantown, floated over the surrender of Burgoyne, cheered the patriots 
during the long winter at Valley Forge, waved at Yorktown, and shared in 
the rejoicings at the close of the war. 

There was no change in the flag until 1794. Vermont having come into 
the Union in 1791, and Kentucky in 1792, a bill was presented in Congress 
increasing the number of both stars and stripes to fifteen. This bill caused 
much debate. One wise legislator said : " The flag should be permanent. 
We may go on altering it for a hundred years. Very likely in fifteen years 
we shall number fifteen States." This was almost literally fulfilled. 

The bill was finally passed and the fifteen-striped flag was used for 
twenty-three years, including the period of the War of 1812. It was in this 
form that the flag inspired Francis Scott Key to write what is now our 
national anthem, " The Star Spangled Banner." The flag is still in exist- 

First United States Flag. 193 

ence, stored in a safety deposit vault in New York city. Upon the death of 
its owner it will probably become the property of some historical society. 

In 1818 the number of States had increased to nineteen, and now comes a 
very interesting item in our flag's history. At the head of Wendover avenue 
in Clermont Park. Borough of the Bronx. New York city, is the old 
Zabriskie mansion, located in the centre on the high hill overlooking the 
avenue, and the present headquarters of the " Department of Parks." Over 
this building floats daily from sunrise to sunset a large flag observable from 
a great distance in every direction, and its setting, like the flag itself, thrills 
the observer. Wendover avenue is named for the Hon. Peter H. Wendover, 
Member of Congress, to whom our country is indebted for the design of 
the flag as it now appears — the thirteen stripes of white and red diverging 
from the constellation of forty-five stars in the blue held. 

The passenger on his way up through the Bronx on the elevated or trolley 
railroad will note the call of the conductor at Wendover avenue, which is 
also East One Hundred and Seventy-second street, but he or she would not 
be reminded how sacred is ihe name to national pride, a historical part of 
the " Stars and Stripes." 

The writer is indebted for much of the valuable information concerning 
Congressman Wendover and his part in our flag's career to Rocellus S. 
Guernsey, a resident of the Bronx for about thirty years and an author of 
several works on New York history, and for one of which this city council 
gave him, in 1896, a vote of thanks. 

It was on the 9th of December, 1816, at the second session of Congress that 
Mr. Wendover took the matter up. and at his instance a committee was 
appointed of which he was chairman. It made a report which was not then 
acted upon, and the subject was dropped at the close of the session. He was 
a sailmaker in New York and made flags for all that required them, so he 
knew by actual experience the impracticability there was in continuing to add 
a stripe as each new State was admitted. 

Soon after the meeting of Congress in December, 1817, to which he had 
been elected, Mr. Wendover offered a resolution " that a committee be 
appointed to inquire into the expedience of altering the flag of the United 
States, and that they have to report by bill or otherwise." He said : " Had 
the flag of the United States never undergone an alteration he certainly 
would not propose to make a further alteration in it." It was his impression, 
he said, and he thought it was generally believed that the flag would be 
essentially injured by an alteration on essentially the same principle as that 
which had been made of increasing the number of the stripes and stars. 

He stated the incongruity of the flags in use, except those in the navy, not 
agreeing with the law and greatly varying from each other. He instanced the 
flags flying over the building in which Congress sat and at the navy yard. 
one of which contained nine stripes, the other eighteen and neither of them 
compatible to law. After some further remarks the motion was put and 
agreed to without opposition, and he was named chairman of the committee 
to report a law. 



The matter was referred by this committee to Capt. Samuel C. Reid, 1 of 
New York, who had distinguished himself as captain of a privateer by the 
capture of several British ships, and as a result the committee reported as 
follows : 

" That they are led to believe no alteration could be more emblematic of 
our origin and present existence, as composed of a number of independent 
and united States, that to reduce the stripes to the original number of thirteen 
to represent the number of States then contending for and happily achieving 
their independence and to increase the stars to correspond with the number 
of stars now in the Union and hereafter to add one star to the flag whenever 
a new State shall be fully admitted. 

" The alteration proposed will direct the view to two strong facts in our 
national history and teach the world an important reality, that republican 
government is not only practicable but that it is also progressive. It points 
to the States as they commenced and as they now are. and will, with an 
inconsiderable addition, direct the mind to a future state of things." 

Air. Wendover said in making the report for the committee: "It cannot be 
deemed proper to go on and increase the stripes in our flag. There are now 
twenty States ; what number they will ultimately extend to none can con- 
jecture. Sir, I am not now speaking of conquest, but I can no more believe 
that any portion of the earth will remain in perpetual thraldom and be 
forever tributary to a foreign power than I can subscribe to the doctrine of 
a ceaseless succession of legitimate kings." (At that time Spain, Portugal, 
Mexico, France, England, Russia and other foreign governments ruled large 
territories adjoining the United States or islands near the latter.) 

In conclusion he said: "Air. Chairman, in viewing this subject there 
appears to be a happy coincidence of circumstances in having adopted the 
symbols in this Hag and a peculiar fitness of things in making the proposed 
alteration. In that part designed at a distance to characterize our country, 
and which ought, for the information of other nations, to appear conspicuous 
and remain permanent, you present the number of States that burst the 
bonds of oppression and achieved our independence ; while in the part 
intended for a nearer, or home view, you see a representation of our happy 
union as it now exists, and space sufficient to embrace the symbols of those 
who may hereafter join under our banners." 

Thereupon Congress enacted the flag law of 1818, and the first flag in its 
present form was made by the wife of Captain Reid, assisted by a number 
of patriotic ladies, at her home in Cherry street, Xew York city. This flag 
had twenty-one stars, and it was provided further by Congress that a star 
should be added upon the admission of every new State. The plan of 
arranging the stars in rows was then adopted, and has since been continued. 
It is notable that no star was taken from the flag during the civil conflict 
in the 6o's. the government maintaining that the tie which binds the States 
could not be severed. Another flag was used in the seceding States for a 
few years, but the flag of the Union is now the flag of the South as of the 
North, as was amply proven during the Spanish-American War. 

a Captain S. C. Reid was no relation to George Read, " The Signer." 

Descent of the Ancient and 
Historic Read Family. 


THE American family of Read, which began with Colonel John Read 
(born in Dublin, 1688), whose father was fifth in descent from 
Thomas Read, lord of the manors of Barton Court and Beedon, in 
Berkshire, and high sheriff of Berks in 1581, was descended from Rede of 

The arms of the Redes of Troughend, chiefs of the name in Redesdale 
and descendants of Reod (Reoda or Riada) are as follows: Gules, three 
sheaves of wheat between a chevron or, bearing three stalks of wheat vert; 
crest, a dragon or griffin ; motto, " In God is all." 

The arms of the Barton Court family bore four sheaves, in place of the 
three borne by the Troughend family, and the saltire in the Barton Court 
house is changed to a chevron in the Troughend family, with a part of the 
fourth wheat sheaf placed upon the chevron. The crest is not the same; 
neither is the motto. The descent of 
the two families from the same 
ancestor is, however, clearly indi- 

A manuscript of the time of 
Queen Elizabeth has a passage in 
which Rede of Troughend is thus 
described : '* Ye Laird of Trough- 
wen, the Chief of the name of Reed 
and divers followers." In 1542 the 
Redes of Troughend and their rela- 
tives were reckoned the second clan 
of the dale of Rede. 

The oldest forms of the name of the family in Redesdale are Rede and 
Read, which, in the Troughend family, became changed to Reed, and in 
the Barton Court family to Reade, except the American branch, which still 
spells it Read. 



A stone tablet in Elsdon Church, Redesdale (an illustration of which 
appears herewith), erected to Ellerington Reed, Esq., of Troughend, who 
died January 5, 1758, aged forty-four, has this remarkable inscription above 
the coat of arms : " The ancient family of Troughend for above 800 y rs ." The 
last of the Redes of Troughend, Chiefs of the name, was Ellerington Reed, 
Esquire, who sold Troughend and died in 1829. His second daughter and 
fifth child married a Mr. Hall. This very probably makes the Reads, or 
Reades, of Oxfordshire, the chiefs of the name in the world. 



At the battle of Agincourt, which took place Friday, the 25th clay of 
October. 1415. one Rouland de Rede (whose shield was or, a saltire between 
four garbs gules) was in the retinue of Sir John Gray, thirty-five lances and 
ninety-six archers. At the same battle John Rede was one of the lances 
(Esquires) in the retinue of the Duke of Gloucestershire. 


The appended information was taken from documents, with the exception 
of the first paragraph. 

I regret that I am unable to give the name of Sir Thomas de Rede's 

father from documentary evidence, 
but tradition states that it was 
Thomas de Rede of Redesdale 

The seal of Sir Thomas de Rede 
of Redesdale, bearing a chevron be- 
tween three garbs, was dug up on 
the estate of Lord Tankerville and 
is of the date 1300 A. D. 

Thomas Rede, in 1400. was bound 
to William de Swinburne for the 
ransom of William Mostrop. 

Thomas Reide. in 1429, served on 
a jury concerning Elsdon Church. 

Thomas Rede de Redesdale was 
returned by the commissioners of 


Thomas Reed, or Rede, swore al- 
legiance to Henry VI in 1435. 

William Rede of Troughend, 
Lord of Trougen ( name spelled 
Red at times), in 1552 was a com- 
missioner of enclosure and witness 
to the will of Clermont Read of 
Old Town (name spelled Red and 
Read in the will). 
Johannes Rede, in the -ixteenth century, was seized of Troughend. 
Percival Reed was rated for the Manor of Troughend in 1618 and 1638; 
cited before the Consistory Court of Durham. 

Gabriel Read was prior of the Manor of Redesdale in 1646, and in 1667 
settled Troughend on his son Percival. He was living in 1685. 

Percival, his son. married Elizabeth, daughter of Gabriel Hall, and by her 
had issue — Gabriel (died 1718), who married Isabella, daughter of John 

Ellerington Reed of Troughend (1714-1758) married Dorothy Boutrlower 
of Apperley ( 1717-1702 ). 

Ellerington Recti. 2d (1743-1X29). married Mary Snowdon of Prendwick, 
and aliened Troughend to Christopher Reed of Chipchase, December, 1764. 

Tablet in Elsdon ( ihrch. 

The Redes of Redesdale. 199 

His son, Gabriel, married Jane Hunston of Kintreadwell. His brother, 
Robert, married Nancy Anderson, and by her had Gabriel, James and Percy. 
Of these sons one only is alleged to have survived, and must be now dead. 

In 1522 the Troughend Redes were reckoned chiefs of the clan. Of the 
Hoppen branch of the Troughend Redes, the first on record is George Read 
of Heathpool, living in 1743. 

Arms of Reed of the Cragg — Gules a chevron between three garbs or. 
Crest — A griffin or. 

Arms of Reed (or Read) of Heathpool and Hoppen — Or, on a chevron 
between three garbs, as many ears of reed argent. Crest — A demi-griffin 
or, holding an oak branch proper. Motto — In deo omnia. 


The following pedigree, which I found among my papers, will be of pass- 
ing interest to those of the name: To the members of our family the name 
of Thomas Rede, living in 1429, " whose son, Edmund Rede, possessed 
property at Hedington Oxon," will be of the greatest interest. On the other 
hand, Edmund Rede, Lord of Borstal, who is mentioned in this genealogy, 
we know bore arms that were not those of the Reads, of Oxfordshire, or 
the Redes, of Troughend. 

The seal of Sir Edmund Rede bears the following heraldic device: In the 
center is a helmet, on which is the crest, a wild boar. On either side of it 
are dogs entangled in the lambrequins. The helmet rests upon a shield con- 
taining three stags' heads on one side and three birds on the other (parted 
per pale) around the seal Re de Militis. 

Galfrinus de Rede, son of David de Rede (whose brother, John de Rede, 
held lands from the Bishop of Norwich), grandson of Robert de Rede, and 
great grandson, by Margaret Glanville, his wife, of William de Rede, who 
was fourth in descent from Brianus de Rede, living in 1139. had three sons: 
1. Robert of Rede, who married Cicilia Randall, and died in 1346, leaving a 
son. Robert, consecrated Bishop of Carlisle 8th February, 1396, and trans- 
lated same year to Chichester, died 1415, left his property to the Dean and 
Chapter; 2, William, Bishop of Chichester, consecrated in 1369, died 18th 
August, 1385, and, 3. Thomas Rede, living in 1429, whose son, Edmund 
Rede, possessed property at Hedington Oxon. He married Cristiana, 
daughter of Robert James and Catharine de la Pole, his wife, and had (with 
a son, Edmund, whose son, Edmund, was Lord of Borstal), another son and 
heir, John Rede, Mayor of Norwich in 1388, and Sergeant at Law in 1402, 
who had (with a daughter, Magdalina, married to J. Paston, of Paston, 
esquire, d. 1429) two sons, Henry Patron, of Clothall. 

The eldest son. John Rede, of Norwich, married Joan Ludlowe. died nth 
November, 1502. leaving, with other issue, Thomas Rede, of Beccles, who 
married Phillippa Bacon, and had five sons: 1, William: 2. John, of Nor- 
wich, warden of New College, Oxon, in 1520, died 1521; 3. Alan Abbot, of 
Waltham, 1507; 4, Edward, Sheriff of Norfolk. 1508, and Member Parlia- 
ment, who died in 1524, was father of Sir Peter Rede, Knighted by the 


Rossi a n a. 

Emperor Charles V after the siege of Tunis; he married twice, had a grant 
of arms, died 1568, and 5. Thomas, Rector of Beccles, died 1543. 

Arms — Az on a bend wavy or three Cornish choughs within a bordure 
engrailed argent charged with torteaue and twists alternately. 

Crest — A buck's head erased argent, attired or between two palm 
branches, of the second charged on the neck with three bars gemelles or 
three Cornish choughs proper. 


The first Free Mason of the race seems to have been William Rede, 
Bishop of Chichester, Kent. His family came from Read in Marden. His 
first preferment was that of Provost of Wingham College. 

Ancient Library of Merton College. 

Founded by William Rede, Bishop of Chichester, who died in 1385. 

View of the Library from the grove. 

Bred a fellow of Merton College, he there built a fair library, furnishing it 
with books and astronomical tables of his own making, which (they say), 
are still to be seen therein. Retaining his mathematical impressions, he 
commendably expressed them in architecture, erecting a castle, himself 
working as master mason, at Amberley in Sussex. His death happened 
anno domini 1385. He was noted for his knowledge of the faculty of Abrax 
and the universal language. His mason (bench) mark was the five-pointed 
star or pentagram. 

Origin of the Arms of Rede, or Read. 201 


An ancient tradition tells us how the Irish chieftain Riada or Reod was 
converted to the faith of Christ by a learned cnldee, and, burning to convert 
those who knew not the true faith, he cast his eyes upon the shores of Scot- 
land, which were visible on a clear day from that part of Ireland where he 
dwelt. Assembling his sept and all his fighting men, he made known his 
will, and the 'following month he and his tribe set forth in their rough ships 
to convert the heathen of other lands, and, as the fashion then was among 
the pious, to try and convert some of the lands of their neighbors to their 
own use. 

Landing at a time of the year when the corn had been gathered into 
sheaves, a great battle was fought by Reod in a field just beyond what was 
the great fortified city of the heathen Scots. 

The sun had just set and a glow of red light was lingering over the 
battlefield, the enemy had retired in some confusion into their walled city, 
and Reod, " with silver helmet and falcon crest, with locks of hair of reddish 
gold and eyes that pierced like the falcon's glare," " dressed in armour of 
chain and hide, with legs all bound with thongs of skin, in one hand held his 
heavy shield of hide, bound with gold, and in the other his axe, the handle 
inlaid with pearls, his shoulders covered with a cloak, checked with red and 
gold (the symbol of his clan)," tired and bleeding from many a wound made 
his way to a great oak tree not far away, there to rest himself. 

Before he had time, however to seat himself beneath the tree a great 
light appeared from under the branches, and our chieftain saw a man in 
white robe, fringed with blue, standing before him, and Reod knew that he 
saw his Master — that Christ of whom the culdee had so often spoken. A 
terrible fear came over him who had never known fear, and he fell upon 
his knees. 

The tradition tells little else, except the words spoken to him, and they 
are faltering — possibly because of the rendering them into many languages 
before they reached our own. 

Pointing to four wheat sheaves that were still left standing after the bat- 
tle, and taking them evidently as symbols of the richness and worth of the 
land they were in, the figure said: 

Reod, these I give to thee. Then pointing to a heap of the slain soldiers 
of Reod's army, he said: 

Because this blood was shed for me. 

Beneath this great and noble tree I have met thee, Reod. 

Because what thou hast done is good. 

Two of its branches thou shalt take and with them thou shalt make a cross 
which thou shalt bear against yonder gate and with it that proud city take. 

Fare thee well Reod. 

With these last words the figure vanished and Reod the brave was left in 

Early the next morning the slaves were ordered to make a gigantic cross 
of the great branches of the tree under which Reod had conversed with his 

202 Russia u a. 

The astrologer of the prince having declared that the hour had come for 
beginning the battle, and the cross being finished in the form of an X or 
saltire, it was carried by twenty of the Dal Reodii in front of the army, and 
amid the deafening roar of trumpets was placed against the gate of the city, 
serving as a rough ladder for the soldiers of Reod, who climbed upon it and 
dropped on the other side and fighting their way to the very feet of the 
enemies' king slew him and carried his head to Reod. The city was thus 
taken by the aid of the cross, and all those of the enemy who were willing to 
bow their heads to the Symbol of the new faith were spared and became the 
subjects of Reod the brave, who reigned for many years afterwards in that 
part of Scotland. 

Four hundred years afterwards another Reod, descended from the first, 
was in turn driven out of the same city (or castle) and forced to cross over 
into the wilds of Northumberland with his family and followers. He settled 
in a dale near a beautiful river, to which dale he gave his name, Reodsdale, 
or Readsdale. The miraculous cross was carried into Readsdale and was 
for many centuries the centre of many pilgrimages; it finally fell to pieces 
because of its great age and what remained of it was buried at a place called 
Elsdon and a church was erected over it. 

The descendants of Reod. as time went on, multiplied greatly within the 
dale and the chief of the clan lived for eight hundred years at a place called 
Troughend — many of the family removing during the years 1200 and 1300 
to Morpeth. 

When heraldry as a science first became known among men, about the 
year 1000 A. D.. the descendants of Reod took for their device the four 
wheat sheaves and the miraculous cross of Reod on a bloody field. 


FROM the remote period when Reod, expelled from Dunstaffnage, 
descended first on a Northumberland vale and made it his own, to 
the Plantagenets, represents an hiatus valde deffendus. Research may 
eventually add to our slender stock of information and bridge over the 
centuries which divide the founder from those notable houses established 
by his descendants at different points in the wide area known still as 

Our difficulty is largely increased because Borderland changed hands so 
often. Northumberland, until the Battle of the Standard, was an integral 
part of the realm of Scotland. As a Scot Reod came there. He did not 
seek refuge in another land, but settled on the fringe of what was Kennett's 
Kingdom, acknowledging in all probability his sovereignty. Had Northum- 
berland been acquired by the 
Conqueror we should have 
had the Doomsday book for 

reference. On the other . _, 

hand, the independence of "•"*' ' *** 

the shire, secured by its vas- 

salage to the crown of Scot- »—--.. ** * , '* ' 

land, saved it from being 
absorbed by William's hun- 
gry followers. Thereby the 
ancient tribe held its own. 
and after Northumberland 
became an item of England, 
the clay for wholesale 
plunder was over, and suc- 
cessive sovereigns were glad 

enough of the lances supplied by knights of Redesdale in championing the 
cause of England during many centuries of interminable Border warfare. 
The Redes therefore preserved their tenure of the ancient valley until late in 
the Middle Ages, their principal homes being those at Troughend, Morpeth, 
and Close, the house at Chipchase being founded rather later than the 

Thirty years ago the connection between the Redes of Oxon, Berks and 
Bucks, with the Northumberland line, rested only on tradition and an identity 
of armorial bearings. 

The missing links in the chain have now been discovered, and we are able 
also to realize more thoroughly than before the importance of Redesdale. 
It must have formed something akin to a petty principality, its area exceeding 
that of any one among the Highland clans, while the town of Morpeth, from 


204 Rossiana. 

time immemorial, has given thereunto, if not a centre, at all events headquar- 
ters. Our common ancestor was not only the feudal lord of Manors in 
Redesdale, but further had established himself as a citizen of Morpeth. 
Among the townships, either within the limits of Redesdale or on its borders, 
Bellingham enjoys pre-eminence on account of its great antiquity. Dedicated 
to St. Cuthbert, it appears to have been constructed as much for defensive 
purposes against the encroaching Scots as for its proper ecclesiastical use. 
The walls exceed in thickness even those of the Norman period, and the 
windows are thin lancets. A heavy groined roof afforded additional pro- 
tection against sudden attack, and here the parishioners could find sanctuary 
against marauders. Although substantial as regards exterior, with no other 
adornment than a bell tower, the interior shows traces of delicate workman- 
ship consisting of chancel, nave and a chantry-chapel, while the churchyard 
formed a very beautiful terrace overlooking the North Tyne. 

Within the parish of St. Cuthbert is Elsdon, divided into the following 
wards: Elsdon, Monkridge, Otterburn, Rochester, Troughend and Woodside. 
At the foot of the Cheviots rises that picturesque tributary of the Tyne, the 
River Rede, watering nearly the entirety of Redesdale, whereof the lords 
were accorded Royal privileges, analogous to those enjoyed in the South and 
West by the Barons of Boarstall and Burford. Of these, one may be termed 
unique, viz., that of trying causes before their own Justices. Elsdon Castle, 
now the Rectory, was built in the 14th century by Sir Robert Taylboys, whose 
arms, are on the southern parapet. It is a building of extraordinary strength, 
containing a very remarkable feature in the lower story which is spanned by 
a single arch. Troughend, to the west of the River Rede, comprises an 
estate of 26,000 acres, chiefly sheep-walks, and until the last century it 
remained in the possession of the family, who had held it in all likelihood 
from the days of Reod, since the origin of that branch cannot be traced. 
The old tower is mentioned in the very earliest records. It stood west- 
ward of the modern mansion erected by the last Redes of that ilk. 

Passing by the ancient forest of Northbury of old, a portion of the Rede 
estates, we come to another monument of the family, and a very splendid 
one, in Chipchase Castle. Here, as at Troughend. we have to reflect sadly 
on the mutability of human affairs, for the motto of the Chipchase Redes is 
Quimus. Their Castle rises proudly on an eminence over the North Tyne, 
but of the ancient building a tower only, with a projecting battlement resting 
on corbels, and crenelated remains. This tower contains the tattered frag- 
ments of curious paintings. Verily too true it is that " The old order 
changeth, giving place to new." The onus lies with the latter to prove that 
the change is an evolution and not a devolution. Long before the Norman 
conquest the Baronial Castle at Morpeth was in possession of the Redes. 
They appear to have been dispossessed, possibly owing to a conservatism that 
has been repeated in their subsequent story, in favour of a Walter de Morlay, 
or Morlaix. After changes of ownership it eventually gravitated towards 
the Howards, to whom it gives the dignity of Viscount. 

Although ejected from the Castle, the Redes continued to hold lands and 
tenements in the Borough, albeit with manors outside it. It would be 
instructive to trace the number and extent of the manors held in Redesdale 

Ancient Redesdale. 205 

and around it by members of the Rede clan. Their estates in the efflux of 
centuries became absorbed gradually by other families, such as the Howards, 
Greys, Mitfords, and above all by the Earls of Derwentwater, whose lands 
and advowsons were, after the Rebellion of 1715, appropriated to the use of 
Greenwich Hospital. 

It is to the men of our name, rather than to the mouldering stones, that 
tell so eloquently of the past of the race, that we turn for proof of their rank 
and honour. Of these, one has been in a sort of back-handed fashion 
immortalized by the late John Edmund Reade, who, as he informed one of 
the family, as far back as 1858, obtained the legend in an old volume at Ship- 
ton Court. It runs thus: 

Merrily flashed the sunrays on 

The Castle of Morpeth bright : 
Gray tower, and keep, and Donjon stone 

In morning's purple light : 
Merrier within the Court, the din 

Of arming warriors rose, 
For Sir Reginald Read 
On his maded steed 

To the Border foray goes. 

" Fling open the gate, it waxeth late," 

Cried the Knight — then backward bore 
His rein, for a swarthy woman sate 
With lowering brow and eye of hate 

On the coping-stone of the door. 
" In the fiend's name say, why stoppest thou our way 

On the ground with thy lighted stare? 
Squat like a toad by the bridle road, 

I had nigh tramped over thee there ! " 

" Sir Reginald Read, I warn thee heed, 

Thy menials thrust me forth, 
But I watched day break that thou should'st make 

Thy peace with me on earth." 
Wrath lit the chieftain's eye of flame, 

'' Dost beg on our threshold still, 
And worst threat to our beards proclaim? 
Get to the buttery, in God's name, 

There feast thee at thy will." 

Unfortunately for Sir Reginald at this juncture, while he is rather qualifying 
this invitation to the buttery by some pointed remark which given in prose 
might be rendered " Go and be hanged," a fiery steed, disliking the evil eye 
of a witch, rears and the lady is left, in heraldic parlance, couchant. Of 
course, after the manner of her sort, she flings a malediction after his 
retreating form, whereunto the gentleman makes reply : 

" Avaunt thee, Witch ! If ill befall 
Or me, or mine, to-day, 
I'll have thee hung on the Castle wall 
To scare the crows away." 

These legends apart, the stern laws of dramatic unity compel the verifica- 
tion of the dark lady's prediction. In short, the ill-starred Knight, after 
spreading his falcon pennon, an arrangement which suggests the query 

206 Rossiana. 

whether the falcon were a flag or the flag a falcon? and winning his foray, 
met with one of those untoward accidents that occur in the best regulated 

" Pierced by a spear the chief on a bier of shields was homeward borne." 
The witch's reputation for second-sight was amply justified. It only 
remained for her, having thus adorned a tale, to point a moral. This she 
does by tracing a cross on the gateway of Morpeth Castle, and beneath this 
sacred symbol inscribing a bit of socialism more in accordance with the close 
of the Victorian era than with the earlier middle ages, as thus 

" The dead their warnings give. 

Spurn not the beggar in her need ; 
All have an equal right to live." 


The appended extracts from two well known histories, in Latin, with their 
accompanying translations, are given to show that, though imperfect, notice 
is taken of Reada's advent into Redesdale and the giving of his name to 
the place : 

(Fordun Scotichronicon, HI). 2, capp. 12, 13.) 

Post cujus [i. e., Fergusii] vero regumque quarundam aliorum decessum, 

almepos ejus Reuther, quern Beda Readam vocat, ad regimen, regni Scotorum 
Albionensium succedens, ex terris Britonum quasdam extremi limitis pro- 
vincias versus Boream suo dominio subjugare. . . . Ubi procursu modici 
temporis eum suis residens parti cuidam regionis qua fixit tentoria de nomine 
suo Retherdale, Anglice Riddisdale, inditum est nomen hodiernum." 

(Translation by Hon. Howard Conkling, former Member of Assembly 
from Warren county, N. Y.) 

After whose departure (or death) truly and that of certain other Kings, 
his great-grandson Reuther whom Bede calls Reada (Read or Riad) suc- 
ceeding to the government of the Kingdom of the Scots in Albion subjugated 
to his own authority certain provinces of the territory of the Britons on the 
extreme northern boundary . . . where having advanced for a short 
time with his remaining forces, the present name Ritterdale, in English Rid- 
disdale (Redesdale) was bestowed upon a certain part of the region where 
he pitched his camp, from his own name. 

(Bede, Eel. History, I., 1.) 

Procedente au tern tempore, Britannia? post Brittones et Pictos, tertiam 
Scotorum nationem in Pictorum parte recepit ; qui, duce Reuda, de Hibernia 
progressi, vel amicitia vel ferro sibimet inter eos sedes quas hactenus habent. 
vidicarunt ; a quo videlicet duce usque hodie Dalreudini vocantur nam lingua 
eorum " daal " partem significat. 

(Translation by Rev. Mr. Whipple, M. A., rector of St. Mary's Church, 
Luzerne, N. Y.) 

But as time progressed he received in the part belonging to the Picts — 
the Nation of the Scots, the third (nation) of Britain after the Britons and 
the Picts, who having gone forth from Ireland under their leader Reuda, 
obtained for themselves, either by friendship or by the sword settlements 
among them — which they hold up to this time — from which leader even 
to this day they are called Dalreudini — for in their language " daal " means 
a part. 

Notes Concerning Redesdale. 207 


(From the " Local Historian's Table Book of Remarkable Occurrences," etc., Historical 
Division, vol. 1, by M. A. Richardson, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1841.) 

[P. 74.] 1245. — At this period there were forges in Redesdale, North- 
umberland, which made iron that yielded an annual rent of £4 2s. — Hodgson's 

[P. 96.] 1314. — Harbottle castle was demolished by the Scots, but was 
afterwards restored. This was part of the possessions of the Umfrevilles of 
Prudhoe, who held it by the service of keeping Reedsdale free from thieves 
and wolves, under which tenure they held the castle and manor of Otter- 
burn. — Hutchinson's Northd. 

[P. 163.] 1464 (May 15). — The Earl of Kent, who was taken in a close 
called Riddesdale, was brought to Newcastle and there beheaded. — Hodg- 
son's North., Pict. Hist. Eng. 

[P. 215.] 1575 (July 5). — Sir George Heron, keeper of Tindal, and 
Ridisdale, * * * * 

[P. 236] Cut of arms sculptured on the battlements of Elsdon Castle, 
which are supposed to be those of Sir Robert Taylboys. The inscription 
reads ROBERTUS DOMINUS DE REDE, i. e., Robert, Lord of Rede. 
The castle is known to have existed in the beginning of the fifteenth century. 

[P. 364.] 1727. — The figure of Robin of Risingham, or Robin of Reeds- 
dale, for it is known to the people of the neighbourhood by both names, has 
given rise to several speculations among antiquaries as to whom it was 
intended to represent, and at what period it was carved. Warburton, in his 
map of Northumberland, published previous to 1727, appears to have been 
the first who gave an engraving of it — to which he subjoins the following 
brief notice : " This antick figure I find cut on a rock near Risingham, in 
Readsdale, called the Soldan's stone." This celebrated figure was cut in 
high relief upon a huge block of " slidden " sandstone rock, on the brow 
of the hill, a few yards to the west of the modern Watling-street, and upon 
the estate called Park-head. The stone itself was five sided, six feet on the 
base, eight feet high, five feet on the two sides to the right of the middle 
of its front, seven feet on the uppermost side to the left, and four on the 
lower ; its thickness six feet. The figure itself was about four feet high ; had 
a panel above it about twenty-nine inches long and twenty broad, as if 
intended for an inscription, and a square block or altar opposite the right 
knee, probably left for the same purpose. It certainly belongs to the 
Roman era in Britain. The Roman panel, the altar, the Phrygian bonnet, the 
toga and the tunic, all tell of its Roman origin, and the hare it holds in the 
left hand and the bow in its right, are symbols plainly indicating that it was 
set up in memory of some hunter: "Venator tenerse conjugis immemor." 
Sir Walter Scott, in his notes to Rokeby, canto 3rd, speaking of this figure 
observes : " The popular tradition is that it represents a giant whose brother 
resided at Woodburn, and he himself at Risingham. It adds that they sub- 
sisted by hunting, and that one of them, finding the game become too scarce 
to support them, poisoned his companion, in whose memory the monument 
was engraven. What strange and tragic circumstances may be concealed 
under this legend, or whether it is utterly apocryphal, it is now impossible to 

2o8 Rossiana. 

discover." The only part of Robin which now remains is from the waist 
downwards, that portion of the stone which contained the trunk and head 
having been broken off. The station of Rising-ham, the ancient Habitancum, 
is about a mile to the north of the stone ; its walls stand upon or inclose 
nearly four acres and a half of dry, rich ground on the southern margin of 
the river Rede. Numerous altars and inscriptions have been found in this 
neighbourhood. — Hodgson's North., Rambles in Northd., &c. 

[Accompanying this paragraph, on p. 305, is a woodcut representing Robin 
of Risingham as above described.] 1 

(From Historical Division, Vol. 2, pages 329. 330, 1S42. ) 
1789 (Nov. 15). — Died, in St. Nicholas' poor-house, Newcastle, of which 
he was the keeper. .Mr. William Umfraville. His father, Mr. Thomas Umfra- 
ville, who died June 28th, ijX.v was for 40 years parish clerk of St. John's, 
in that town, and had formerly been a merchant there. He was a descendant 
of one of the greatest nanus and most illustrious families in the north. 
The pedigree traces back the family to Robert de Umfraville, called Robert 
with the Beard, lord of Tours and Yian. who came into England with 
William the Conqueror. This Robert bad a grant from the Conqueror, in 
the tenth year of his reign, of the valley of Ridds, or Redesdale, with all its 
castles, woods and franchises, to hold of him and his heirs forever, by the 
service of defending that part of the country from wolves and the king's 
enemies by the sword which the said King William wore at his side when he 
entered Northumberland. Mr. William Umfraville had. in his custody, a 
sword which belonged to Sir Robert Umfraville, vice-admiral of England 
about the time of Richard 11. Mr. Umfraville died in very indigent circum- 
stances, leaving a widow, with an only son and daughter, without any means 
of support. The late Duke of Northumberland, hearing that a descendant 
of the once-powerful family of the Umfravilles had died in such humble 
circumstances, kindly allowed an annuity to the widow and undertook the 
charge of educating and providing for the son. John Brand Umfraville, for 
whom, wdien of a proper age, his grace obtained the situation of midshipman 
in the royal navy. He ultimately rose to the rank of captain and died a few 
years ago without issue. — Rambles in Northd. 

In the same work. Historical Division. Vol. V.. MDCCCXLVI, p. 41-'. 
1842 (Oct. 12). — Died, at his resident in Albion Place. Newcastle, aged 54. 
John Trotter Brockett, Esq.. F. S. A.. London and Newcastle. [The 
armorial bearings, with the motto. Invictus Maneo, are given.] 

1 Kobin, or Robert, of Redesdale. — Another tradition has it that this Robin or 
Robert was one of the earliest chiefs of the name of Rede, a short time after the tribe 
came into Redesdale; that he had a brother, and that they were both men of extraor- 
dinary stature. This brother became jealous of Robert's power and slew him while they 
were hunting, thus making himself chief of the clan. H. P. R. 

ELSDON IN 1762. 

TWO very interesting and amusing letters written in 1762 by the Rev. 
Charles Dodgson, A. M., on his taking possession of the rectory of 
Elsdon, in Redesdale, Northumberland, are given below as printed 
in the " Local Historian's Table Book of Remarkable Occurrences, Historical 
Facts," etc. (Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1843.) 

These letters are curious, inasmuch as they furnish a lively account of the 
appearance of Elsdon nearly a century and a half ago. In some instances we 
believe the picture to be rather exaggerated ; but the occasional sprinkling of 
humour over certain passages, and the spirit with which the whole is con- 
ceived and executed, impress us with the belief that the writer had been a 
man of considerable talent. From the freedom of his manner, he would 
seem to have been very intimate with the Percy family, and to have had. 
therefore, no hesitation in giving his correspondents a sketch to the life, 
not only of himself, but of the people amongst whom he had taken up his 
residence. His recent arrival in the district, and the consequent novelty 
with which he regarded it, together with the severe weather he encountered, 
render his description very animated and by no means deficient of graphic 

Rev. Dr. Dodgson was presented to the rectory of Elsdon, in 1762, by the 
Earl and Countess of Northumberland. His residence there was of short 
duration, for he became bishop of Ossory in 1765, from which see he was 
translated to that of Elphin : 

" Elsdon, March 2SH1, 1762. 
" My Dear Mr. Percy, 

I am obliged to you for promising to write to me, but don't give yourself 
the trouble of sending any letters to this place, for 'tis almost impossible to 
receive 'em without sending a messenger 16 miles to fetch 'em, and nothing is 
so difficult to be procured as a 
messenger. I had the pleasure to 
find your Grandmamma very well 
as I passed through York. My 
journey produced a great deal of 
pleasure till I reached Darlington, 
when I quitted the coach and be- 
gan to fly, but my wings soon 
failed me, for the post horses 

which I hired at Durham were Elsdon Church 

not able to move an inch farther 

than the 9th mile stone. After an age of expectation a return chaise from 
Newcastle approached, but alas ! it was pre-engaged by some poor travellers, 
and the post boy was unwilling to comply with my request : I seized the horses, 
bribed the passengers to quit the chaise, and at last prevailed upon the boy 

210 Rossiana. 

to back to Newcastle. He was so pleased with the premium proposed that 
he drove at the rate of 12 miles an hour for I went 6 miles in about 34 
minutes. About 3 miles to the south of Newcastle, I met with such a 
shower of hail and such a hurricane, that I expected to be blown over, if 
not carried into the sea every moment. The weather continued very 
tempestuous all the afternoon, however by the assistance of two determined 
postillions, and four good horses which I procured at Newcastle, I pro- 
ceeded in my journey though the storm was full in our faces, and arrived 
at this place about seven o'clock last night. I was scarcely able to go through 
the duty to-day, having got a very bad sore throat, but I hope it is now 
more easy than it was. I am obliged to be my own surgeon, apothecary and 
physician, for there is not a creature of that profession within 16 miles 
of this place: 'tis impossible to describe the oddity of my situation at 
present, which however is not void of some pleasant circumstances. A clog 
maker combs out my wig upon my curate's head by way of a block, and his 
wife powders it with a dredging box. The vestibule of the castle is a low 
stable, above it is the kitchen in which are two little beds, joining to each 
other, the curate and his wife lay in one and Margery the maid in the 
Other. I lay in the parlour between two beds to keep me from being frozen 
to death, for as we keep open house the winds enter from every quarter, 
and are apt *.o creep into bed to one. 1 will write very soon to my lord or 
lady; pray present my respects, duties and compliments to Messrs. Reveleys. 

I remain &c. 


" Elsdon. March 30//1. 
" My Lord, 

I wrote to Mr. Percy a few days ago, and gave him a short account of the 
most material things which happened upon the road and immediately after 
my arrival at this place. If your lordship can spare a few moments, the 
continuation of my narrative will perhaps afford as much entertainment as 
a cmmon newspaper, tho' it will be greatly inferior to an excellent gazette. 
Elsdon was once a market town, as some say, and a city according to others; 
Inn as the annals of the parish were lost several centuries ago, 'tis impossible 
to determine in what age it was either the one or the other. There are not 
the least traces of its former grandeur to be found whence some antiquarians 
are apt to believe that it lost both its trade and character at the deluge. 
Most certain it is. that the oldest man in the parish never saw a market 
here in his life. Modern Elsdon. my lord ( for I am not now speaking of 
the Antediluvian city of the same name), is a very small village consisting 
of a tower which the inhabitants call a castle, an inn for the refreshment of 
Scotch carriers, five little farm houses, and a few wretched cottages, about 
ten in all, inhabited by poor people who receive the parish allowance, and 
superannuated shepherds. These buildings such as they are may be conceived 
to stand at very unequal distances from one another, in the circumference of 
an imaginary oval, the longer axis of which coincides with the meridian line 
and is about 200 yards long, the shorter may be perhaps 100. In the centre 
of this supposed ellipsis stands the church which is very small, without 

Elsdon in i /6s. 211 

cither a spire or a tower, however the west end is not totally void of an 
ornamental superstructure. An Elsdonic kind of cupola forms a proper 
place for a belfry, and the only bell which is in it is almost as loud as that 
which calls your lordship's labourers to dinner at Sion. It may be heard at 
the castle when the wind is favourable. The situation of the village is such 
that in descending down a hill called Gallalaw from the south, it gives a 
person an idea of a few cottages built in a boggy island which is almost sur- 
rounded by three little brooks, on the north by Dunsheeles burn, on the east 
by Elsdon burn, on the west and south west by Whiskersheeles burn; the 
first runs into the second on the north east part of the town, and the second 
into the third on the south side. There is not a town in all the parish except 
Elsdon itself be called one, the farm houses where the principal parishioners 
live are five or six miles distant from one another and the whole country 
looks like a desert. The greater part of the richest farmers are Scotch 
dissenters, and go to a meeting house at Birdhopecrag, about ten miles from 
Elsdon, however they don't interfere in ecclesiastical matters, nor study 
polemical divinity. Their re- 
ligion descends from father 
to son and is rather a part 
of the personal estate, than 
the result of reasoning or 
the effects of enthusiasm. — 
those who live near Elsdon 
come to the church, those at 
a greater distance towards v^j 

the west go to the meeting 
house at Birdhopecrag. 
Others, both churchmen and 
Presbyterians, at a very 

great distance, go to the Elsdon Castle. 

nearest church or convent- 
icle in a neighbouring parish. There is a very good understanding 
between the parties for they not only intermarry with each other, 
but frequently do penance together in a white sheet, with a white 
wand, barefoot, in one of the coldest churches in England, and at the 
coldest season of the year: I dare not finish the description for fear of bring- 
ing on a fit of ague. Indeed, my lord, the ideas of sensation are sufficient 
to starve a man to death, without having recourse to those of reflection. 
If I was not assured by the best authority on earth that the world was to be 
destroyed by fire, I should conclude that the day of destruction is at hand, 
but brought on by means of an agent very opposite to that of heat. There is 
not a single tree or hedge now within twelve miles to break the force of the 
wind ; it sweeps down like a deluge from hills capped with everlasting snow 
and blasts almost the whole country into one continued barren desert. The 
whole country is doing penance in a white sheet for it began to snow on 
Sunday night, and the storm has continued ever since. Its impossible to 
make a sally out of the castle and to make my quarters good in a warmer 
habitation. I have lost the use of every thing but my reason, tho' my 
head is entrenched in three night caps, and my throat, which is very bad, is 

212 Rossi an a. 

fortified with a pair of stockings twisted in the form of a cravat. My capital 1 
is of a new construction. I wish I could send your lordship a drawing of it. 
Irregular and unarchitectural as it might appear to your lordship's judicious 
eye. 'tis certainly of the composite order, and extremely becoming a block- 
head, of which numerous society I have the honor of being a member. As 
washing is very cheap I wear two shirts at a time, and for want of a ward- 
robe hang my great coat upon my own back, and generally keep on my 
boots in imitation of my namesake 2 of Sweden. Indeed, since the snow 
became two feet deep (as I wanted a chappin of yale from the public house) 
I made an offer of them to Margery, the maid, but her legs are too thick to 
make use of the offer, and I am told that the greater part of my parishioners 
are not less substantial, and notwithstanding this they are very remarkable 
for their agility. There is to be a hopping on Thursday se'nnight. A hop- 
ping, my lord, is a ball, the constant conclusion of a pedlar's fair. Upon 
these celebreties there is a great concourse of braw lads and lasses, who 
throw off their wooden shoes shod with plates of iron, and put on Scotch 
nickerers, which are made of horse leather, the upper part of which is sewed 
to the sole without being welted. We expect a great deal of company from 
fifty-eight and mure different places in the neighborhood. Your lordship 
will excuse my want of memory when 'tis considered how short time I have 
been in the parish, and I'll endeavour to complete my catalogue as soon as 
possible. 1 propose to do myself the honour of writing to her ladyship after 
I have reconnoitered the field of battle at Ottcrburn. But God only knows 
when I shall be able to get out. Permit me my lord to remain with my duty 
to Lady Northumberland and Mr. Percy, with my compliments to both the 
Air. Reveleys. and with my kindest wishes for the completion of Mr. Hugh's 

recovery. I am &c. 


"P. S. — If I had not brought this paper with me. I should have been 
obliged to write upon such a composition as was never seen. The summer 
will exhibit a more pleasing prospect, for all the heather or ling will be in 
full bloom, and the sides of Gallalaw covered with verdure, and I hope the 
valleys will laugh and sing. The inhabitants are very fond of a pastoral 
life, but seem to have no taste for agriculture. The enclosed lands are only 
separated by a dry ditch and a low bank of earth. The sheep, as Milton 
says, at one bound would overleap all bounds. Quicksetts would grow but 
the people are enemies to hedges because the sheep would be entangled in 
them. The manner in which a herd (shepherd) lives upon the moors. 
especially in bad weather, will draw tears from your lordship's eyes, when it 
is described in the most simple manner. I wish I had not stumbled upon 
the remembrance of it. If a tear is due to misery — if — I am glad I cannot 
proceed for want of paper. I'll now sit down and do what your lordship 
would have done if I had finished this storv." 

'Head, or covering for it. 
-Charles XII. 


Ancient Ballad Concerning the Sad End of the Lord of Troughenp, 
" Taken Down by James Telfer from Recitation, with an Intro- 
duction by Robert White." 

[From " The Local Historian's Table Book of Remarkable Occurrences, etc., 1844, 
Legendary Division, vol. 2, pages 361 et seq.] 

THE event on which the following ballad was founded has been incident- 
ally noticed by Sir Walter Scott, in " Rokeby," and by my revered friend 
Mr. Robert Roxby, in the " Lay of the Reedwater Minstrel." We have 
no historical evidence to prove at what period it occurred, but as the farm of 
Girsonsfield belonged to those who betrayed Parcy Reed and successive 
owners of Otterburne demesne ever since the reign of Elizabeth, we may 
assign it a date not later than the sixteenth century. 1 It would appear to 
have taken a remarkably strong hold of the public mind, for almost every 
circumstance connected therewith has. by tradition, been distinctly transmitted 
down to the present day: consequently, an outline of the same, traced in the 
light which can thus be obtained, may not altogether be uninteresting to 
those who may honour the ballad with a perusal. 

Percival or Parcy Reed was proprietor of Troughend, an elevated tract of 
land on the west side and nearly in the centre of Redesdale, Northumberland. 
The remains of the old tower may still be seen, a little to the west of the 
present mansion, commanding a beautiful and most extensive view of nearly 
the whole valley. Here he resided, and being a keen hunter 2 and brave sol- 
dier, he possessed much influence, and was appointed warden or keeper of 
the district. His office was to suppress and order the apprehension of thieves 
and other breakers of the law, in the execution of which he incurred the 
displeasure of a family of brothers of the name of Hall, who were owners 
of Girsonsfield, a farm about two miles east from Troughend ; he also drew 
upon himself the hostility of a band of mosstroopers, Crosier by name, some 
of whom he had been successful in bringing to justice. The former were, 
however, artful enough to conceal their resentment, and under the appear- 
ance of friendship, calmly awaited an opportunity to be avenged. Some time 
afterwards they solicited his attendance en a hunting expedition to the head 
of Redesdale, and, unfortunately, he agreed to accompany them. His wife 
had some strange dreams anent his safety on the night before his departure, 
and at breakfast on the following morning the loaf of bread from which he 
was supplied chanced to be turned with the bottom upwards — an omen 

a If this event happened in the sixteenth century or before, the name should be spelled 
Rede or Read, for these were the forms then in use in Redesdale. 

2 It once fell out that an arrow, which he discharged at a deer, killed a favourite dog 
named Keilder. This incident has been made the subject of a beautiful painting by 
Cooper, which again elici'ed from Sir Walter Scott a poem of eleven stanzas. See 
Legendary Division, II, p. 240. 

214 Rossiana. 

which is still accounted most unfavourable all over the north of England. 
Considering these presages undeserving of notice, Reed set out in company 
with the Halls, and after enjoying a good day's sport, the party withdrew to 
a solitary hut in Batinghope, a lonely glen stretching westward from the 
Whitelee, whose little stream forms one of the chief sources of Reedwater. 
The whole of this arrangement had been previously planned by the Halls and 
Crosiers, and when the latter came down late in the evening to execute their 
purpose of vengeance, they found Parcy Reed altogether a defenceless man. 
His companions not only deserted him, but had previously driven his sword 
so firmly in its scabbard that it could not be drawn, and had, also, moistened 
the powder with which the long gun he carried with him was charged, so as 
to render both useless when he came to rely upon them for protection. 
Accordingly the Crosiers instantly put him to death, and so far did they 
carry out their sanguinary measures even against his lifeless body, that 
tradition says the fragments thereof had to be collected together and con- 
veyed in pillow slips home to Troughend. Public indignation was speedily 
aroused against the murderers: the very name of Crosier was abhorred 
throughout Redesdale, and the abettors were both driven from their residence 
and designated as "the fause hearted Ha's " — an appellation which yet 
remains in force against them. 1 

Superstition, afterwards, lent her powerful aid to embellish and heighten 
this tragical occurrence. Shortly after daybreak, or in the twilight of the 
evening, the resemblance of Parcy Reed was often seen in the vicinity of 
Batinghope, hurrying over the heath, arrayed in his green hunting dress, his 
horn by his side, and his long gun over his shoulder. Again, on a stormy 
night, when the clouds were careering athwart the sky, permitting occasionally 
a glimpse of moonlight to hasten over the darkened landscape, the likeness of 
the murdered man was frequently beheld in the neighbourhood of his own 
mansion, dealing destruction around him with a large whip so furiously that 
the very trees were threatened to be struck down. Even within the last 
century and in the broad light of a Sabbath forenoon, while the good people 
in the upper part of Redesdale were proceeding to the meeting house at Bird- 
hope-craig. they often beheld the flitting spirit of Troughend, as he was 
called, under the mild semblance of a dove, take its station on a large stone 
in the middle of the Reed at Pringlehaugh, and if any of the party made a 
bow or a curtsey towards it, by way of compliment, it very graciously 
returned the salutation. These examples show the deep impression which 
the tragical fate of Parcy Reed left on the memory of the inhabitants of 
Redesdale, and exhibit how easily any natural cause or object may, amongst 
a pastoral people, be construed into one of the shadows of that region beyond 
the dark bourne which circumscribes our present existence. 

The annexed ballad was never before published, having been taken down by 
my valued friend. Mr. James Telfer of Saughtree. Liddesdale, from the 

lv Vhen a late landlord of Horsley in Redesdale, whose name was Hall, a most respect- 
able man, had taken his allowance freely, he not unfrequently disburdened his mind by 
thus reverting to the circumstance: " Wey now, Aw wunna disguise me neame — me 
neame's Tommy Ha';" — and here the tears began to flow down the cheeks of the worthy 
host, '• but Aw trust to me meaker, A'm nit come o' the fause hearted Ha's that betrayed 
Parcy Reed." 

Death of Parcy Reed. 215 

chanting of an old woman named Kitty Hall, who resided at Fairloans in the 
head of Kale water, Roxburghshire. She was a native of Northumberland, 
and observed she never liked to sing the verses, as she knew them to be 
perfectly true, and consequently could not bear to think that there had been, 
of her own surname, such wretches as the betrayers of Parcy Reed. 
Mr. Telfer had the honor of presenting a transcript of the piece to Sir Walter 
Scott, who placed it at the end of his copy of the " Lay of the Reedwater 
Minstrel;" and both now occupy a place in Press P, shelf i. at the library 
of Abbotsford. 

Touching the literary merit of the ballad, little in the way of either plot 
or graphic description may be found calculated to command the admiration 
of those who are accustomed to look critically upon such compositions. It 
is rude and simple in its structure, but perhaps its principal defect arises from 
the dialogue being so painfully protracted towards the close. The aim of the 
Minstrel undoubtedly was to convey a representation of what may be sup- 
posed to have taken place, when his hero fell into the hands of implacable 
enemies ; and this he has accomplished, although neither with such spirit, 
nor, at the same time, with such unapproachable felicity as some of his more 
tuneful brethren at that age exhibited, when sounding those strains of ballad 
minstrelsy, which now form so precious a portion of our country's literature. 

I cannot allow the opportunity of concluding these remarks to pass, with- 
out adverting to the circumstances, and it is with peculiar pleasure I do so, 
of having spent a portion of my early life in Redesdale, and of enjoying on 
many occasions, the unaffected courtesy and kindness of its people. Indeed 
the district sounds still in my ears like home; and my heart throbs deeper 
on recollecting the evenings I passed there, when a number of faces, now no 
more, gleamed bright about our family hearth. Other attractions likewise, 
bind me closely to Redesdale. To throw gracefully the names of its localities 
into verse was a subject embraced by the early muse of Mr. Roxby, whose 
subsequent numbers, brief but beautiful, have at times contributed to render 
it no small honour. In addition to this, we have in its limits the field of 
Otterburne — the actual scene not only of the best contested battles ever 
fought in the time of chivalry ; but also of one of our most ancient and 
spirit-stirring national ballads. Whether, therefore, in a domestic, or a liter- 
ary point of view, the tract of country possesses a claim upon me, to which 
my feelings cordially respond ; hence, its sheltered nooks, its sloping fields 
and solitary moorlands, with their innumerable associations, are amongst 
the last objects I shall forget. 


God send the land deliverance 

Frae every reaving, riding Scot : 
We'll sune hae neither cow nor ewe, 

We'll sune hae neither staig nor stot. 

The outlaws come frae Liddesdale, 

They herry Redesdale far and near ; 
1 he rich man's gelding it maun gang, 

They canna pass the puir man's raear. 

2i6 Rossiana. 

Sure it were weel, had ilka thief 
Around his neck a halter Strang; 

And curses heavy may they light 
On traitors vile oursel's amang. 

Now Parcy Reed has Crosier ta'en, 
He has delivered him to the law; 

But Crosier says he'll do waur than that. 
He'll make the tower o' Troughend fa'. 

And Crosier says he will do waur — 
He will do waur if waur can be; 

He'll make the bairns a' fatherless. 
And then, the land it may lie lee. 

"To the hunting, ho!" cried Parcy Reed. 

" The morning sun is on the dew : 
The cauler breeze frae off the fells. 

Will lead the dogs to the quarry true. 

"To the hunting, ho!" cried Parcy Reed. 

And to the hunting he has gane ; 
And the three fause Ha's o' Girsonsfield 

Alang wi' him he has them ta'en. 

They hunted high, they hunted low, 
By heathery hill and birken shaw ; 
They raised a buck on Rooken Edge. 
And blew the mort at fair Ealylawe. 

They bunted high, they hunted low, 
They made the echoes ring amain ; 

With music sweet o' horn and hound. 
They merry made fair Redes laic glen. 

They bunted high, they hunted low, 
They hunted up, they hunted down. 

Until the day w is past the prune. 
And it grew late in the afternoon. 

They hunted high in Batinghope, 
When as the sun was sinking low; 

Says Parcy then: " Ca' off the dogs; 
We'll bait our steeds and homeward go. 

They lighted high in Batinghope. 

Atween the brown and bcnty ground : 
They had but rested a little while. 

Till Parcy Reed was sleeping sound. 

There's nane may lean on a rotten staff. 

But him that risks to get a fa' ; 
There's nane may in a traitor trust, 

And traitors black were every Ha'. 

Death of Parcy Reed. 217 

They've stown the bridle off his steed. 

And they've put water in his lang gun ; 
They've fixed his sword within the sheath. 

That out again it winna come. 

"Awaken ye, waken ye, Parcy Reed 

Or by your enemies be ta'en ; 
For yonder are 'he five Crosiers 

A-coming ower the Hingin'-stane." 

"If they be five, and we be four, 

Sae that ye stand alang wi' me. 
Then every man ye will take one, 

And only leave but two to me: 
We will them meet as brave men ought. 

And make them either fight or flee." 

" We mayna stand, we canna stand. 

We daurna stand alang wi' thee ; 
The Crosiers baud thee at a feud. 

And they would kill baith thee and we." 

" O turn thee, turn thee, Johnnie Ha' — 

turn thee, man, and fight wi' me; 1 
When ye come to Troughend again, 

My gude black naig I will gie thee ; 
He cost full twenty pounds o' gowd, 
Atween my brother John and me." 

" I mayna turn, I canna turn, 

1 daurna turn and light wi' thee ; 
The Crosiers hand thee at a feud, 

And they wad kill baith thee and me." 

" O turn thee, turn thee. Willie Ha' — 

turn thee, man, and fight wi' me ; 
When ye come to Troughend again. 

A yoke o' owsen I'll gie thee." 

" I mayna turn, T canna turn, 

1 daurna turn and right wi' thee; 
The Crosiers hand thee at a feud, 

And they wad kill baith thee and me." 

" O turn thee, turn thee, Tommy Ha' — 

O turn now, man, and fight wi' me ; 
If ever we come to Troughend again. 

My daughter Jean I'll gie to thee." 

'I. e., along with me. 



" I mayna turn, I canna turn, 
I daurna turn and fight wi' thee ; 

The Crosiers hand thee at a feud, 

And they wad kill baith thee and me." 

" shame upon ye. traitors a". 

I wish your names ye may never see ; 
Ye've stown the bridle off my naig. 

And I can neither right nor flee. 

" Ye've stown the bridle off my naig, 
And ye've put water i' my lang gun ; 

Ye've fixed my sword within the sheath. 
That out again it winna come." 

He had but time to cross himsel' — 
A prayer he hadna time to say, 

Till round him came the Crosiers keen, 
All riding graithed. and in array. 

" Weel met. weel met. now Parcy Reed, 
Thou art the very man we sought ; 

Owre lang hae we been in your debt. 
Now will we pay you as we ought. 

" We'll pay thee at the nearest tree. 

Where we shall hang thee like a hound." 

Brave Parcy waved his fankit 1 sword 
And felled the foremost to the ground. 

Alake. and wae for Parcy Reed — 
Alake he was an unarmed man : 

Four weapons pierced him all at once. 
As they assailed him there and than. 

They fell upon him all at once : 
They mangled him most cruellie : 

The slightest wound might caused his deid. 
And they hae gi'en him thirty three. 

They hackit off his hands and feet 
And left him lying on the lee. 

" Xow Parcy Reed, we've paid our debt. 

Ye canna weel dispute the tale." 
The Crosiers said, and off they rade — 

They rade the airt o' Liddesdale. 

It was the hour o' gloaming gray. 

When herds come in frae fauld and pen : 

A herd, he saw a huntsman lie, 

Savs he. ''Can this be Laird T roughen'? 

'Confined, or sheathed. 

Death of Farcy Reed. 219 

" There's some will ca' me Parcy Reed. 

And some will ca' me Laird Troughen' : 
It's little matter what they ca' me ; 

My faes hae made me ill to ken. 

" There's some will ca' me Parcy Reed, 

And speak my praise in tower and town ; 
It's little matter what they do now. 

My life blood rudds 1 the heather brown. 

" There's some will ca' me Parcy Reed, 

And a' my virtues say and sing; 
I would much rather have just now 

A draught o' water f rae the spring ! " 

The herd flang aff his clouted shoon. 

And to the nearest fountain ran ; 
He made his bonnet serve as cup 

And wan the blessing o' the dying man. 

" Now honest herd, ye maun do mair — 

Ye maun do mair as I you tell ; 
Ye maun bear tiding to Troughend, 

And bear likewise my last farewell. 

" A farewell to my wedded wife ; 

And farewell to my brother John, 
Wha sits into the Troughend tower, 

With heart as hard 2 as any stone. 

" A farewell to my daughter Jean ; 

A farewell to my young sons five : 
Had they been at their father's hand, 

I had this night been man alive. 

" A farewell to my followers a'. 

And a' my neighbors gude at need ; 
Bid them think how the treacherous Ha's 

Betrayed the life o' Parcy Reed. 

"The laird o'Clennel bears my bow; 

The laird o' Brandon bears my brand ; 
Whene'er they ride i' the Border side. 

They'll mind the fate o' the laird Troughend." 

1 Reddens. 

-Black in the original. 


THE descent of the Clan of Rede, or Read (from Carbry Riada, or Reoda), 
beginning with the first man Adam, and so down to Milesius of Spain, 
and thence through the ancient monarchs of Ireland and the kings of 
Dalriada to the royal bouse of Scotland, is taken from " Irish Pedigrees," by 
John O'Hart, Q. U. I.. Dublin, 1S81, though much of the information had 
previously appeared in the works of the " Four Masters," 1 so-called. This line 
of descent is printed her.- more as a genealogical curiosity than as an authen- 
ticated statement. 

Stem of the Irish Nation from Adam Down to Milesius of Spain. 

" God the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, who was from all eternity, did, 
in the beginning of Time, of nothing, create Red Earth; and of Red Earth 
framed Adam ; and of a Rib out of the side of Adam fashioned Eve. After 
which Creation, Plasmation, and Formation, succeeded Generations, as 
follows." — Four Masters. 

1. Adam. 

2. Seth. 

3. Enos. 

4. Cainan. 

5. Mahalaleel. 

6. Jared. 

7. Enoch 

X. Methuselah. 
9. Lamecb. 

10. Noah divided the world amongst his three sons, begotten of his wife 
Titea : viz., to Sbem he gave Asia, within the Euphrates, to the Indian Ocean; 
to Ham he gave Syria, Arabia, and Africa ; and to Japhet, the rest of Asia 
beyond the Euphrates, together with Europe to Gades (or Cadiz). 

11. Japhet was the eldest son of Noah. He had fifteen sons, amongst 
whom he divided Europe and the part of Asia which his father had allotted 
to him. 

1 The " Four Masters " were so called because Michael O'Clery, Peregrine O'Clery, 
Conary O'Clery, together with Peregrine O'Duigenan (a learned antiquary of Kilronan, 
in the County Roscommon), were the four principal compilers of the ancient annals of 
Ireland in the 17th century. Besides the above-named authors, however, two other emi- 
nent antiquaries and chroniclers assisted in the compilation of the annals — namely, 
Ferfassa O'Mulconry and Maurice O'Mulconry, both of the County Roscommon. 

Pedigree of the Clan of Rede, or Read. 221 

12. Magog: From whom descended the Parthians, Bactrians, Amazons, 
etc.; Partholan, the first planter of Ireland, 1 about three hundred years after 
the Flood; and also the rest of the colonies that planted there, viz., the 
Nemedians, who planted Ireland, Anno Mundi three thousand and forty-six, 
or three hundred and eighteen years after the birth of Abraham, and two 
thousand one hundred and fifty-three years before Christ. The Nemedians 
continued in Ireland for two hundred and seventeen years ; within which 
time a colony of theirs went into the northern parts of Scotland, under the 
conduct of their leader Briottan Maol, or Babel; from whom Britain takes 
its name, and not from " Brutus," as some persons believed. From Magog 
were also descended the Belgarian, Belgian, Firbolgian or Firvolgian colony 
that succeeded the Nemedians, Anno Mundi, three thousand two hundred 
and sixty-six, and who first erected Ireland into a Monarchy. [According 
to some writers, the Fomorians invaded Ireland next after the Nemedians.] 
This Belgarian or Firvolgian colony continued in Ireland for thirty-six years, 
under nine of their Kings ; when they were supplanted by the Tuatha-de- 
Danans (which means, according to some authorities, " the people of the 
god Dan," whom they adored), who possessed Ireland for one hundred and 
ninety-seven years, during the reigns of nine of their kings ; and who were 
then conquered by the Gaelic, Milesian, or Scotic Nation, (the three names 
by which the Irish people were known), Anno Mundi three thousand five 
hundred. This Milesian or Scotic Irish Nation possessed and enjoyed the 
Kingdom of Ireland for two thousand eight hundred and eighty-five years, 
under one hundred and eighty-three Monarchs ; until their submission to 
King Henry the Second of England, Anno Domini one thousand one hundred 
and eighty-six. 

13. Baoth, one of the sons of Magog; to whom Scythia came as his lot. 
upon the division of the Earth by Noah amongst his sons, and by Japhet 
of his part thereof amongst his sons. 

14. Phoeniusa Farsaidh (or Fenius Farsa) was King of Scythia, at the 
time that Ninus ruled the Assyrian Empire; and, being a wise man and 
desirous to learn the languages that not long before confounded the builders 

llreland: According to the Four Masters, " Ireland " is so called from Ir, the 
second son of Milesius of Spain who left any issue. It was known to the ancients by 
the following names: — 

To the Irish as— 1. Inis Ealga, or the Noble Isle. 2. Fiodh-Inis, or the Woody 
Island. 3. Crioch Fuinidh, the final or most remote Country. 4. Inis-Fail, or the Island 
of Destiny. 5. Fodhla. learned. 6. Banba (from the Irish banabh, a sucking pig). 7. Eire, 
Eri, Eirin, and Erin, supposed by some to signify the Western Isle. 8. Muig Inis, 
meaning the Island of Mist or Melancholy. 

To the Greeks and Romans as— 9. Ierne. Ierna, Iernis, Iris, and Irin. 10. Ivernia, 
Ibernia, Hibernia, Juvernia, Jouvernia, Hiberia, Hiberione, and Verna. 11. Insula 
Sacra. 12. Ogy-gia, or the Most Ancient land. (Plutarch, in the first century of the 
Christian era, calls Ireland by the name Ogy-gia; and Camden says that Ireland is 
justly called Ogy-gia, as the Irish, he says, can trace their history from the most remote 
antiquity: Hence O'Flaherty has adopted the name "Ogy-gia" for his celebrated work, 
in Latin, on Irish history and antiquities.) 13. Scotia. 14. Insula Sanctorum. 

To the Anglo-Saxons as — 15. Eire-land. 

To the Danes as — 16. Irlandi, and Irar. 

To the Anglo-Normans as — 17. Irelande. 

222 Rossiana. 

of the Tower of Babel, employed able and learned men to go among the 
dispersed multitude to learn their several languages ; who sometime after 
returning well skilled in what they went for, Phceniusa Farsaidh erected a 
school in the valley of Senaar, near the city of .Eothena, in the forty-second 
year of the reign of Ninus; whereupon, having continued there with his 
younger son Niul for twenty years, he returned home to his kingdom, which, 
at his death, he left to his eldest son Nenuall : leaving to Niul no other 
patrimony than his learning and the benefit of the said school. 

15. Niul, after his father returned to Scythia, continued some time at 
jEothena, teaching the languages and other laudable sciences, until upon 
report of his great learning he was invited into Egypt by Pharaoh, the King; 
who gave him the land of Campus Cyrunt, near the Red Sea, to inhabit, and 
his daughter Scota in marriage: from whom their posterity are ever since 
called Scots ; but, according to some annalists, the name " Scots " is derived 
frmn the word Scythia. 

It was this Niul that employed Gaodhal [Gael], son of Ethor, a learned 
and skilful man, to compose or rather refine and adorn the language, called 
Bearla Tobbai, which was common to all Niul's posterity, and afterwards 
GaodJiilg (or Gaelic), from the said Gaodhal who composed or refined it; 
and for his sake also Niul called his own eldest son " Gaodhal." [The 
following is a translation of an extract from the derivation of this proper 
name, as given in Halliday's Vol. of Keating' s Irish History, page 230: 

" Antiquaries assert that the name of Gaodhal is from the compound word 
formed of ' gaoith ' and ' dil,' which means a lover of learning; for, ' gaoith ' 
is the same as zvisdom or learning, and 'dil' is the same as loving or fond]. 

16. Gaodhal (or Gathelus), the son of Niul, was the ancestor of the 
Clan-na-Gael, that is, " the children or descendants of Gaodhal." In his 
youth this Gaodhal was stung in the neck by a serpent, and was immediately 
brought to Moses, who, laying his Rod upon the wounded place, instantly 
cured him: whence followed the word " Glas " to be added to his name, as 
Gaodal Glas (glas: Irish, green; Lat. glaucus; Gr. glaukos), on account of 
the green scar which the word signifies, and which, during his life, remained 
on his neck after the wound was healed. And Gaodhal obtained a further 
blessing, namely — that no venomous beast can live any time where his 
posterity should inhabit ; which is verified in Creta or CandL, Gothia or 
Getulia, Ireland, etc. The Irish chroniclers affirm that from this time 
Gaodhal and his posterity did paint the figures of Beasts, Birds, etc., on 
their banners and shields, to distinguish their tribes and septs, in imitation 
of the Israelites ; and that a " Thunderbolt " was the cognizance in their chief 
standard for many generations after this Gaodhal. 

17. Asruth, after his father's death, continued in Egypt, and governed his 
colony in peace during his life. 

18. Sruth, soon after his father's death, was (see the Dedication of the 
Second Series) set upon by the Egyptians, on account of their former 
animosities towards their predecessors for having taken part with the 
Israelites against them ; which animosities until then lay raked up in the 
embers, and now broke out in a flame to that degree, that after many 
battles and conflicts, wherein most of his colony lost their lives, Sruth 

Pedigree of the Clan of Rede, or Read. 223 

was forced with the few remaining to depart the country ; and, after many 
traverses at sea. arrived at the Island of Creta (now called Candia), where 
he paid his last tribute to nature. 

19. Heber Scut (scut: Irish, a Scot), after his father's death and a 
year's stay in Creta, departed thence, leaving some of his people to inhabit 
the Island, where some of their posterity likely still remain; "because the 
Island breeds no venomous serpent ever since." He and his people soon 
after arrived in Scythia; where his cousins, the posterity of Nenuall (eldest 
son of Fenius Farsa, above mentioned), refusing to allot a place of habitation 
for him and his colony, they fought many battles wherein Heber (with the 
assistance of some of the natives who were ill-affected towards their king), 
being always victor, he at length forced the sovereignty from the other, and 
settled himself and his colony in Scythia, who continued there for four 
generations. Hence the epithet Scut, "a Scot" or "a Scythian," was applied 
to this Heber, who is accordingly called Heber Scot. Heber Scot was after- 
wards slain in battle by Noemus the former king's son. 

20. Beouman; 21. Ogaman; and 22. Tait, were each kings of Scythia, but 
in constant war with the natives ; so that after Tait's death his son, 

23. Agnon and his followers betook themselves to sea, wandering and 
coasting upon the Caspian Sea for several (some say seven) years, in which 
time he died. 

24. Lamhfionn and his fleet remained at sea for some time after his 
father's death, resting and refreshing themselves upon such islands as they 
met with. It was then that Cachear, their magician or Druid, foretold that 
there would be no end of their peregrinations and travel until they should 
arrive at the Western Island of Europe, .now called Ireland, which was the 
place destined for their future and lasting abode and settlement; and that 
not they but their posterity after three hundred years should arrive there. 
After many traverses of fortune at sea, this little fleet with their leader 
arrived at last and landed at Gothia or Getulia — more recently called Lybia, 
where Carthage was afterwards built ; and soon after, Lamhfionn died there. 

25. Heber Glunfionn was born in Getulia, where he died. His posterity 
continued there to the eighth generation ; and were kings or chief rulers 
there for one hundred and fifty years — some say three hundred years. 

26. Agnan Fionn ; 27. Febric Glas; 28. Nenuall; 29. Nuadhad; 30. Alladh; 
31.. Arcadh; and 32. Deag: of these nothing remarkable is mentioned, but 
that they lived and died kings in Gothia or Getulia. 

SS- Brath was born in Gothia. Remembering the Druid's prediction, and 
his people having considerably multiplied during their abode in Getulia, he 
departed thence with a numerous fleet to seek out the country destined 
for their final settlement, by the prophecy of Cachear, the Druid above men- 
tioned; and, after some time, he landed upon the coast of Spain, and by 
strong hand settled himself and his colony in Galicia, in the north of that 

34. Breoghan (or Brigus) was king of Galicia, Andalusia, Murcia, Castile, 
and Portugal — all of which he conquered. He built Breoghan's Tower or 
Brigantia in Galicia, and the city of Brigansa or Braganza in Portugal — 
called after him; and the kingdom of Castile was then also called after him 



Brigia. It is considered that " Castile " itself was so called from the figure 
of a castle which Brigus bore from his Arms on his banner. Brigus sent a 
colony into Britain, who settled in that territory now known as the counties 
of York, Lancaster, Durham, Westmoreland, and Cumberland, and, after 
him, were called Brigantes; whose posterity gave formidable opposition to 
the Romans at the time of the Roman invasion of Britain. 

35. Bile was king of those countries after his father's death; and his son 
Galamh [galav] or Milesius succeeded him. This Bile had a brother 
named Ithe. 

36. Milesius, in his youth and during his father's life-time, went into 
Scythia, where he was kindly received by the king of that country, who 
gave him his daughter in marriage, and appointed him General of his forces. 
In this capacity Milesius defeated the king's enemies, gained much fame, and 
the love of all the king's subjects. His growing greatness and popularity 
excited against him the jealousy of the king; who, fearing the worst, resolved 
on privately despatching Milesius out of the way, for, openly, he dare not 
attempt it. Admonished of the king's intentions in his regard, Milesius slew 
him; and thereupon quitted Scythia and retired into Egypt with a fleet of 
sixty sail. Pharaoh Xectonibns, then king of Egypt, being informed of his 
arrival and of his great valour, wisdom, and conduct in arms, made him 
General of all his forces against the king of Ethiopia then invading his 
country. Here, as in Scythia, Milesius was victorious; he forced the- enemy 
to submit to the conqueror's own terms of peace. By these exploits Milesius 
found great favour with Pharaoh, who gave him. being then a widower, 
his daughter Scota in marriage; and kept him eight years afterwards in 

During the sojourn of Milesius in Egypt, he employed the most ingenious 
and able persons among his people to be instructed in the several trades, 
arts, and sciences used in Egypt; in order to have them taught to the rest 
of his people on his return to Spain. 

[The original name of Milesius of Spain was, as already mentioned, 
"Galamh" (gall: Irish, a stranger; amh, a negative affix), which means 
no stranger: meaning that he was no stranger in Egypt, where he was called 
" Milethea Spaine," which wss afterwards contracted to "Mile Spaine " 
(meaning the Spanish Hero), and finally to "Milesius" (mileadh: Irish, 
a hero; Lat. miles, a soldier).] 

At length Milesius took leave of his father-in-law, and steered towards 
Spain; where he arrived to the great joy and comfort of his people, who were 
much harassed by the rebellion of the natives and by the intrusion of other 
foreign nations that forced in after his father's death, and during his own 
absence from Spain. With these and those he often met ; and. in fifty-four 
battles, victoriously fought, he routed, destroyed, and totally extirpated them 
out of the country, which he settled in peace and quietness. 

In his reign a great dearth and famine occurred in Spain, of twenty-six 
years' continuance, occasioned as well by reason of the former troubles 
which hindered the people from cultivating and manuring the ground, as 
for want of rain to moisten the earth; but Milesius superstitiously believed 
the famine to have fallen upon him and his people as a judgment and punish- 

Pedigree of the Clan of Rede, or Read. 225 

ment from their gods, for their negligence in seeking out the country destined 
for their final abode, so long before foretold by Cachear their Druid or 
magician, as already mentioned — the time limited by the prophecy for the 
accomplishment thereof being now nearly, if not fully, expired. To expiate 
his fault and to comply with the will of his gods, Milesius, with the general 
approbation of his people, sent his uncle Ithe, with his son Lughaidh [Luy], 
and one hundred and fifty stout men to bring them an account of those 
western islands ; who, accordingly, arriving at the island since then called 
Ireland, and landing in that part of it now called Munster, left his son 
with fifty of his men to guard the ship, and with the rest travelled about the 
island. Informed, among other things, that the three sons of Cearmad, 
called Mac-Cuill, MacCeacht, and MacGreine, did then and for thirty years 
before rule and govern the island, each for one year, in his turn ; and that 
the country was called after the names of their three queens — Eire, Fodhla, 
and Banbha, respectively : one year called " Eire," the next " Fodhla," and 
the next "Banbha," as their husbands reigned in their regular turns; by 
which names the island is ever since indifferently called, but most commonly 
" Eire," because that MacCuill, the husband of Eire, ruled and governed the 
country in his turn the year that the Clan-na-Mile (or the sons of Milesius) 
arrived in and conquered Ireland. And being further informed that the 
three brothers were then at their palace at Aileach Neid, in the north part of 
the country, engaged in the settlement of some disputes concerning their 
family jewels, Ithe directed his course thither; sending orders to his son 
to sail about with his ship and rest of his men, and meet him there. 

When Ithe arrived where the (Danan) brothers were, he was honourably 
received and entertained by them ; and, finding him to be a man of great 
wisdom and knowledge, they referred their disputes to him for decision. 
That decision having met their entire satisfaction, Ithe exhorted them to 
mutual love, peace, and forebearance ; adding much in praise of their delight- 
ful, pleasant, and fruitful country; and then took his leave, to return to his 
ship, and go back to • Spain. 

No sooner was he gone than the brothers began to reflect on the high 
commendations which Ithe gave of the Island ; and, suspecting his design of 
bringing others to invade it, resolved to prevent them, and therefore pursued 
him with a strong party, overtook him, fought and routed his men and 
wounded himself to death (before his son or the rest of his men left on 
ship-board could come to his rescue) at a place called, from that fight and 
his name, Magh Ithe or "The Plain of Ithe" (an extensive plain in the 
barony of Raphoe, county Donegal) ; whence his son, having found him in 
that condition, brought his dead and mangled body back into Spain, and 
there exposed it to public view, thereby to excite his friends and relations 
to avenge his murder. 

And here I think it not amiss to notify what the Irish chroniclers observed 
upon this matter, viz. — that all the invaders and planters of Ireland, namely, 
Parthalon, Neimhedh, the Firbolgs, Tuatha-de-Danans, and Clan-na-Mile. 
were originally Scythians, of the line of Japhet, who had the language called 
Bearla-Tobbai or Gaoidhilg [Gaelic] common amongst them all; and conse- 
quently not to be wondered at, that Ithe and the Tuatha-de-Danans under- 

226 Rossiana. 

stood one another without an Interpreter — both speaking the same language, 
though perhaps with some difference in the accent. 

The exposing of the dead body of Ithe had the desired effect; for, there- 
upon, Milesius made great preparations in order to invade Ireland — as well 
to avenge his uncle's death., as also in obedience to the will of his gods, 
signified by the prophecy of Cachear, aforesaid. But, before he could effect 
that object, he died, leaving the care and charge of that expedition upon 
his eight legitimate sons by his two wives before mentioned. 

Milesius was a very valiant champion, a great warrior, and fortunate and 
prosperous in all his undertakings : witness his name of " Milesius," given 
him from the many battles (some say <7 thousand, which the word "Mile" 
signifies in Irish as well as in Latin) which he victoriously fought and won, 
as well in Spain, as in all the other countries and kingdoms he traversed 
in his younger days. 

The eight brothers were neither forgetful nor negligent in the execution 
of their father's command ; but, soon after his death, with a numerous fleet 
well manned and equipped, set forth from Breoghan's Tower or Brigantui 
(now Corunna) in Galicia, in Spain, and sailed prosperously to the coasts 
of Ireland or Inis-Fail, where they met many difficulties and various chances 
before they could land : occasioned by the diabolical arts, sorceries, and 
enchantments used by the Tuatha-de-Danans, to obstruct their landing; for, 
by their magic art, they enchanted the island so as to appear to the Milesians 
or Clan-na-Mile in the form of a Hog, and no way to come at it (whence 
the island, among the many other names it had before, was called Muc-Inis 
or " The Hog Island ") ; and withal raised so great a storm, that the Milesian 
rleet was thereby totally dispersed and many of them cast away, wherein five 
of the eight brothers, sons of Milesius, lost their lives. That part of the 
fleet commanded by Heber. Heremon, and Amergin (the three surviving 
brothers), and Heber Dunn, son of Ir (one of the brothers lost in the storm), 
overcame all opposition, landed -ate. fought and routed the three Tuatha-de- 
Danan Kings at Slieve-Mis, and thence pursued and overtook them at 
Tailten, where another bloody battle was fought; wherein the three (Tuatha- 
de-Danan) Kings and their Queens were slain, and their army utterly routed 
and destroyed: so that they could never after give any opposition to the 
Clan-na-Mile in their new conquest; who. having thus sufficiently avenged 
the death of their great uncle Ithe, gained the possession of the country 
foretold them by Cachear, some ages past, as already mentioned. 

Heber and Heremon, the chief leading men remaining of the eight 
brothers, sons of Milesius aforesaid, divided the kingdom between them 
(allotting a proportion of land to their brother Amergin, who was their 
Arch-priest, Druid, or magician ; and to their nephew Heber Donn, and 
to the rest of their chief commanders), and became jointly the first of 
one hundred and eighty-three Kings or sole Monarchs of the Gaelic, Milesian, 
or Scottish Race, that ruled and governed Ireland, successively, for two 
thousand eight hundred and eighty-five years from the first year of their 
reign. Anno Mundi three thousand five hundred, to their submission to 
the Crown of England in the person of King Henry the Second; who, 
being also of the Milesian Race by Maude, his mother, was lineally 

Pedigree of the Clan of Rede, or Read. 227 

descended from Fergus Mor MacEarca, first King of Scotland, who was 
descended from the said Heremon — so that the succession may be truly 
said to continue in the Milesian Blood from Before Christ one thousand 
six hundred and ninety-nine years down to the present time. 

Heber and Heremon reigned jointly one year only, when, upon a difference 
between their ambitious wives, they quarrelled and fought a battle at 
Ardcath or Geshill (Geashill, near Tullamofe in the King's County), where 
Heber was slain by Heremon ; and, soon after, Amergin, who claimed an 
equal share in the government, was, in another battle fought between them, 
likewise slain by Heremon. Thus, Heremon became sole Monarch, and made 
a new division of the land amongst his comrades and friends, viz. : the south 
part, now called Munster, he gave to his brother Heber's four sons, Er, Orba, 
Feron, and Fergna ; the north part, now Ulster, he gave to Ir's only son 
Heber Donn; the east part or Coigeadh Gallon, now called Leinster, he gave 
to Criomthann-sciath-bheil, one of his commanders ; and the west part, now 
called Connaught, Heremon gave to Un-Mac-Oigge, another of his com- 
manders ; allotting a part of Munster to Lughaidh (the son of Ithe, the first 
Milesian discoverer of Ireland), amongst his brother Heber's sons. 

From these three brothers, Heber, Ir, and Heremon (Amergin dying 
without issue), are descended all the Milesian Irish of Ireland and Scotland, 
viz. : from Heber, the eldest brother, the provincial Kings of Munster (of 
whom thirty-eight were sole Monarchs of Ireland), and most of the nobility 
and gentry of Munster, and many noble families in Scotland, are descended. 
From Ir, the second brother, all the provincial Kings of Ulster (of whom 
twenty-six were sole Monarchs of Ireland), and all the ancient nobility and 
gentry of Ulster, and many noble families in Leinster, Munster, and Con- 
naught, derive their pedigrees; and, in Scotland, the Clan-na-Rory — the 
descendants of an eminent man, named Ruadhri or Roderick, who was 
Monarch of Ireland for seventy years (viz., from Before Christ 288 to 218). 
From Heremon, the youngest of the three brothers, were descended one 
hundred and fourteen sole Monarchs of Ireland: the provincial Kings and 
Hermonian nobility and gentry of Leinster, Connaught, Meath, Orgiall, 
Tirowen, Tirconnell, and Clan-na-boy; the Kings of Dalriada; all the Kings 
of Scotland from Fergus Mor MacEarca down to the Stuarts; and the Kings 
and Queens of England from Henry the Second down to the present time. 

The issue of Ithe is not accounted among the Milesian Irish or Clan-na- 
Mile, as not being descended from Milesins, but from his uncle Ithe; of 
whose posterity there were also some Monarchs of Ireland (see Roll of the 
Irish Monarchs, in Part III, c. ii), and many provincial or half provincial 
Kings of Munster: that country upon its first division being allocated to 
the sons of Heber and to Lughaidh, son of Ithe, whose posterity continued 
there accordingly. 

This invasion, conquest, or plantation of Ireland by the Milesian or Scottish 
Nation took place in the Year of the World three thousand five hundred, or 
the next year after Solomon began the foundation of the Temple of Jeru- 
salem, and one thousand six hundred and ninety-nine years before the 
Nativity of our Saviour Jesus Christ; which, according to the Irish computa- 
tion of Time, occurred Anno Mundi five thousand one hundred and ninety- 

228 Rossi a >t a. 

nine: therein agreeing with the Septuagint, Roman Martyrologies, Eusebius, 
Orosius, and other ancient authors; which computation the ancient Irish 
chroniclers exactly observed in their Books of the Reigns of the Monarchs 
of Ireland, and other Antiquities of that Kingdom; out of which the Roll 
of the Monarchs of Ireland, from the beginning of the Milesian Monarchy to 
their submission to King Henry the Second of England, a Prince of their 
own Blood, is exactly collected. 

[As the Milesian invasion of Ireland took place the next year after the 
laying of the foundation of the Temple of Jerusalem by Solomon, King of 
Israel, we may infer that Solomon was contemporary with Milesius of 
Spain; and that the Pharaoh King of Egypt, who (i Kings iii. I,) gave 
his daughter in marriage to Solomon, was the Pharaoh who conferred on 
Milesius of Spain the hand of another daughter Scota.] 

Milesius of Spain bore three Lions in his shield and standard, for the 
following reasons; namely, that, in his travels in his younger days into 
foreign countries, passing through Africa, he, by his cunning and valour, 
killed in one morning three Lions; and that, in memory of so noble and 
valiant an exploit, he always after bore three Lions on his shield, which 
his two surviving sons Heber and Heremon, and his grandson Heber Donn, 
son of Ir, after their conquest of Ireland, divided amongst them, as well as 
they did the country : each of them bearing a Lion in his shield and banner, 
but of different colours; which the Chiefs of their posterity continue to 
this day : some with additions and differences ; others plain and entire as 
they had it from their ancestors. 

Descent from Adam to Milesius of Spain. 

i. Adam; 17. Asruth, his son; 

2. Seth, his son ; 18. Sruth, his son ; 

3. Enos, his son; 19. Heber Scutt (Scott), his son; 

4. Cainan, his son; 20. Beouman, his son; 

5. Mahalaleel. his son; 21. Oghaman, his son; 

6. Jared, his son; 22. Tait, his son; 

7. Enoch, his son ; 23. Agnan, his son ; 

8. Methuselah, his son ; 24. Lamhfionn, his son ; 

9. Lantech, his son; 25. Heber Glunfionn, his son; 

10. Noah, his son. 26. Agnan Fionn, his son ; 

11. Japhet, his son. 27. Febric Glas, his son; 

12. Magog, his son ; 28. Xenuall, his son ; 

13. Baoth, his son. (Baoth: Irish, 29. Nuadhad, his son; 

" simple ; " Hebrew, " to ter- 30. Alladh, his son ; 
rify.") 31. Arcadh. his son ; 

14. Phceniusa (or Fenius) Farsaidh, 3^- Deagh. his son; 

the inventor of Letters, his son; 33- Brath, his son; 

15. Niul, his son; 34- Breoghan (or Brigus), his son; 

16. Gaodhal (the Clann-na-Gaodhail, 35- Bile, his son; 

or the Gaels), his son; 36. Milesius of Spain, his son; 

Pedigree of the Clan of Rede, or Read. 


Descent from Milesius of Spain to .Eneas Turmeach-Teamrach. 

2,~. Heremon, second Monarch of Ire- 
land, his son ; 

38. Irial Faidh, the 10th Monarch, 
his son ; 

39 Eithriall, the nth Monarch, his 
son ; 

40. Falach (or Fallain), his son; 

41. Tighearnmas, the 13th Monarch, 

his son; 

42. Eanbrotha, his son ; 

43. Smiorgoill, his son ; 

44. Fiachadh Lamhraein, the 18th 

Monarch, his son ; 
45- Aongus (or /Eneas) Ollmuchach, 
the 20th Monarch, his son ; 

46. Maon, his son; 

47. Rotheachta, the 22d Monarch, his 


48. Dein, his son ; 

49. Siorna Saoghalach, the 34th Mon- 

arch, his son; 

50. Olioll Olchaoin, his son ; 

51. Giallchadh, the 37th Monarch, his 


52. Nuadhas Fionnfail, the 39th Mon- 

arch, his son; 

53. Aodh Glas, his son ; 

54. Simeon Breac, the 44th Monarch, 

his son ; 

55. Muireadhach (Muredach) Bol- 

gach, the 46th Monarch, his son ; 

56. Fiachadh Tolgrach, the 55th Mon- 

arch, his son ; 

57. Duach Ladhrach, the 59th Mon- 

arch, his son ; 

58. Eochaidh Buidhe, his son ; 

59. Ugaine Mor, the 66th Monarch, 

his son ; 

60. Cobthach Caol-bhreagh, the 69th 

Monarch, his son; 

61. Melg Molbhthach, the 71st Mon- 

arch, his son ; 

62. Iarn Gleo-Fathach, the 74th Mon- 

arch, his son; 

63. Conla Caomh, the 76th Monarch, 

his son ; 

64. Olioll Casfiacalach, the 77th Mon- 

arch, his son; 

65. Eochaidh Altleathan, the 79th 

Monarch, his son; 

66. Aongus (or ^Eneas) Turmeach- 

Teamrach, the 81st Monarch 
(from whose younger son, 
Fiacha Fearmara, the kings of 
Dalriada, in' Scotland, down to 
Loarn, the maternal grand- 
father of Fergus Mor Mac- 
Earca, were descended) ; 

Descent from /Eneas Turmeach-Teamrach to Fergus Mor MacEarca 

67. Enda Agneach, the 84th Monarch, 

son of Turmeach-Teamrach; 

68. Asaman Eamhnadh, his son ; 77- 

69. Roighean Ruadh, his son; 

70. Fionnlaoch, his son; 

71. Fionn, his son; 78. 

72. Eochaidh Feidhlioch, the 93d 

Monarch, his son ; 79. 

73. Breas-Nar-Lothar, his son : 

74. Lugaidh Sriabh-n Dearg, the 98th 

Monarch, his son ; 80. 

75. Crimthann Niadh-Nar (called 

Crimthann the Heroic), the 
iooth Monarch, who reigned 81. 
when Christ was born, his son ; 

76. Feareadach [Feredach] Fionn 

Feachtnach (or Feredach, the 

True and Sincere), the I02d 

Monarch, his son ; 
Fiacha Fionn Ola (or Fiacha of 

the White Oxen), the 104th 

Monarch, his son ; 
Tuathal Teachdmar, the 106th 

Monarch, his son ; 
Felim Rachtmar (or Felim, the 

Lawgiver), the 108th Monarch. 

his son ; 
Conn Ceadcatha (or Conn of the 

Hundred Battles), the noth 

Monarch, his son; 
Art-Ean-Fhear (or Art-Enear), 

the 112th Monarch, the ances- 
tor of O'h-Airt, anglicised 

O'Hart, his son ; 


Rossi an a. 

82. Cormac Ulfhada (commonly called 

" Cormac Mac Art "), the 115th 
Monarch, his son ; 

83. Cairbre Liffechar, the 117th Mon- 

arch, his son ; 

84. Fiacha Srabhteine, the 120th Mon- 

arch, his son ; 

85. Muredach Tireach [teeragh], the 

I22d Monarch, his son; 

86. Eochaidh Muigh Meadhoin (or 

Eochy Moyoone), the 124th 
Monarch, his son ; 

87. Niall Mor (known as Niall of the 

Nine Hostages), the 126th 
Monarch, his son; 

88. Eoghan (Owen), his son; 

89. Muredach, his son ; 

90. Fergus Mor Mac Earca, 1 the 

brother of Murchertach (or 
Murtogh) Mor MacEarca, the 
131st Monarch of Ireland, his 

Descent of the Kings of Dalriada in Scotland from .Eneas Tuirmeach- 


iEneas Tuirmeach-Teamrach (No. 66 in the preceding pedigree), the 
8 1st Monarch of Ireland, who died at Tara, before Christ, 324, had a son 
named Fiacha Firmara, who was ancestor of the Kings of Dalriada and 
Argyle, in Scotland. Following is the descent from .Eneas Tuirmeach- 
Teamrach to Fergus Mor MacEarca, founder of the Scottish Monarchy: 

67. Fiacha Firmara, as above. 

68. Olioll Earon, his son ; 

69. Fearach, his son ; 

70. Forga, his son ; 

71. Main Mor, his son ; 

72. Arnold, his son ; 
72,. Rathrean. his son ; 

74. Trean, son of Rathrean ; 

75. Rosan, his son ; 

76. Suin, his son ; 

77- Deadha, his son ; had a younger 

78. Iar, his son; 

79. Olioll Anglonnach, his son ; 

80. Eoghan, his son ; 

81. Edersceol, son of Eoghan, who 

was the 95th Monarch of Ire- 

82. Conaire Mor (or Conarius Mag- 

nus), his son, who was the 97th 
Monarch of Ireland; 

83. Carbry Fion Mor, his son ; 

84. Daire (or Darius) Dorn Mor, his 

son ; 

85. Carbry (2) Cromcheann, his son ; 

86. Lughach (or Luy) Altain, his son; 

1" In a. D. 498, Fergus Mor Mac Earca, in the twentieth year of the reign of his 
father, Muredach, son of (Eugenius, or) Owen, sen of Niall of the Nine Hostages, with 
five more of his brothers, viz., another Fergus, two more named Loarn, and two named 
Aongus (or yEneas), with a complete army, went into Scotland to assist his grandfather 
Loarn, who was king of Dalriada, and who was much oppressed by his enemies the 
Picts, who were in several battles and engagements vanquished and overcome by Fergus 
and his party. Whereupon, on the king's death, which happened about the same time, 
the said Fergus was unanimously elected and chosen king, as being of the Blood Royal, 
by his mother; and the said Fergus was the first absolute king of Scotland, of the 
Milesian Race; so the succession continued in his blood and lineage ever since to this 
day." — Four Masters. 

According to the Scottish chroniclers, it was a. d. 424. that Fergus Mor Mac Earca 
went from Ireland to Scotland. Before him, the Milesian kings in that country were 
kings only of that part of it called " Dalriada," of which Loarn. the grandfather of 
Fergus Mor Mac Earca {Mac Earca: Irish, son of Earca, daughter of Loarn) was the 
last king. 

Pedigree of the Clan of Rede, or Read. 


87. Mogha Lainne, his son ; 

88. Conaire (2), his son, who was 

the 1 nth Monarch of Ireland, 
and known as " Conaire Mac 
Mogha Lainne." This Conaire 
(or Conarius) the Second, was 
married to Sarad, daughter of 
Conn of the Hundred Battles, 
the noth Monarch of Ireland, 
who began to reign A. D. 122; 
and Sarad was mother of Car- 
bry Riada, the first king of 
Dalriada (Dal-Riada; Irish, 
Riada's share or portion) in 

89. Carbry Riada,* son of Conaire 

the Second, whose brother, 
Cairbre Muse, was ancestor of 

O'Falvey and O'Shee, and 
whose son, Eochaidh, settled in 

90. Kionga, King of Dalriada; 

91. Felim Lamh-foidh, his son, King 

of Dalriada; 

92. Eochy Fortamail, his son, King 

of Dalriada; 

93. Fergus Uallach, his son, King of 

/Eneas Feart (feartas: Irish, 

manly conduct; Lat. virtus) 

his son, King of Dalriada; 
Eochy Mun-reamhar, his son, 

King of Dalriada; 

96. Earc, his son, King of Dalriada ; 

97. Loarn, his son, and the last King 

of Dalriada. 



This was the Loarn to assist whom in his war against the Picts, his 
grandson, Fergus Mor MacEarca, went to Scotland, A. D. 498, or, according 
to the Scottish chroniclers, A. D. 424; and this Fergus Mor MacEarca was 
the founder of the Scottish Monarchy. 

*Carbry Riada (Reoda) : "One of the most noted facts in ancient Irish and British 
history," writes Dr. Joyce, " is the migration of colonies from the north of Ireland to 
the neighboring coasts of Scotland, and the intimate intercourse that in consequence 
existed in early ages between the two countries. The first regular settlement mentioned 
by our historians was made in the latter part of the second century, by Cairbre Riada, 
son of Conary the Second, king of Ireland. This expedition, which is mentioned 
in most of our Annals, is confirmed by Bede, in the following words: — 'In course of 
time, Britain, besides the Britons and Picts, received a third nation, Scotia, who, 
issuing from Hibernia under the leadership of Reuda (Riada), secured for themselves, 
either by friendship or by the sword, settlements among the Picts which they still 
possess. From the name of their commander, they are to this day called Dalrcudini: 
tor, in their language, Dal signifies a part.' (Hist. Eccl., Lib. I. cap. 1.) 

" There were other colonies, also, the most remarkable of which was that led by 
Fergus, Angus, and Loarn, the three sons of Ere, which laid the foundation of the 
Scottish monarchy. The country colonized by these emigrants was known by the name 
of Airer Gaedhil [Arrer-gale], i. e. the territory of the Gael or Irish; and the name is 
still applied to the territory in the shortened form of Argyle, a living record of these 
early colonizations. 

The tribes over whom Cairbre ruled were, as Bede and our own Annals record, 
called from him Dalriada, (Riada's portion or tribe); of which there were two— one in 
(the north of) Ireland, and the other and more illustrious in Scotland."— Irish Names 
of Places. 

Read, or Reade, of Barton 


BARTON MANOR, with the ancient palace of the Abbots of Abingdon — 
otherwise named the " King's House," because the sovereign could 
claim hospitality of its owner — was acquired by Thomas Reade, 
founder of the Barton Court line, in 1550, as set forth in the Inq. p. mortem 
held at Abingdon, April 13, 1557: 

King Edward VI was seized in fee of the Manor of Barton, formerly 
belonging to the Monastery at Abendon, and of various lands demised to 
John Audelett, and by letters patent July 10th, I Edward VI (1547), he 
granted the premises to Richard Lee, Knight. By license of the same King 
a fine was levied Michaelmas, 1547, between Edmund Herman, plaintiff, and 
the said Richard Lee, Knight, and Margaret, his wife, deforciants, who 
remised and quit-claimed the premises to Herman and his heirs. By another 
license of the same King a fine was levied in Easter term, 1548, between 
the said Thomas Rede and Anne, his wife, plaintiffs, and the said Edmund 
Herman and Agnes, his wife, deforciants, who remised and quit-claimed to 
the said Thomas and Anne. The said Richard Lee, Knight, by his writing, 
dated February 12th, 1550, for the sum of £40 13s. 4d. released the premises 
to Rede and wife. 

The great Manor of Barton, at this time, consisted of the following lands 
and estates, as stated in the above document : 

Alderne, Inny, Pomney, Stokey, Gosey, Bartoun, Brewarney, Brislay Hille, 
Barrowe Hille, Sudbrooke, Crowe Close, Conynger, Myre Close, Pounde 
Close, Straye Close, Bowre Close, Box Hille, Barton Pece (the 20 acres 
lying and being in Barton), with the usual Manorial privileges, including 
spiritual as well as temporal appurtenances. 

This manor, originally the property of the Abbey of Abingdon, the last 
Abbot (Thomas Rowland) gave, granted and surrendered to King Henry 
VIII, with the monastery and titles, February 9, 1538. This grant was 
farther endorsed by a statute passed April 28, 1541. 

The bulk of Thomas Reade's other real estate, as set forth in the same 
Inq. />. mortem, consisted of lands in Sonningwell, Long Wittnam, Stanmere, 
Byddon (Beedon), Ballyng, Foller, UJffingtou, Kingston Lysley, Abingdon 
and Wanting (Wantage). 

Thomas Reade's name first occurs in a conveyance (T536) by John 
Audelett. then of Abingdon, but previously of Woburn, Bucks, to himself 
and others, of the Manors of Ipsden Huntercombe and Ipsden Bassett,* 
in trust for his wife Catherine. He was seized of other estates by a similar 
joint-purchase with his cousin, Catherine Audelett, in survivorship, viz. : 
the Manor of Idmyston, Wilts., with lands in Stratton St. Margaret; the 
Manor of Denford, with lands in Raunds, Ringstead and Wold, Northants, 
and the Manor of Dunstew, Oxon, the latter having been purchased by John 
Audelett, in 1528, of the suppressed Abbey of Merton. 

*The manors of Ipsden Huntercombe and Ipsden Bassett alone, of all the manors 
held by this line, survive to the family after a lapse of nearly four centuries. 

236 Rossiana. 

Thomas Reade was buried April 27, 1556, in the Reade aisle of St. Helen's 
Church. Abingdon, Berks. His wife, Anne Hoo, survived him nineteen 
years, and. by direction of her will, was also buried in the Read aisle at 
St. Helen's. 

Thomas Reade ( d. 1604), son of Thomas, first proprietor of Barton Manor, 
married Mary Stonhouse, daughter of George Stonhouse, Esq., Lord of the 
Manors of Little or West Peckham, Kent, and Radley, Berks. The Manor 
of Barton subtends that of Radley. and it is a coincidence that the recent 
owner of Barton Manor, Sir W. Bowyer, Bart., like the Reade family, whom 
the Bowyers succeeded there, is a descendant of George Stonhouse. 


Beedon, mentioned above, was formerly one of the seats of the De Lisle 
family. Lyson's Britannica says: "Alice De Lisle had the Royal license to 
make a park at Beedon in 1336." The estate afterward passed to Thomas, 
fourth Lord Berkeley (d. 1417). who married Margaret (d. 1395), daughter 
of General De Lisle; then to Lady Elizabeth Berkeley, their daughter, who 
married Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick: then to Lady Alianora 
Beauchamp, their daughter, who married the Duke of Somerset; then to 
Lady Johanna Beaufort, their daughter, who married, first, Lord Howethe, 
and. secondly, Richard Frye. 

At the decease of Lady Johanna Beaufort, in 1518, the manor was leased 
by the Crown to Robert Sewey : and May 13th, 7th Henry 8th, in considera- 
tion of surrender of annuity of iioo, a grant in survivorship was made to 
Sir William Fitzwilliam, Mabel, his wife, and their eldest son. Lastly, 
Henry VIII, for £_>id, granted to William Thomas the Manor of Beddon, 
late parcel of the possessions of tin- Countesse of Somerset." In 1562 the 
Manors of Beedon and Stanmore with the advowson were the property of 
Anne, widow of Thomas Reade of Barton Court, ami this is the earliest 
mention of Beedon as an estate of the Reade family. It was aliened by 
Sir John Chandos Reade, seventh Baronet, third creation, in 1S57, to Lord 

Both Barton and Beedon were evidently in ruin- in [663, when the King 
granted to Sir Compton Reade, High Sheriff of Berks, the privilege of 
residing out of the county, "he having no lit residence in it." Beedon, lying 
near Newbury, the scene of two battles during the Civil War, and being 
the home of a "malignant cavalier." was utterly demolished. Sir Compton, 
late in life, erected the present manor house on the site of Alice De Lisle's 
ancient mansion. 


In describing the ruins of Barton Court as they appeared at the time of 
his visit to the ancient seat of his ancestors in 1877, General Meredith Read 
said : 

After the battle of Cropedy Bridge, which was fought on the 29th June, 
1644, and in which Charles I was victorious, a force of Cromwellians 
advanced from Abingdon and attacked Barton Court, which was vigorously 
defended by Compton Read and Edward, his brother, and their grand uncle, 

Ruins of Barton Court. 


Richard Read (then sixty-five years old), and their various retainers. The 
storming party only gained access by means of the torch, and the once 
stately pile was reduced to a heap of smouldering ruins. Richard Read died 
before the Restoration, but his nephew, Compton, was one of the first 
Baronets created after the accession of Charles II, and he owed his title to 
his services in the royal cause, and especially to the loss which had over- 
taken the family in striving to stay the advance of the forces of the 

A gaunt mass of masonry in disjointed outlines still keeps watch and 
ward on the spot, in spite of the fierce attempts of a herculean vine, which 
has wrapt it in its undermining embraces. 

The upper portions have fallen, but there still remain traces of three 
stories, with accompanying fireplaces and chimneys. The third floor has a 
wide chimney place, with sculptured marble. A small tower is there also, 
with embrasures. The origin of the building was of the greatest antiquity. 

Ruins of Barton Court. 

It was built of stone, and, in historical times, was lined with brick and 
cement. It belonged originally to the Abbey of Abingdon, which was 
founded in the eighth century. 

In his " Record of the Redes," the Rev. Compton Reade, thus describes the 
destruction of Barton Court: 

The date of the defence of Barton Court is not as yet established. Mr. 
John Edmund Reade fixed it at after the siege of Worcester. In the Gentle- 
man's Magazine for August, 1897, is an account of the attempt on Abingdon 
made by Prince Rupert, in March, 1646. The elaborate plan of attack has 
been preserved in the Rupert Papers, Civil War Tracts. In this plan no 
mention is made of Barton House, or palace ; but in a letter included in the 
Civil War Tracts, from "Colonel Payne to General Browne, it is stated that 
" the enemy came between Thrupp and Norcot to Barton House, where 
they kept covert till daylight, and lay till after the Ravalue (reveille^ was 
beaten," etc. In a letter in the Tanner MSS., the writer says : " The enemy 
about six o'clock this morning, as soon as the Ravaley had beat, appeared 

2 3 8 

Rossi a 11 a. 

in a full body, both horse and foot, from Barton House, where it is con- 
ceived they had long before lodged," thus showing that Barton was made 
the pivot of a venture which ended in failure. Shortly after, the newspapers 
on the Parliament side stated that General Browne, after demanding sup- 
plies for the reduction of the enemy's garrisons, adjacent to Abingdon, " hath 
a design to smoke them out." This design was carried into execution. 
After playing on the massive walls of the old Abbot's Palace, and in such 
wise that cannon balls were extracted from the masonry as late as forty 
years ago, fire was employed to effect an entrance, and evidences thereof 
"are still conspicuous in the ruins.* Afterward there must have been a 
sharp contest, for the timbers of the present Barton Farm house, which was 
constructed from the debris of the old structure, show marks of bullets. 

ki i ns of Barton Ci 11 ki. 

It was for this service especially that Sir Compton Reade headed the list 
of gentlemen of Berks when the order of the Royal Oak was contemplated, 
and was created Baronet. It should be added that Sir Compton's troop of 
horse and gallant defense of his grandfather's mansion were favorite topics 
with the late John Reade, of Ipsden, who could just remember Ids grand- 
father, John, who again was a schoolboy when Edward, Sir Compton's 
brother, and his grandfather died. In 1646, Sir Compton, although he had 
served three years during the Civil War. was a few months under age, 
and therefore the omission of the name of one so junior is hardly a matter 
of surprise. That his services were appraised at their true value the rewards 
assigned him at the Restoration amply demonstrated. 

*The late General Meredith Read possessed one of these cannon balls, Sir John 
Chandos Reade another, and the late Mr. Trendell, Mayor of Abingdon, a third. 

General Meredith Read's Visit to Barton Court. 239 


In view of the interest taken by all the Read family in the ancient Manor 
of Barton Court, the cradle, if not the birthplace, of the race, I have inserted 
General Meredith Read's description, never published before. Barton Court 
was visited by myself and Mrs. Read a few years ago, and its very courteous 
proprietor received us with great politeness. It is now a gentleman's seat; 
the farm house has been enlarged and beautified, and the estate has returned 
to its historic name of Barton Court. 

H. P. R. 

General Meredith Read's Visit to Barton Court, Berks, September, 1877. 

Barton Court, one of the ancient seats of my ancestors, is now represented 
by Barton Abbey Farm, and an ancient dwelling which originally formed 
a part of the outlying buildings and offices of the old chateau. 

During my visit there, on the 3d of September, 1S77, I made the following 
notes : 

In the sitting-room there is an ancient French print — now, 1888, in my 
possession — engraved by P. Drevet, from the picture by Hyacinthe Rigaud. 

It bears the title: Et Verbum Caro factum est, et habitavit in nobis; 
(i. e.) Le Verbe s'est fait Chair, et il a habite parmi nous. A Paris chez 
P. Drevet rue St. Jacques, a l'Annonciation avec privil. du Roy. H. Rigaud, 
pinx. Drevet, excu. 

Hyacinthe Rigaud, who, with Nicolas de Largilliere, painted the portraits 
of many of the distinguished men and women of their day, was born in 
1659, and died in 1743. Although Rigaud's attention was almost exclusively 
devoted to portraiture in his early life, he carried away, in 1682, the first 
prize offered by the Academy with his picture " Cain Building the City of 
Enoch," and in 1684 he was received by the Academy, as historical painter, 
upon his merely showing a crucifixion which was not yet finished ; and his 
Martyrdom of St. Andrew, now in the Louvre, confirmed his reputation. 

His pictures were wonderfully engraved by those great masters of the 
Burin, the two Pierres Drevet — father and son. 

The former was born in 1664, and died at Paris in 1739. 

The father was the author of this engraving. 

Mr. Ambroise Firmin-Didot, Member of the Academy of Inscriptions and 
Belles-Lettres, published a Catalogue Raisonne of plates executed by the 
members of the Drevet family, and this valuable work contains an exact 
description of the Barton Court print. 

Several finely illuminated volumes in my library, with dedicatory auto- 
graphs, embalm the friendship which existed between myself and M. Firmin- 
Didot — who personally illustrated the best traditions of a house, which has 
practically adorned French literature in its several generations, for nearly a 
century and a half. 

The above rare engraving is preserved in an ancient black frame, with a 
massive inside of sculptured gilt mat. It was executed by Pierre Drevet 
in 1691, and hung in the offices of Barton Court in the time of Sir Thomas 
Read, Bart., who succeeded his father, Sir Edward, in 169 1 ; was one of the 

240 Rossiana. 

gentlemen of the bedchamber to George I, one of the clerks of the house- 
hold to George II, and M. P. for Cricklade, county Wilts. He married 
Jane, daughter of Sir Ralph Du'tton, Bart, of Sherburne, county Gloucester, 
and died in 1756 without issue. 

Another print hanging on the walls of the sitting-room is entitled: 
'Coming of Age in the Olden Time," and the castle represented therein 
resembles the outlines of Barton Court in the days when my ancestors 
dwelt there, before the civil wars had destroyed its fine proportions. 

In the parlor is a coloured print : " Snow-balling on Christmas Eve." 

In the room over the parlor there are two curious openings through 
which cross-bowmen once shot. 

All the upper rooms are more or less deserted, and are mottled with large 
shot holes, through which cooing doves go in and out. 

There is a haunted room which has been uninhabited from time imme- 
morial. Through its dilapidated windows on certain nights in the year steel- 
clad warriors pass and repass in ghostly procession. The end of the main 
hall is approached by four or five steps, and under this raised portion of 
the hall strange noises have been heard from time to time. I asked the 
fanner why he did not investigate the cause of these disturbances. He 
replied that he could not do so without dismantling the place, to which his 
landlord would naturally object. A tradition has always existed in our 
family that a secret passage ran from this point under the river Thames 
to the little Abbey church on the opposite side of the river. 

It had been raining; and, as I stepped outside of the door, I noticed a 
slight cavity and falling in of the earth near the wall of the house, and. 
procuring a long pole I thrust it down a distance of seven or eight feet. 
My curiosity was naturally greatly excited, and I asked the farmer if it 
would not be possible to have a hole dug there to ascertain whether this 
was a part of the secret passage. He made the same reply which he had 
previously made in regard to the hall. 

Barton Abbey farm now, 1877, belongs to Sir George Bowyer, Bart. It 
is occupied by Mrs. Powell, the widow of Mr. Walter J. Powell, the great 
maltster and corn dealer at Abingdon. Samuel Cornish is the farmer. 
In connection with it there is a Cundic farm, with barns and shepherd's 
house and 500 sheep. 

Barton Court is on the west bank of the Thames, a short distance north 
of Abingdon. The locks are opposite to it. The river roars and overflows 
its banks in winter. Nuneham Park, the seat of the Harcourt family, is in 
sight to the east and about a mile away. 

The Abbey of Abingdon possessed certain proprietary rights in the 
Manor of Beedon, which afterwards passed to the Read family, and it is 
probable that this association with the Abbey, and the subsequent intimacy 
which existed between William Read and John Awdlett, the treasurer of the 
Abbey of Abingdon, led to the acquisition of Barton Court and its 

The early wills of the family show that the stables of Barton Court 
in ancient times were filled with renowned stock, and to-day there are to 
be seen there some fine cattle, among them a pedigree bull, whose brother, 

General Meredith Read's Visit to Barton Court. 241 

the " Oxford Butterfly," brought two thousand guineas. Nearby is the 
pond, with ducks, and the great brew-house, with its huge chimney place. 
The ancient pigeon-house is filled with cooing tenants, who flutter in curving 
lines before this inscription: 

T. R. and M. R. 1600. 

The first two letters are the initials of Thomas Read, high sheriff of 
Berks in 1598, who was knighted by his kinswoman Queen Elizabeth in the 
following year, and died at Barton in 1604. He was the father of Sir 
Thomas Read, who was likewise sheriff of Berks, and acquired Brockett 
Hall through his wife; of John Read, who died young, and of Richard 
Read, born at Barton in 1579, and who defended it, as above mentioned, in 
1644, and marrying a daughter of Sir Alexander Cave, by his wife, Anne, 
daughter of Sir John Brockett, by the latter's wife, Ellen Lytton, of Kneb- 
worth, died at Dunstew in 1659, aged eighty, leaving at least two sons, 
Alexander and Charles. 

The letters M. R. represent the first above-mentioned Thomas Read's 
wife, Mary Read, daughter of George Stonhouse, Esquire, Lord of the 
Manor of Little Peckham, a high official in the court of Queen Elizabeth, 
and the ancestor of the baronets of that name. 

It has been proposed to endeavor to procure a piece of land nearby the 
ruins upon which the English and American branches may erect a monu- 
ment to the memory of their common ancestors. Charles Reade has warmly 
taken up the matter, and it is intimated that Lady North would be glad to 
contribute to this worthy object. 

I have had several interviews with my friend Sir George Bowyer, who 
has received my suggestions with generous interest, but I am informed by 
his agent at Abingdon, Mr. Babcock, that there are certain difficulties in 
the way of entirely meeting my wishes. I desire to purchase outright a 
small plot of ground. Sir George is unwilling to sell the freehold, but offers 
to give a site for the monument 1 and to agree that it shall not be disturbed 
by him or his successors. His unwillingness to part with the freehold of 
even a very minute portion of the Manor arises from the fact that it is 
being laid out into streets and villa lots, the intention being to lease and 
not to sell the latter. Under the circumstances, without intending to pun, 
I fear the whole project will fall to the ground. 

In speaking of the antiquity of Barton Court, it is interesting to note that 
I brought away from its ruins a stone finial, with primitive carvings of 
foliage, which may be referred to the twelfth century; also the base of a 
column, with Decorated moldings, which probably belongs to the end 
of the fourteenth century. 

It appears that a garrison was established at Abingdon by Charles I, and 
that it became the headquarters of his horse. The whole royal family also 
came thither as early as the 17th April, 1644, and often enjoyed the hos- 
pitalities of Barton Court. 

'The monument was never erected. 

242 Rossiana. 

In May of the same year a council of war was held at Abingdon, soon 
after which the garrison quitted the place on the approach of the Earl of 
Essex, who plundered the town and fortified it for the Parliament. 

It was at this time that the Reads of Barton Court made their valiant 
defense, and the destruction of their seat was completed by the contest 
which ensued between Prince Rupert and the Parliamentary forces. 

J. M. R. 

Abingdon, county of Berks, near which is located Barton Court, the 
ancient home of the Reads, is a municipal borough on the right bank of 
the Thames, at its confluence with the Ock, 56 miles from London by road, 
10324 by the river and 59 by the Great Western railway, with which it is 
connected by a short line which joins the main Oxford line at Radley 
station, in the northern division of the county, hundred of-Hormer, rural 
deanery of Abingdon, archdeaconry of Berks and diocese of Oxford. 

The name Abingdon is derived in legendary history from Aben, a noble 
hermit, who is said to have built on this site a dwelling house and a chapel 
in honor of the Holy Virgin. According to other writers the town was 
originally called Seovechesham or Seusham, and some identify it with 
Cloveshoe, a place famous in the annals of English church councils, but it 
no doubt owes both its name and historical importance to its abbey, formerly 
one of the wealthiest mitred abbeys in England. 

Seovechesham was at a very early period a royal residence, but was 
subsequently deserted by the Saxon kings, until Offa, king of the Mercians 
and West Saxons, while accidentally visiting the spot, was so charmed with 
the beauty of the Isle of Andersley, a district lying southwest of the town, 
and between the monastery and St. Helen's Church, that he prevailed on 
the monks to exchange it for the manor of Goosey, and built for himself 
en the island a royal residence, which was there maintained until Kenwulf, 
his successor, resold Andersey to Abbot Uthemus for the manor of Sutton 
and £120 in silver; at this palace his son Egfrid died in 793: the site called 
in Leland's tune " The Castle of the Rhe," is now indicated by a large tract 
of land encircled by the Thames and a tributary inlet. William the Con- 
queror, in 1084, kept his Easter at Abingdon, being splendidly entertained 
by his powerful adherent, Robert D'Oyley, to whose charge he entrusted his 
youngest son, afterwards Henry I. while receiving his education at this 
abbey. During the civil war Abingdon was garrisoned for the king, who, 
on 17th April, 1644, arrived here with the queen and attended by Prince 
Rupert and the Duke of York, and after holding a council of war, returned 
to Oxford; on the following day, May 25th, the Royalist general deserted 
the town, and the Earl of Essex, arriving with his troops, plundered it, 
and placed there a Parliamentary garrison, under the command of General 
Browne ; on the 31st of May, a new Parliamentary force under General 
Waller, which had been quartered at Wantage, entered the town and 
demolished the beautiful cross which then stood in the market place; various 
attempts were made by the king's party during the years 1644-6 to recover 
the town, but in the main with little success, although in 1646 Prince Rupert 
gained possession of the abbey buildings, and it eventually remained in the 

Ancient Abingdon. 243 

hands of the Parliament. Abingdon increased much, both in population and 
wealth, by the building of Burford or Borford bridge, a structure of seven 
arches, near the town, and of another bridge at Culhamford, about half a 
mile east of it, the erection of which has been attributed by some to Henry V., 
who, however, only granted his license and protection ; of these works, begun 
in 1416 John Houchons and John Banbury were zealous promoters ; and 
among the chief of those who contributed to the building and preservation 
of the bridges and intermediate road were Sir Peter Besils, of Besilsleigh ; 
Geoffrey Barbour, a merchant, and William Hales and Maud his wife, who, 
in 1453, added three arches to Burford bridge. The town is connected by 
Culhamford bridge with the parish of Culham, in Oxfordshire; and a high 
and broad causeway, constructed in the 15th century by the munificence of 
Geoffrey Barbour, unites the two bridges. The town consists of a spacious 
Market place at the east end, from which several streets diverge to the 
north, south and west; the chief of these, High street, was formerly much 
contracted, but has been widened at its western extremity, where it gives 
off tributary streets to the right and left and then expands into a smaller 
square, from which the wide thoroughfare, called Ock street, extends to 
the western limit of the borough. Abingdon at an early period of its 
history possessed a Bendictine abbey of great wealth and high distinction, 
whose mitred abbot was summoned with the barons to parliament. Cissa, 
father of King Ina, whose rule extended over Wiltshire and a large part 
of Berkshire, is said to have founded it (a. d. 675), on a site described 
in the abbey chronicle as a " table land surmounting a rising ground of 
delightful aspect, in a retired spot, inclosed within two most pleasant 
streams." About a. d. 866-71, the Danes overran the country, and coming 
to Abingdon, destroyed the monastery, leaving only the bare walls ; but 
on their extermination by Alfred, it was rebuilt, and subsequently, between 
a. D. 946-55. reconstructed under King Edred. On the arrival in England 
of William the Conqueror (a. d. 1066) Abbot Aldred took the oath of 
allegiance to him, but was displaced, and the abbacy bestowed upon Ethel- 
helm, a Norman : at the general dissolution of the monasteries the abbey 
was surrendered to the king by the abbott, Thomas Rowland, B. D., some- 
times written and called " Rowland Penticost." The existing remains com- 
prise the Perpendicular gatehouse, a vaulted structure, adjacent to the church 
of St. Nicholas, with central and side arches, and rooms above occupied 
by the Corporation, and some other buildings situated eastward of it, on the 
backwater of the Thames, now occupied as a brewery, but readily accessible, 
and principally consisting of a long building, with walls of great thickness 
and massive buttresses, at one end of which a flight of wooden steps, with 
a time-worn balustrade, gives access to several apartments with lofty open- 
timbered roofs, and connected by a corridor running along the north side ; 
the room at the west end contains a fine Early English fireplace, with grace- 
ful shafts and foliated capitals ; and the doorway is flanked on either side 
by good traceried windows ; underneath is a spacious vaulted crypt, now 
used for storing ale. Henry I. (Beauclerc) was a student here, and 
Egelwyn, bishop of Durham (1056-71), died while imprisoned in the abbey 
in 1071. 

244 Rossi a no. 

St. Helen's church, situated close to the river, southwest of the town, 
is a spacious edifice, chiefly in the Perpendicular style, consisting of five 
parallel aisles of unequal length and breadth, named as follows, beginning 
from the north — Jesus aisle, Our Lady's aisle, St. Helen's aisle, St. Cath- 
arine's aisle and the Holy Cross aisle; a tower and spire on the northeast, 
with a porch in the lower stage, vestry on the southeast, and a small chapel 
or chantry west of the tower : the church was completely restored in 1S73, 
when the high pews and cumbrous galleries were removed, the nave and 
chancel roof renewed in open timber work and considerably heightened. 
The north aisle has a timber ceiling, richly painted with figures of kings, 
prophets and saints, given by Nicholas Gold, one of the founders of the 
fraternity of the Holy Cross; the south aisles, one of which was built in 
1539- for the use of a guild, are rather later, but of the same character, 
as is the south porch, which has a good doorway and canopied niche, recently 
filled with a figure of St. Catharine, the buttresses being surmounted with 
figures of St. Dunstan and St. TThelwold ; the tower is Early English, and 
has a plain parapet with crocheted angle turrets, from within which flying- 
buttresses support a tall octagonal spire ; it contains a peal of 10 bells, 
remarkable for their exceeding sweetness of tone and a clock; the restora- 
tion of the tower and spire was completed on May 1st, 1886. At the east 
end of the south aisle is a portrait, on panel, of Mr. William Lee, five 
times mayor of Abingdon, who died in 1037, aged 92; accompanying the 
portrait is a genealogical chart, and an inscription, stating that he had in 
his lifetime issue from his loins two hundred, lacking but three. In 1644-5, 
the parliamentary army, under General Waller, while quartered here, used 
the north aisle as a stable. 

The church of St. Nicholas, situated on the north side of the Market 
place, adjoining the abbey gateway, was built, according to Dugdale, by 
Nicholas de Coleham or Culham, prior, and afterwards abbot, of Abingdon, 
liet ween the years 1289 and 1307, although portions of the west front seem 
to indicate an earlier origin, perhaps during the period 1200-20; traces of 
the triple lancet window, which originally lighted the west front, are still 
visible, as well as ^i other similar windows in the north wall; and it may 
therefore be concluded that the building existed at least 60 years before 
the abbacy of de Coleham. The church is a small structure, consisting only 
of chancel and nave, a small chantry, organ chamber and vestry on the north 
and an embattled western tower, containing 6 bells, cast in October, 1741. 
The tower is built partly upon the west wall, and is otherwise supported 
from within the church by two stone piers or legs, standing clear of the walls 
attached to it; on the north side is a minstrels gallery and a singular square 
stair turret, with a gabled roof and a small triangular window; the west 
doorway, with its lateral arcading, is a good example of late Norman work. 
but the rest of the church as now existing is chiefly Perpendicular. During 
the year i88r the church underwent a thorough restoration at the hands of 
Mr. Edwin Dolby, architect, of Abingdon, in course of which the nave roof 
was entirely renewed in English oak, and a panelled and embattled parapet, 
with numerous carved shields, was imposed upon the north wall; the floor 
was also relaid with small blocks, tiles and disturbed gravestones; the old 

Ancient Abingdon. 245 

pulpit refixed and the chancel and nave refitted in oak; the heraldic glass, 
with which the east and other windows were previously filled, including a 
shield of arms of Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York, was wholly removed 
and sold; some may still be seen in the windows of Barton Farm, and other 
portions are at the Abbey House, the residence of E. J. Trendell, Esq., who 
has refilled the east window with Bristol glass; and one lancet window has 
also been renewed in memory of Henry Yeates, of Abingdon. 

Abingdon, in addition to these two churches, contains the Church of St. 
Michael, an ease to St. Helen's; a Roman Catholic church, dedicated to 
St. Mary and St. Edmund of Canterbury ; Trinity Wesleyan church, a Bap- 
tist chapel, a Congregational church, and a Primitive Methodist chapel. 

The streets, which are well paved, converge to a spacious area, in which 
the market is held. In the center of this area stands the market-house, 
supported on lofty pillars, with a large hall above, appropriated to the sum- 
mer Assizes for the county, and the transaction of other public business. 
In the beginning of the last century Abingdon manufactured much sail- 
cloth and sacking; but its chief trade now is in corn and malt, carpets and 
coarse linen. It sends one member to Parliament, and is governed by a 
mayor, four aldermen and twelve councilors. Its population in 1871 was 


THE handsome country seat, known as Shipton Court, was, for over 
two hundred years, owned by the Reades of the Shipton line of 
Reade baronets, and passed from the family about forty years ago. 
Shipton Court was purchased, November 17, 1663, by Sir Compton Reade, 
first Baronet, from Rowland Lacy (afterward Sir Rowland Lacy), by whose 
grandfather it had been built The demesne adjoined Sir Compton's lands 
in Fullbrook and Taynton, styled in the settlement of Sir Thomas Reade. 

Shipton Court. 

fourth Baronet, " the ancient inheritance." It is said that the estate was 
purchased with money given Sir Compton for the purpose by King Charles II. 
Shipton Court was devised by Sir John Chandos Reade, seventh Baronet, 
who died without descendants, in 1868, to Joseph Wakefield, a family servant, 
upon the latter's assuming the surname of Reade, thus removing the estate 
from the family where it should have remained. It is related that Sir John 
Chandos Read, being very fond of boxing, usually about once a week, after 
a late dinner, called in one of his young footmen who was a good boxer 

Shipton Court. 247 

and indulged in a round or two. One night, as he was thus engaged in the 
upper hall, he struck the footman a hard blow, but without intent to injure 
him, and the unfortunate servant rolled down the stairs. When picked up 
by Wakefield he was dead, and as Wakefield was the only witness who could 
defend Sir John from the charge of murder, it is said that he gained unusual 
influence over him. He became his master's butler, and finally came into 
the splendid estate. The title, however, could not be devised, and descended 
to Sir John's great-nephew, Sir Chandos Stanhope Hoskyns Reade, eighth 
Baronet. After the latter's death in 1890, without male issue. Sir George 
Compton Reade became ninth Baronet. The latter married Melissa, daugh- 
ter of Isaac Ray, Esq., of Michigan, whose son, George Reade, is the present 
heir apparent. 

Shipton Court passed to Joseph Wakefield's son, from whom it passed 
to the present owner, Mr. Pepper, who has thoroughly repaired and modern- 
ized the interior of the ancient structure. 


Sir Compton Reade, as stated herein, purchased the estate of Shipton 
Court from Sir Rowland Lacy in 1663. Lady Lacy, it is said, was a great 
friend of King Charles II, and. at the restoration of that monarch, was one 
of those influential women at court who pushed the claims of Compton 
Reade. Tradition has it that the King, at the time Compton Reade was 
raised to the baronetcy, gave him a large fortune to make up to him the 
destruction of Barton Court, so gallantly defended in the King's interest 
by Compton and Richard Reade* and other relatives, the condition being 
that he (Compton) should purchase Shipton Court from Lady Lacy's hus- 
band, Sir Rowland, at that time in sore need of money. 

Many years went by, so the story goes, but Lady Lacy could never recon- 
cile herself to the loss of beautiful Shipton Court. A month after her 
death her ghost was said to have been seen walking along her favorite path, 
in the moonlight, by the gamekeeper. A few days later one of the Reade 
family came across the ghost in the park, but as a young woman whom he 
recognized by her resemblance to a portrait of her hanging in the hall at 
the Court, painted a year before the property had been sold. 

The ghost of Lady Lacy is said to still haunt her favorite walk, now 
known as the " Ghost's Walk." She is described as a young and beautiful 
woman, with a remarkably full and beautiful bust, in a low-neck gown of 
the time of Charles II, and a blue mantle thrown over her shoulders, while 
a great sadness shines in her eyes. She walks slowly in the moonlight, and 
after an hour is seen no more the same night. 

A few years ago some of the old men and old women at Shipton-under- 
Wychwood, stated that they had seen " her ladyship," and the story goes 
that when the late Sir John Chandos Reade died and left all his estate to 
his butler that the ghost was heard for the first time, loudly wailing as if in 
great trouble. Old servants' talk gives as the reason why Joseph [Wake- 
field] Reade, the ex-butler, built the new house and never would live at the 

* Richard spelled his name Read. 

248 Rossiana. 

Court was because every night the ghost would come to him and torment 

Another later story of another ghost at Shipton Court describes noises 
like a person walking about in the room where Sir John Reade died, fol- 
lowed by a noise in the hall as of a struggle, and then a heavy thud on the 

Shipton Court is a beautiful place, even shorn as it is to-day of its 
historic portraits and relics. 

The author has, among many other family portraits, those of Sir Compton 
Reade and his wife, painted by Mrs. Beale, in the time of Charles II. 
These portraits hung at Shipton until the son of Joseph (Wakefield) Reade 
sold the place. 

The ancient church is well worth visiting, and contains many interesting 
monuments to the baronets and other members of the family. 


THE Reades of Barton Court were unquestionably descended from the 
Northumbrian Redes, who were of Royal origin, through Cairbre 
Riada, who was the son of Conaire, King of Ireland, and who estab- 
lished the Kingdom of Dalriada on the western coast of Scotland, of which 
nine sovereigns ruled in succession. The ninth, Reuda (or Riada), whose 
Christian name is said to have been JEdan, after his defeat by Kenneth, 
settled in Redesdale, where he founded the clan. 

The early pedigree of the family prepared by the late General Meredith 
Read, who gave much time and effort to research, proves clearly that the 
connection between Rede of Redesdale and Reade of Barton Court is beyond 
doubt. General Read's deduction of the early Read pedigree, beginning 
with Rede of Troughend, is as follows: 

1. Rede of Troughend, chief of the clan. 

2. Brianus de Rede. 


4. Robert de Rede. 

5. David de Rede. 

6. Galfrinus de Rede, whose son — 

7. Thomas de Rede, or de Redesdale, of Morpeth, Northumberland, had 
two sons — 

8. Thomas de Rede, ancestor of the Barton Court line. See below. 

9. John de Rede, ancestor of the Redes of the Borstall line. (See 

" Borstall Line.") 

8. Thomas de Rede, armiger, son of Thomas of Morpeth, was lord of sev- 
eral manors and a part of Morpeth in 1384; was born before 1377 and was 
living in 1412. He had three sons — 

10. Sir Thomas Rede, one of the knights and gentlemen who accom- 

panied Henry VI in 1439, when that king held his Parliament 
at Reading, Berks. 

11. William Rede, Mayor of Reading, 1453-56, 1464, 1467 and 1469, 

and M. P. for Reading, 1435, 1460, 1462 and 1472. 

12. Edward Rede. See below. 

12. Edward Rede, armiger, married a daughter of Lord de Lisle, said to 
have been named Katherine, and was, jure uxoris, Lord of the Manor of 
Beedon, Berks; high sheriff of Berks, 1439 and 1451 ; M. P. for Berks, 1430-1 
and 1461-2, and for Oxford, 1450. He and his wife were both buried at 
Beedon. They had — 

13. Edward Rede, armiger, son and heir, Lord of the Manor of Beedon, 
who married Mary , and had — 




14. Willliam Rede, or Read (sometimes styled "Sir William Rede, 
Knt."), Lord of the Manors of Beedon and Stanmore, of the Manor of Barton 
Court, in the Parish of St. Helen's, Abingdon, Berks, and Lord of the Manors 
of Ipsden Bassett and Ipsden Huntercombe, Oxford. He was buried, Jan. i, 
1541-2, in St. Helen's church, Abingdon. He married Dorothy, daughter of 
John Beaumont. Lord of the Manor of Orton-on-the-Hill, alias Overton, 
Leicester, who. fighting for Henry VI in the Wars of the Roses, was slain 
with his cousin John. Viscount Beaumont, at the battle of Northampton. 
July 19, 1460. She was buried in St. Helen's, 1539. William Rede had a 
son — 

15. Thomas Rede, or Read, Lord of the Manors of Beedon and Barton 
Court, Berks, and of Dunstew, Ipsden Bassett and Ipsden Huntercombe, 
Oxford; high sheriff of Barton; elected governor of Christ's Hospital, 
Abingdon, in 1553. Buried April 27. 1556. in St. Helen's church. Abingdon. 
Will dated April 16, 1556; proved June 23. 1556. Married Anne, daughter of 
Sir Thomas Hoo, Knt., of Hoo, Paul's Walden, Herts, who was son of 
Thomas Hoo, of Hoo, the son of Thomas Hoo, of the same place, who was 
son of Sir Thomas Hoo, Knt.. one of the heroes of Agincourt. and brother of 
Thomas Lord Hoo and Hastings, whose daughter Anne, by Sir Geoft'rey 
Boleyn, Knt.. her first husband, was great-great-granddaughter of Queen 
Elizabeth. She is mentioned in her husband's will, dated April 16, 1556. 
Buried at St. Helen's, Abingdon, Oct. 30, 1575; will dated Oct. 25, 1575; proved 
Dec. 3, 1575. Thomas Rede, or Read, had — 

16. Sir Thomas Read, Knt. (by some authorities called Thomas Read, 
Esq.), Lord of the Manors of Beedon, Barton Court, Appleford, Long Wit- 
tenham, Stanmore, Peasemore and Sunningwell, Berks; of Denford, 
Northampton; and Dunstew, Ipsden Bassett and Ipsden Huntercombe, 
Oxford; high sheriff of Berks, 1581-2, and 1599; executor of his mother's 
will, dated Oct. 25. 1575; knighted by Queen Elizabeth in 1599. Had a con- 
firmation of the Read arms, viz.: '"Gules, a saltire between four garbs or," 
and a grant of the following crest, viz.: "On the stump of an oak tree 
raguly lying fesswise vert, a falcon rising proper, beaked and belled or, jessed 
gules," by Camden, Clarenceux King of Arms. He died Sept. 25, 1604, at 
his manor house, Beedon, and was buried Dec. 26, 1604, at St. Helen's, Abing- 
don, Berks. Funeral observed Jan. 26, 1604-5. Will dated April 14, 1604; 
proved April 24, 1605. He married Mary, daughter of George Stonehouse, 
Lord of the Manors of Little or West Peckham, near Tunbridge, Kent, and 
Radley, Berks; one of the clerks of the Green Cloth, tempp. Philip and 
Mary, and Elizabeth, and sister of Sir William Stonehouse, first baronet of 
Radley. Married before 1568. Buried Sept. 14, 1625, at St. Helen's, Abing- 
don. Sir Thomas Read had eight children, among them Richard Read, 
ancestor of the American Reads (see "American Line") and — 

17. Sir Thomas Read, Knt., Lord of the Manors of Beedon, Barton 
Court, of Long Wittenham, Berks ; of Denford, Northampton ; Ipsden and 
Dunstew, Oxford; and of Minsden, Hitchin and (jure uxoris) Brocket Hall, 
Herts; patron of the livings of Little Ayot, Herts; Beedon, Berks; and Dun- 

Barton Court Line. 251 

stew and North Aston, Oxford ; J. P. of Berks ; high sheriff of Berks, 1606 ; 
of Oxford, 1615, and of Herts, 1618. Born, 1575; was educated at Queen's 
College, Oxford; became a student of the Middle Temple in 1594, and was 
incorporated M. A. of Aberdeen University, May 28, 1620. Knighted at Roy- 
ston July 21, 1616. Buried Dec. 20, 1650, at Dunstew. Will dated June 28, 
1650; proved Feb. 8, 1650-1. He married Mary, fifth daughter and co-heir of 
Sir John Brocket, Knt. (of Brocket Hall, Hatfield, Co. Herts), Lord of the 
Manor of Symonds Hide (with which was incorporated the Manor of 
Almeshoebury ), and jure uxoris, of Minsden, both in the same county; 
sheriff of Herts in 1566 and 1581 ; by Helen, his first wife, eldest daughter 
and co-heir of Sir Robert Lytton, Knt., of Knebworth, Herts, and of Shrub- 
land Hall, Suffolk. Married March 1597-8. Buried April 20, 1654, at Hat- 
held; will dated May 2J, 165 1 ; proved May 4, 1654. Sir Thomas Read's son, 
Sir John, became the first baronet of Brocket Hall. (See "Baronets of 
Brocket Hall.") His eldest son and heir was — 

18. Thomas Read, of Barton Court, St. Helen's, Abingdon; of Apple- 
ford, Sutton Courtney, Berks, and of Ipsden, Oxford. Born at Barton Court, 
Feb. 2, 1606-7 ; bapt. Feb. 22, 1606-7, at St. Helen's ; educated at Magdalen 
College, Oxford; died vita patris; buried Dec. 14, 1634, at St. Mary's, Burford, 
Salop. He married Mary, daughter of Sir Thomas Cornewall, Knt., Baron of 
Burford, Salop, called '* the great baron," and sister of Sir Gilbert Cornewall, 
Knt., Baron of Burford. She was baptized at St. Mary's, Burford, Sept. 10. 
1600, and married there Sept. 8, 1624. Thomas Read had nine children, among 
them Sir Compton Reade, founder of the Shipton Court line. (See " Baro- 
nets of Shipton Court."') 


9. John Rede, sergeant-at-law, second son of Thomas de Rede of Mor- 
peth, was the ancestor of the Redes of the Borstall line. He married Cecelia, 
daughter and co-heir of Griffin Marmion, of Checkendon, Oxford, who after 
his death, married, secondly, William Faukner. She died May 20, 1428, and 
was buried at Checkendon. William Rede, son of John Rede, founded Bor- 
stall church, and died in 1473. Another son was — 

1 Edmund Rede, of Checkendon ( d. Oct. 8, 1430), who married Christina 
(d. March 28, 1435). daughter and heiress of Robert James, of Wallingford. 
Lord of Borstall, Bucks, which he had acquired by his marriage with 
Catherine, only surviving daughter and heiress of Sir Edmund de la Pole, 
Knight Banneret, of Kingston-upon-Hull, York. Edmund Rede, first of the 
Borstall Redes, had — 

1 Rev. Compton Reade, in his " Record of the Redes," intimates that the first 
Edward, of the main line, and his cousin, Edmund, of the Borstall line, were the same 
person or at least that Edmund, and not Edward, was high sheriff of Oxon and Bucks 
(1438, 1450), principally because the former's " vast wealth points him out as a probable 
sheriff." This deduction, for which there is no proof, would seem to be purely con- 
jectural. Fuller, on the other hand, gives the name of Edwardus Rede in his list of 
high sheriffs. Edmund Rede (of the Borstall line) was a personage of wealth and 
influence, but his arms were not at all like those of Barton Court. He bore three 
birds, and his crest was a boar. Fuller gives the arms of Edwardus Rede as " a red 
shield, a gold saltire between four garbs of wheat " (gules a saltire between four garbs 
or), the same as is borne by the Read family to-day. 



Sir Edmund Rede, K. B., hereditary warden of Borstall and Bernwood 
Forest (b. 1416; d. June 7, 1487), created a Knight of the Bath at the coro- 
nation of Elizabeth, queen of Edward IV, May 20, 1464. He married, first, 
Agnes, daughter of John Cottesmore (living in 1435) ; secondly, Catherine, 
daughter of Walter Greene, of Bridgenorth, Salop, widow of Nicholas 
Gaynesford, by whom she had issue. Among other issue by his second wife, 
Sir Edmund had — 

William Rede, of Borstall, mentioned in his father's will, who married 
Anna, daughter of Sir Walter Mantle, Knt., of Heyford, Northampton, by 
whom he had two sons — Edmund Rede, who died s. p., and — 

Sir William Rede, Knt., of Borstall; J. P. for Oxford, 1515 ; one of the 
nobles attendant upon King Henry VIII at his meeting with the French 
King at the Field of the Cloth of Gold, 1520; devisee of the "great horn of 
Xigel the Forester;" mentioned as father of Leonard Rede in a letter dated 
April, 1532. He married, first. Anne, daughter of Sir John Twyneho, Knt., 

Horn of Nigel tin- For* 

of Bristol. He died Aug. 22, 1551 ; her will, which is in the Archdeaconry of 
Berks, dated Aug. 13, 1550. describes her as " Dame Anne Rede of Walling- 
ford, Co. Berks, widow." Sir William married, as second wife, Anne, daugh- 
ter of William Warham, who afterward married George Gaynesford, of 
Oxford. Among other issue. Sir William had — 

Leonard Rede, of Borstall, who married, first Anne, daughter of John 
Heron of Heron, Kent; secondly (before Feb. 6. 1527), Anne, daughter of 

Sir Wilford, Knt., alderman of London. After Leonard Rede's death, 

his widow married Thomas Read, of Muswell, Oxford, son of Thomas Read, 
of the New Forest, Southampton. Among other issue by his first wife, 
Leonard had a daughter and heir, Catherine, of London ( d. 1547), who 
married (Aug. 16. 1546) Thomas Dynham, who thus became, jure uxoris, 
Lord of Borstall and Chief Forester and Steward of Bernwood. 

The early Borstall line of descent prior to the accession of Edmund Rede, 
son of John Rede, sergeant-at-law. given in a pedigree found among the 
records of the late General Meredith Read, is as follows: 

1. Nigel, Forester of Borstall before the Conquest, had- — 

2. William Fitz Nigel (d- 1204), who married Mabel and had — 

Baronets of Shipton Court. 253 

3. Sir John Fitz Nigel, Knt., of Borstall (d. 1242), who married Isolda 
and had — 

4. Sir John Fitz Nigel, Knt., or Johannes de Borstall (d. 1289), who 
married Isabel (living 1305) and had — 

5. Joane, sole daughter and heir, who married (1299) Sir John de 
Handlo, Knt. Banneret, Lord of Hadlow. Kent; bailiff of Shotover Forest. 
Oxford (d. Aug. 5, 1346). They had — 

6. Richard he Handlo, who married Isabella, daughter of Almaric de St. 
Amand, and had — 

7. Margaret, eldest daughter and co-heir (d. 1394), who married, first, 
Gilbert de Chastelain; secondly, John de Appleby, Lord of Borstall, jure 
uxoris, who died s. p. 1372, and the title and estate passed to — 

8. Elizabeth, youngest daughter and co-heir of Richard de Handlo, 
who had livery of her brother's lands, and was aged 18 in 1355. She mar- 
ried Sir Edmund de la Pole, Knt., Captain of Calais (d. 1418, seized of 
Borstall, jure uxoris). He was the grandson of William de la Pole, mer- 
chant of Kingston-upon-Hull, and son of Sir William de la Pole, Knt., 
Mayor of Hull, Baron of the Exchequer, Knt. Banneret (d. 1366). Sir 
Edmund had one son, Walter, who d. s. p., and two daughters, Elizabeth, 
eldest daughter and co-heir, who married Sir Ingelram Bruyn, Knt., who 
held one moiety of Borstall, jure uxoris, and — 

9- Catharine, youngest daughter and co-heir of Sir Edmund de la Pole, 
married Robert James, Esq., of Wallingford. Lord of Borstall, jure uxoris 
(d. Feb. 16. 1431). Their sole daughter, Christina (d. March 28, 1435, aged 
34) married Edmund Rede, Esq., who thus became, jure uxoris, Lord of 

Guillim, in his " Display of Heraldry " (page 225), has the following: 
" Azure three pheasant cocks or, is born by the name of Read." This was 
the coat-of-arms of John Read, son of George, the son of Leonard Read, 
Esq.. and his wife, daughter of John Heron, which Leonard was the son 
and heir of Sir William Read, of Borstall, Kt, and Anna, his wife, daughter 
of Nicholas Warham, brother of William, Archbishop of Canterbury, which 
Sir William was the son of William, the son of Edmund Read and 
Katharine, his wife, which Sir Edmund was son and heir of Edmund Read, 
Esq., and his wife, Christiana, daughter of Robert James, Esq. 


Of all the English Redes, Reades or Reads, the most interesting and 
splendid personage of them all was our own Sir Compton Reade (1626-1679), 
founder of the Shipton Court line. The compiler has a number of interest- 
ing documents signed by Sir Compton. He was first baronet, third 
creation, Lord of the Manors of Beedon and Barton Court, Berks, and of 
Shipton Court, Shipton-under-Wychwood, Oxford; high sheriff of Berks, 
1663, and patron of Beedon, 1672. He was the eldest son and heir of 
Thomas Reade, Esq. (1607-34), of Barton Court and Appleford, Berks, and 
of Ipsden, Oxford. He was baptized at St. Mary's, Burford, Salop, January 
24, 1625-6; educated at Magdalen Hall, Oxford; created a baronet by letters- 
patent bearing date March 4, 1660-1; died September 29. 1679, and was buried 


1. Sir Compton Reade=Mary Cornewall. 
(First Baronet.) I 

2 I 

(d. unm.) 

3 I 

Sir Edward. 
(2d Bart.) 


4 I 



No ch. 

5 I 

(d. young.) 

6 I 

Sir Fairmedow 


No eh. 

7 I 

Sir Winwood. 

(3d Bart.) 

(d. aet. 9.) 

Sir Thomas. 
(4th Bart.) 

Jane Mary 

9 I 
(d. 1686.) 

10 | 
Gen. George. 

Jane Nowes. 
No ch. 

11 Sir John. 
(5th Bart.) 


12 | 
Sir John. 
(6th Bart.) 

Jane Hoskyns. 

13 I 


13a | 

Sir Elijah 

14 I 

Sir John 


(7th Bart.) 


15 | 

Capt. George 


Maria Jane 

16 I 

17 I 
(Twins.) Louisa. 

r- 19 I 

(d. unm.) 

20 1 



(d. young.) 

21 I 



(d. unm.) 

37 I 


(Heir apparent.) 

38 | 




(d. 1837.) 

John Edmund. 

Maria Louisa 

Agnes Cornelie. 

Highton Reade. 


Capt. Charles 

( lhamberlayne 



22 | 

23 | 



Talbot Rice. 

24 | 

Jane Ann 

25 | 






30 | 

Sir Chandos 



(8th Bart.) 

31 1 




32 | 
Sir George 
(9th Bart.) 

Maria Emma 



No ch. 

Rev. S. M. 


39 | 

40 | 

41 | 

42 | 

26 I 
(d. young.) 

27 | 

(d. unm.) 

33 | 

34 | 


43 | 


44 | 



28 | 

John Edmund 

35 | 

29 | 




36 I 


45 | 



at Shipton-under-Wychwood. He married (at Dunstew, Oxford, 1650) his 
cousin, Mary Cornewall. eldest daughter of Sir Gilbert Cornewall, knight, 
Baron of Burford. She died April 26. 1703, aged 76, and was buried at 

A brief pedigree of the Shipton Court line of baronets, taken from the 
detailed chart prepared by General Meredith Read in 1893 is as follows: 

1. Sir Compton Reade, first baronet of Shipton Court (bapt. Jan. 24, 
1625-6; d. Sept. 29, 1679) married (1650) Mary Cornewall (b. 1627; d. April 

Sir Compton Reade (1626-1679), first I'aronet of Shipton Court, 
and who purchased the Shipton estate in 1663. From a paint- 
ing by Mrs. Beale. 

26, 1703, aged 76), his cousin, daughter of Sir Gilbert Cornewall. Knt., Baron 
of Burford. They had — 

2. Thomas (b. Dec. 13, 1653; d. 1675, unmarried); educated at 

Christ church, Oxford. 

3. Sir Edward, second baronet. See below. 

4. Anne (b. June 14, 1652; d. 1681), of St. Margaret's, Westminster, 

Middlesex; married Cornelius Vermuyden (b. 1626), of Corn- 
wall, eldest son and heir of Sir Cornelius Vermuyden, Knt., 
of Hatfield, York, and of London. 

5. Mary (bapt, July 16, 1656; d. 1663). 

Baronets of Shipton Court. 


6. Elizabeth (bapt. Oct. 11, 1657; d. 1688) ; married Sir Fairmedow 
Penyston (b. 1665; d. Dec. 24, 1705), fourth baronet of Corn- 
well, Oxford. He married, secondly, Alary, eldest daughter 
of John Powney, of Old Windsor. Berks, and widow of Sir 
William Paul, Knt., of Bray, Oxford, who died Jan. 10, 1714, 
aged 66. Sir Fairmedow Penyston, dying s. p., the baronetcy 
of Cornwell became extinct. 
3. Sir Edward Reade, second baronet (b. June 30, 1659; d. Sept. 4, 
1691), was educated at St. Alary Hall, Oxford; was executor of his father's 

Lady Penyston (165T-16SS), daughter of Sir Compton 
Reade, first Baronet of Shipton Court, and wife of Sir 
Fairmedow Penyston, fourth and last Baronet of 

will, dated Sept. 9. 1679. He married Elizabeth (b. 1661). daughter of Fran- 
cis Harby, of Adston, Northampton, who survived him and married, sec- 
ondly, Henry Farmer. In her will, dated July 15, 1729, she is described as 
" Dame Elizabeth Read, alias Farmore, of Shipton, Co. Oxon." By her 
Sir Edward Reade had — 

7. Sir Winwood Reade, third baronet (b. 1683 ; d. June 30, 1692, 

aged 9 years). 

8. Sir Thomas Reade, fourth baronet. .See below. 

9. Edward Reade (d. 1686). 

10. George Reade (b. 1687; d. Mch. 28, 1756), of Shipton, lieuten- 
ant-general in the army, and colonel of a regiment of foot; 



M. P. for borough of Tewkesbury, Gloucester, 1721-2, and 

again in 1727. He married Jane (b. 1689; d. July 24, 1744), 

daughter of Charles Nowes, of Wood Ditton, Cambridge, and 

of the Middle Temple. No issue. 

8. Sir Thomas Reade. fourth baronet (b. 1684: d. Sept. 25, 1752), was 

Patron of Beedon; one of the Gentlemen to the Privy Chamber to King 

George I: Clerk of the Household to King George II. and M. P. in five 

Parliaments for Cricklade, Wilts. He married (Oct. 29. 1719) Jane Mary 

Sir Thomas Reade (16S4-1732), fourth Baronet of Shipton Court. 
From a portrait by Sir Godfrey Kneller. 

(d. June 28, 1721), daughter of Sir Ralph Dalton. first Baronet of Sher- 
borne. Gloucester, M. P. for that county. They had — 

11. Sir John Reade, fifth baronet ( b. 1721 : d. Nov. 9, 1773), only son 
and heir, and nephew and heir-at-iaw of General George Reade. He mar- 
ried (1759) Harriet (b. 1727; d. Dec. 23. 1S04). only child and heir of Wil- 
liam Barker, of Sonning, Berks, by Olivia, his wife. They had — 

12. Sir John Reade, sixth baronet. See below. 

13. Thomas Reade ( b. March 8, 1762, twin with his brother, Sir 

John: d. Jan. 24, 1837), of the city of Bath, Somerset. He 
married Catherine (d. 1830), daughter of Sir John Hill, by 
whom he had four children — John Edmund Reade, the poet 

Baronets of Shipton Court. 


(d. Sept. 17, 1870), who married (Oct. 1, 1847) Maria Louisa 
(d. Nov. 24, 1886). daughter of Captain George Compton 
Reade, of the First Foot Guards, and had one daughter, Agnes 
Cornelie, who married (Oct. 1, 1881) Arnold Highton Reade 
(formerly Arnold Highton), only son of Edward Gilbert 
Highton, M. A., Cambridge, barrister-at-law of Lincoln's Inn ; 
Susan Reade, who married Captain Charles Chamberlayne 

w.\." ; 


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General George Reade (1687-1756), grandson of Sir Compton 
Reade, first Baronet of Shipton Court, and brother of Sir 
Thomas Reade, fourth Baronet. 

Irvine, R. N. ; Emily Jane Reade; Harriet Lucy Reade, who 

married — ■ — Roberts. 
12. Sir John Reade, sixth baronet (b. March 8, 1762, twin with his 
brother Thomas; d. Nov. 18, 1789), was educated at Magdalen College, 
Oxford (M. A., July 2, 1783). He married (Jan. 13, 1784) Jane ( b. 1756; 
d. 1847), second but only surviving daughter of Sir Chandos Hoskyns, fifth 
baronet of Harewood-End, Ross, Hereford. They had — 

14. Sir John Chandos Reade, seventh baronet. See below. 

15. George Compton. See below. 

16. Harriet, twin with her sister Louisa, who died young a few 

days before her father. 

258 Rossi a ii a. 

17. Luuisa. twin with her sister Harriet, who died young, surviving 

her father but a few months. 

18. Julia Jane, who was born posthumously in 1790. Died April 9, 


14. Sir John Chandos Reade, seventh baronet (b. Jan. 13, 1785; d. Jan. 
14, 1868). was high sheriff of Oxford, 181 1, and Patron of Beedon, Berks, 
1828; eldest son and heir male of Sir John Reade, sixth baronet, and grand- 
son and heir male of Sir John Reade, fifth baronet; also heir-at-law of 
Sir Thomas Reade, fourth baronet, and of George Reade, of Shipton Court, 
brother of the said Sir Thomas, as appears by a certain indenture bearing 
date Jan. 26, 1813 ; was educated at Harrow and afterwards at Christ church, 
Oxford. He married (Jan. 6, 1814) Louisa t d. Feb. 6, 1821, aged 31), young- 
est daughter of the Hon. David Murray (by Elizabeth, his wife, fourth 
daughter and co-heir of the Hon. Thomas llarley. Lord Mayor of London 
in 1767, and granddaughter of Edward, third Earl of Oxford), who was 
brother of Alexander, seventh Baron Elibank, and son of the Hon. and Rev. 
Gideon Murray, D. D., prebendary of Lincoln, and afterwards of Durham, 
and rector of Carlton, Notts. Sir John Chandos, dying without heir male, 
the baronetcy passed to his brother's grandson, Chandos Stanhope Hoskyns 
Reade (30). Sir John Chandos Reade had — 

19. CoMPTON (b. Oct. 17, 1814; d. July 31, 1X51) ; educated at Trinity 

College. Oxford. 

20. John Chandos (b. Feb. 8, 1816; d. Jan. 25, 1818). 

21. Louisa Jane (1>. July 20, 1.S17; d. Feb. 9, 1837, unmarried). 

22. Emily (b. April 30. 1819). 

23. Clara Louisa (b. Jan. 25, 1X21 ; d. Aug. 11. 1853) ; married (Oct. 

13. [846) the lion. John Talbot Rice (b. 1819), of Oddington 
House, Stow-on-the-Wold, Gloucester (jure uxoris) J. P. for 
that county; brother of Francis William, fifth Baron Dynevor, 
and fifth son of the Hon. and Very Rev. Edward Rice, D. D., 
Dean of Gloucester, and rector of Great Risington, Gloucester, 
lie married, secondly (Oct. 24. 1X55). Elizabeth Lucy, daughter 
of Robert Boyd. 

15. Captain George Compton Reade (b. Jan. 8, 1788; d. Dec. 24, 1866), 
of the First Foot Guards, second son of Sir John Reade. sixth baronet, mar- 
ried (March 6, 1809) Maria Jane (d. 1837), his cousin, daughter of Sir Hun- 
gerford Hoskyns. sixth baronet of Harewood End, Ross, Hereford. They 
had — 

24. George. See below. 

25. John Stanhope. See below. 

26. Chandos Reaue (b. 181 7; d. Sept., 1833, aged 16). 

27. Catherine Julia (b. 1813; d. April, 1824, unmarried). 

28. Maria Louisa (d. Nov. 24, e886) married (Oct. 1, 1847) John 

Edmund Reade, the poet. (See children of Thomas Reade 


29. Caroline Jane (deceased. 1893) married Skurr. 

24. George Reade (b. 1812; d. 1863), lieutenant Madras Army, married 
Jane Ann, daughter of J. Norton, and had — 

Baronets of Brocket Hall. 259 

30. Sir Chandos Stanhope Hoskyns Reade, eighth baronet (b. Sept. 

5, 183 1 ; d. Jan. 28, 1890, s. p.), D. L. for Anglesey, married 
(March 11, 1880) Maria Emma Elizabeth Conway, daughter 
and heir of Richard Trygam Griffith, of Carreglwyd and Berw, 
Anglesey. The title then passed to Sir Chandos' cousin, George 
Compton (32). 

31. Louisa Jane Eubank married (April 26, 1892) Rev. Sed- 

borough Mayne Wade, M. A., Cambridge, curate of St. Leon- 
ard's-on-Sea, Sussex, formerly curate of St. James" Chelten- 
ham, Gloucester, sun of Gustavus Rockfort Wade. 
25. John Stanhope Reade ( d. 1N83) married (1836) Lovica Walton, of 
Dexter. Michigan, U. S. A., and had — 

32. George Compton. See belozv. 

33. Charles Walter. 

34. Catherine. 

35. Christian. 

36. Maria Louisa. 

32. Sir George Compton Reade (b. Dec. 17, 1845), resident at Howell, 
Livingstone county, Michigan, U. S. A., ninth and present baronet, succeeded 
his cousin, January 28, 1890. He married (June 4, 1863) Melissa, daughter 
of Isaac Ray, of Michigan, and had — 

37. George Read (b. Nov. 22, 1869), heir apparent. 

38. Elmer Reade (b. Nov. 1, 1877). 

39. Harry Reade (b. April 18, 1884). 

40. Emory Reade (b. Oct. 9, 1887). 

41. Julia (b. Dec. 25, 1870). 

42. Ellen (b. March 22, 1874). 

43. Esther (b. Jan. 15, 1876). 

44. Edna (b. Aug. 11, 1879). 

45. Sonorah (b. June 7, 1881). 


Sir John Read, Knight and first Baronet of Brocket Hall (parish of 
Hatfield ) and Minsden, Herts, and of Dunstew, Oxon, was a son of Sir 
Thomas Reade, Knight, and his wife, Mary Brocket, daughter and co-heiress 
of Sir John Brocket, Knight, of Brocket Hall. Sir John Reade was born 
in 1617, and was 46 years of age at the time of his second marriage in 1663; 
was knighted at Newmarket, March 12, 1642; created a Baronet by letters 
patent dated March 16, 1642, granted a fresh patent of baronetcy by 
Cromwell, June 25, 1656, being the first hereditary honor awarded by the 
latter. Sir John was high sheriff of Herts, 1655, and was buried in the 
Reade and Brocket chapel at Hatfield, February 6, 1694. He married, first, 
Susanne, daughter of Sir Thomas Style, Bart., of Wateringbury, and, 
secondly, Alissimon, widow of Hon. F. Pierpont. By his first wife, Susanne, 
Sir John had five sons — John. Thomas, Stephen, James and Peter. The 
first three sons seem to have disappeared in some mysterious way, as no 
mention has been found of them, and the baronetcy and estate descended to 
the fourth son — 


Rossi a 11 a. 

Sir James Read, second Baronet (1655-1701), who married Love (1655- 
1731), daughter of Alderman Dring, and had, with five daughters, an only- 
son — 

Sir John Read, third and last Baronet of Brocket Hall, who was born 
1691 ; educated at Eton; matriculated at Wadham College, Oxford, Novem- 
ber 7, 1705: died, unmarried, of the small-pox, February 22, 1712, aged 
21 years, at Rome, when the Baronetcy became extinct, and Brocket Hall 
and Dunstew passed to his sisters. 

Iiihx Read (1691-1712), third and last P.aronet of 
Brocket Hall. From an ancient painting. 

Sir John Read. Kt.. and first Baronet of Brocket Hall, had two coats of 
arms — the inherited arms of his family and one granted him with the 
baronetcy, azure a griffin segreant or. 

In 1X10 a peixm styling himself "the Rev. Sir William Reade, Bart., 
Rector and Prebendary of Tomgrany, in the County of Clare," Ireland, 
appeared before the College of Arms, London, and sought to establish his 
claim to the Baronetcy of Brocket Hall. His pretensions were based on 
the statement that he was the great-great-grandson of Sir John Reade, 
first baronet, and great-grandson of "Sir Matthew" Reade, an alleged 

The American Line. 261 

brother of Sir James Reade, second baronet. These claims, upon investiga- 
tion, were found to be without foundation. It is believed, however, that he 
was a descendant of the family, but not of the Baronet. 


Richard Read (or Reade), of Culham Rectory, Oxfordshire, ancestor of 
the American Reads, was the third son of Thomas Reade (living 1549, 
d. 1604) and Mary Stonehouse (d. 1625), and was consequently the grandson 
of Thomas Reade (d. 1556), the first Lord of Barton Court. Richard Read 
was born at Barton Court in 1579, and was baptized August 16 of that 
year, at St. Helen's, Abingdon, Berks. He matriculated at Queen's College, 
Oxford, with his brothers, Thomas and John, July 6, 1593, at which date 
he was fourteen years of age. and was a student of the Middle Temple 
in 1595. He signs himself Richard Read (without the final e) to a bond 
dated January 11, 1604-5, and at the same time was administrator of his 
brother John, who died without issue. He again signs his name without 
the final e to an indenture dated May 9, 1625 (in which he is described as 
"of Dunstew"), but appends his signature with a final e to another indenture 
bearing the same date. 

Richard Read was associated and named with his brother. Sir Thomas, 
and the latter's wife, Mary Brocket, in a license of alienation granted by 
Lord Chancellor Bacon in 1625, allowing them to give and grant to William 
Stonehouse, Esq. (their maternal uncle), 40 acres of meadow, 30 acres 
of pasture and 30 acres of wood in Barton and Radley, Berks. This 
document was in possession of Richard's descendant. General Meredith 
Read, and is accompanied by a large portion of the Great Seal. 

Richard Read married Helen, the eldest child of Sir Alexander Cave, 
Knt., of Bargrave and Rotherby, Leicester, High Sheriff of Leicestershire, 
1620-1, by Anne, second daughter and co-heiress of Sir John Brocket, Knt., 
of Brocket Hall, in the parish of Hatfield, Lord of the Manor of Symonds 
Hide (with Almeshoebury ), and, jure uxoris. of Minsden, both in the same 
county, High Sheriff of Herts in 1566 and 1581, by Helen, his first wife, 
eldest daughter and co-heiress of Sir Robert Lytton, Knt., of Knebworth, 
Herts, and of Shrubland Hall, Suffolk, High Sheriff of the counties of Herts 
and Essex. She was named after her grandmother, Helen Lytton, and was 
born about 1601 ; married before 1622 (probably about 1619) ; died, having 
had issue, at Dunstew. and was buried there February 25, 1623. Thus Rich- 
ard wedded the niece of his elder brother's wife, and became, by marriage, 
his brother's nephew. ("A Record of the Redes.") 

Richard Read died at Dunstew in 1659 — nine years after the death of his 
eldest brother. Sir Thomas, and one before the Restoration. His eldest 
son, Alexander (1620-1681), married Mary Ruffin (January r, 1649), 
daughter of Thomas Ruffin, of Ayot Parva, Herts, had the Manor of Pomney 
granted him. Pomney formed part of the group of manors included in the 
Abbatial Manor of Barton, and lies directly facing Nuneham. Alexander 
Read had nine children, some of whom went to Ireland Richard Read's 
second son — 

262 Rossi a ii a. 

Sir Charles Read (1622-1674), of Whitefriars, London, and of Dublin, 
was undoubtedly a man of mark. He went over to Ireland during the 
civil war, in the King's cause, and in two separate documents of different 
dates (the first being May 16, 168S) he is styled " Sir Charles," having 
doubtless received the accolade in Dublin. Inasmuch as he was knighted 
for his services to the Royal cause, it has been conjectured that he had 
joined in the defense of Barton Court. He was buried at St. Bride's, Fleet 
street, April 6, 1674. By his wife, Catherine Russell, a kinswoman of his 
cousin, Sir William Russell, of Strensham, he had four sons and one 
daughter, Elizabeth, who married Thomas Ruffin (d. 1677). Sir Charles 
Read's eldest son — 

Henry Read (1662) married Mary Molines, a descendant of the old 
Oxfordshire house of De Molines, which survives in Lord Ventry. Henry 
Read's only son — 

John Read (1688-1756) was the first of the family to cross over to 
America, and became Colonel John Read of Delaware. ( See " Read of 
Delaware.") He was also proprietor of Kinsley Manor in Maryland. 


The Brocket alliance gave the Reades of Brocket Hall and Shipton Court. 

as well as the American Reads, a descent from John of Gaunt, Duke of 

Lancaster. King of Castille, etc., third son of King Edward III, as follows: 

John of Gaunt = as his third wife, Catherine, daughter of Sir Payne 

Roelt, and widow of Sir Otho de Swynford. and had — 
Joan de Beaufort = secondly, Ralph Nevill, Earl of Westmoreland, and 

had — 
Joan Nevill = Thomas de Fauconberg, Lord Fauconberg, and had — 
Joan or Johanna de Fauconberg = Thomas Brocket, and had — 
Sir Thomas Brocket = Elizabeth, heiress of Philip Ashe, and had — 
Edward Brocket = Elizabeth Thwaites, and had — 
Sir John Brocket = Lucy, daughter of John Poulter, of Hitchin, and 

had — 
John Brocket = Dorothy Huson, and had — 
Sir John Brocket (2)=Margaret, daughter of William Benstede, of St. 

Peter's, Herts, and had — 
Sir John Brocket = as his first wife. Helen, daughter of Sir Robert 

Lytton, of Knebworth. and had — 
(1.) Mary Brocket = Sir Thomas Reade, ancestor of the English 

branch — 
(2.) Anne Brocket = Sir Alexander Cave and had — 

Helen Cave = Richard Reade, great-grandfather of Colonel John 
Read, of Delaware, ancestor of the American branch. 



American Reads. 

Thomas. = Mary (b. 1600). 

Sir John. = 1. J 

uaanne, dau. 
of Sir T. 

(16061631.) Daughter of Sir 

Heir of Sir Thomas Come- 

Style. Had is 

Thomas and an- wall. Baron of 

sue. (d. 1657.) 

cestor of the Burford. 

= 2. Alias! 

Shipton and 


pont. ib 162-') 

Ipsden Readcs. 

Sir Compluii. = Mary CornewaM. 
(1626-1679.) dau. of Sir Gil- 

Edward. — 1. Jane Acton. 


Founder of the bert Cornewali. 

(1627-1716.) = 2. Elizabeth Al- 

len, (d. 1664.) 

line. ford. 0627-1703 ) 

= 3. Mrs. Ellen Al 

len. (d. 16SS.I 

=4. Susanna. (m. 

1697; living 







Dragoon Guard; 

Scott G. 


son of Joh"R«d" lVs-r^rf lp 5 °!en ' nf vTs toruh, Mi^LtT"* "? En 8 1W ' °°«"« ta °{ th 5 '"^ quarter of the 19th Century. He was the youngest 
B V. iu 1835, with a third class in classics, "as elect" V iner ian L^Wh , a " d was e.iu, ,ted or the bar He entered Magdalen College, Osford, proceeded 
hi, Hfe that he took up literature and achieved thathigh ^uta^ta 'X'JSiV^ r^ac^Sii Wm!" ' r "" ' "* ^ " W " ""P"*™* ^ in 

Descent of the American Family 

of Read. 





THE first ancestor in this country was Colonel John Read, a wealthy and 
public-spirited Southern planter, who was born in Dublin January 
15, 1688, of English parentage, in the last year of the reign of James 
the Second. His mother was the scion of an old Oxfordshire house, and his 
father, an English gentleman of large fortune, then residing in Dublin, was 
filth in descent from Thomas Read, lord of the manors of Barton and 
Beedon, in Berkshire, and high sheriff of Berks in 1581, and tenth in descent 
from Edward Read, lord of the manor of Beedon. and high sheriff of Berks 
in 1439 and again in 1451. One of the latter's brothers, William Read, six 
times mayor of Reading, was member of Parliament for Reading in 1453, 
1460, 1462 and 1472. An older brother, Sir Thomas Read, was one of the 
knights who accompanied King Henry the Sixth when he held his Parlia- 
ment at Reading in 1439. and they were all sons of Thomas Read, lord of 
various manors in Northumberland. 

In the civil wars of the seventeenth century, says Mr. Charles Reade, the 
family declared for the crown, and its then chief, Sir Compton Read, was 
for his services one of the first baronets created by Charles the Second after 
the Restoration. A younger son of the family went over to Ireland in the 
same troubles, and it was his son who was the progenitor of the American 
house. Besides the baronetcy of the 4th March, 1660, an earlier one had 
been conferred upon Sir John Read on the 16th March, 1641. Through a 
clerical error in one of the patents an e was added to the name, and was sub- 
sequently adopted by the English branches. The historical American 
branch retained the ancient form which the name had when it left England, 
and it figures thus on the petition to the King of the Congress of 1774, the 
Declaration of Independence, the Constitution of the United States and many 
other earlier and later State papers. 1 

" Colonel John Read," says Scharf in his " History of Delaware," had a 
romantic history. He fell in love at an early age in the old country with 
his cousin, a beautiful and accomplished girl, who died suddenly before their 
engagement ended in marriage. This shock so overcame the lover that, 
after struggling in vain against his melancholy amidst familiar scenes, he 
determined, in spite of the earnest opposition of his parents, to seek relief 
in entire change. Crossing the ocean to Maryland, he purchased lands in 
several counties in that province, to which he added others in Delaware and 
Virginia. On his home plantation in Cecil county, Maryland, where his 
eldest son George was born, he possessed a spacious brick mansion, subse- 

1 " Read Archives and Muniments," " Burke's Peerage under Reade olim Read, 
Bart," " Burke's General Armory," " Charles Reade's Sketch of his Kinsman, Chief 
Justice John Meredith Read, of Pennsylvania," published in The Graphic, London, 
March 6, 1875; republished in Magazine of American History, March, 1SS6. 



quently destroyed by fire, with outbuildings and offices and comfortable 
quarters for his slaves, whom he treated with an unvarying humanity which 
became hereditary in his family. Groves of oak grew near the house, and 
tulips of great rarity bloomed in the gardens. Jim was the head of his house 
servants, as Juba was the head of those in the next generation. The product 
of the wheat and tobacco plantations were dispatched to Philadelphia and 
to England, and found their way back in various attractive and practical 
shapes for the use of the household. He was fond of field sports, and the 
woods rang with the sound of his dogs and his guns. He was both hos- 
pitable and generous. He gave all the land to endow the churches in his 
vicinity, both in Maryland and Delaware, and his life was honorable in all its 

Early English Silver Tankard which belonged to 
Colonel John Read (1688-1756). 

relations. Being largely interested in various enterprises, he joined a few 
other gentlemen in founding the city of Charlestown, at the head-waters of 
the Chesapeake Bay, twelve years after Baltimore was begun, hoping to 
make it a great commercial mart to absorb Northern trade, to develop 
Northern Maryland, and to give a suitable impetus and outlet to the adjoin- 
ing forges and furnaces of the Principio Company, in which his friends, the 
elder generations of the Washington family, and eventually General Wash- 
ington himself, were deeply interested. Tradition preserves in this connection 
an account of the youthful Major Washington's visit to Colonel Read at the 
close of the latter's active and well-spent life." 

As one of the original proprietors of Charlestown, John Read was 
appointed by the Colonial Legislature one of the commissioners to lay out 
and govern the new town, and he was assiduous in his attentions to these 

Read of Delaware. 


duties. In the course of his active career he held several military commis- 
sions, and in the latter part of his life he resided on his plantation in New- 
castle county, Delaware, where he died June 15. 1756, in the 69th year of his 
age, and was buried in Newcastle county. 

Colonel John Read signed his will on the day of his death (June 15, 1756), 
as is mentioned in an indenture some 35 years later, for the original will 
was carried away by the British army with many of the public records of 
Newcastle county. 

Among his estates in Maryland was one called Kinsley, which he pur- 
chased February 2, 1742, from 
Jacob Rogers, of London, clerk, 
who purchased this manorial 
grant from Lord Baltimore, Nov. 
20, 1735. He owned several other 
plantations in Cecil county, one of 
which he called Reads, which he 
purchased February 9, 1755. 

Colonel Read embodied the 
characteristics which have distin- 
guished the Read family for many 
centuries — piety, severe integrity 
original and powerful intellectual- 
ity, devotion to friends, courtly and 
fascinating manners. In figure he 
resembled his English ancestors, 
being fuller in form than the ma- 
jority of his American descend- 
ants. He was a remarkably hand- 
some man, six feet in height, with 
a ruddy complexion and dark, ex- 
pressive eyes, and was noted for 
his physical strength. Adorned 
by all the Christian virtues and 
bequeathing to his descendants 
the traditions of a well ordered 
life, he was the fitting progenitor 
of an illustrious line of statesmen, 
jurists, soldiers, sailors, and di- 
vines. He was the father of six 

sons and one daughter, who, by paternal descent, were of English origin, and 
by maternal ancestry of Welsh blood. Three of the sons afterward were 
numbered among the founders and fathers of the United States — George 
Read, the " Signer ;" Commodore Thomas Read and Colonel James Read. 
There are two portraits of Colonel John Read. One represents him in his 
youth before he left the old country, and in the striking costume of the reign 
of Queen Anne. The other depicts him in middle life, in the wig and dress 
of the time of George II. 

After a long period of single life his early sorrow was consoled by his 
marriage with Mary Howell, a charming young Welsh gentlewoman, many 

Gravestone of Colonel John Read (1688- 
1756). in the Presbyterian churchyard at 
Christiana, Del. 


Rossi ana. 

years his junior, who was as energetic and spirited as she was attractive and 
handsome. She was a descendant of the Howells, of Caerleon, County 
Monmouth, but her immediate ancestors were seated in the neighborhood 
of Caerphilly, Glamorganshire. Wales, where she was born in 171 1. and 
whence, at a tender age. she removed with her parents to Delaware, where 
her father was a large planter, and her uncle was one of the founders of 
Newark, his name appearing in the original charter. Twenty-three years 
younger than her husband. Mrs. Read survived him nearly thirty years. 
Beautiful in person, loyal and pious in all her acts, she possessed rare quali- 
ties of mind and heart. Like her husband, she had great powers of char- 

Reading Table. Silver Candlesticks and Chair of Colonel 
John Read (1688-1756). 

acter, and ruled her establishment after his death with a firm yet benignant 
sway. She died at her seat in Newcastle county, Delaware. September 22, 
1784. Mrs. Read's nephew. Colonel Richard Howell, was a distinguished 
Revolutionary officer, and for eight years Governor of New Jersey. He 
was the ancestor of Chief Justice Agnew, of Pennsylvania; of Verina Howell, 
wife of Jefferson Davis, President of the Southern Confederacy, and of Rear 
Admiral John dimming Howell, of the United States Navy, who distin- 
guished himself in the War of the Rebellion. 

Mary, the only daughter of John and Mary (Howell) Read, married 
Gunning Bedford, Sr.. who was a lieutenant in the war against the French 
in 1755, and took an active part in the Revolutionary struggle. He was 
commissioned major on the 20th of March. 1775. and becoming lieutenant- 
colonel of the Delaware Regiment on the 19th of January, 1776. was after- 

Read of Delaware. 269 

wards wounded at the battle of White Plains while leading his men to the 
attack. The subjoined cut shows the sword used by Gunning Bedford at 
White Plains. After being badly wounded in the sword arm he was removed 
from the field by his men. The sword which had belonged to his father and 

Sword of Gunning Bedford. 

grandfather, is a French rapier of the time of Charles I of England. Gunning 
Bedford was likewise muster-master general, member of the Continental 
Congress and Governor of Delaware. Governor and Mrs. Bedford (nee 
Read) left no issue. 


The following brief pedigree of the American branch of the Read family 
is taken from the detailed chart prepared by General Meredith Read in 1893 
to which has been added much later material derived from equally reliable 
sources. The chart in question not only gives many interesting particulars 
concerning the American branch, but is also complete as to the English Reads, 
being brought down in detail to the year 1893. It is of too bulky a nature, 
however, to be reproduced entire in this work: 

Colonel John Read (b. Jan. 15, 1688; d. June 15, 1756) married (April 16, 
1731) Mary Howell (b. 1711; d. Sept. 22, 1784), and had — 

1. George. See below. 

2. William (b. 1735; d. 1763), formerly of Philadelphia, afterward 

of Havana, West Indies, where he was assassinated in 1763. 
He married Elizabeth Chambers and had a daughter Mary, 
who married, first, Richard Thomas, and, secondly, Jesse 
Higgins. No children. 

3. John, planter, of Cecil county, Maryland (b. 1737; d. 1808), who 

inherited a plantation of 500 acres and a mansion from his 
father. He was unmarried. 

4. Thomas (b. 1740; d. Oct. 26, 1788) married (Sept. 7, 1779), as 

second husband, Mary Peale (b. March 8, 1743; d. Feb. 27, 

1816). widow of Robert Fields. Xo children. 
*>• James. See below. 

6. Andrew, planter of Cecil county, Maryland, where he died 

unmarried. He inherited a plantation of 500 acres, a mansion 
and two mills from his father. 

7. Mary (b. 1745; d. 1820) married, in 1769, Colonel Gunning Bed- 

ford (d. Sept. 30, 1797). No issue. 
1. Hon. George Read, the " Signer" (b. Sept. 18, 1733; d. Sept. 21, 1798), 
married (Jan. 11, 1763) Gertrude Ross ( d. Sept. 2, 1802), daughter of Rev. 
George Ross and granddaughter of David Ross of Balblair. They had — 

*■>• John (bapt. Dec. 1, 1763; d. in infancy). Named in honor of his 
grandfather. Colonel John Read. The fourth son received the 
same name, and consequently seemed to take the place of his 
eldest brother. 
9- George. See below. 
10. William. See below. 
11- John. See below. 

270 Rossiana. 

12. Mary. See belt w. 

5. Colonel James Read (b. 1743; d. Dec. 31, 1822) married Susanne 
Correy, July 9, 1770. They had — 

13. James (b. 1783; d. Oct. 29. 1853. unmarried). 

14. Susanne. See below. 

15. Anna Correy (d. Dec. 3, 1847. unmarried). 
16- Other issue who died in infancy. 

9. Hon. George Read (2d), of Delaware (b. Aug. 29, 1765; d. Sept. 3, 
1836), married Alary Thompson, his first cousin, and daughter of General 
William Thompson, on Oct. 30. 1780. They had — 

1 7. George. See below. 

18. William Thompson' (b. Aug. 22, 1792; d. Jan. 27, 1873, without 

issue). He married Sallie Latimer Thomas. 

19. Gunning Bedford (d. 1826, unmarried). 

20. Charles d'Happert (b. Sept., 1800; d. 1834, unmarried). 

21. John Dickinson (!>. Dec. 1803; <1. 1831. unmarried). 

22. Catherine Anne. See below. 

23. Mary Gertrude (b. 1805; bapt. July 13. 1806). 

10. Hon. William Read, of Philadelphia (b. Oct. 10, 1767; d. Sept. 25, 
1846), third son of lion. George Read, the "Signer," and Gertrude Ross, his 
wife, married (Sept. 22. 1796) Anne McCall (b. May 2, 1773 ; d. July 17, 
[845 ). and had — 

24. H,»n. George Read (b. June 10, 1797; d. Mch., 1889, unmarried). 

25. William Archibald (b. Oct. [9, iXoo; d. in 1865, unmarried). 
20. John (1). Oct. 10. [802; d. Sept. 19, 1846. without issue). 

27. Samuel McCall (b. Jan. 3. 1810; d. Aug. 30. 1S60). Was married, 

hut died without issue. 

28. Mary. See below. 

11. Hon. John Read (1>. July 17. 1769; d. July 13, 1854), fourth son 
(second of the name) of Hon. George Read, the "Signer." and Gertrude 
Ross, his wife, married (June 25. 1796) Martha Meredith (b. 1773; d. Mch., 
iSif) I, and had — 

29. John Meredith. See below. 

30. Edward (b. 1799; d. in infancy). 

31. Henry Meredith (b. Oct. 31, 1802; d. Mch. 16, 1828, unmarried). 

32. Margaret .Meredith (b. May 6, 1800; d. 1802). 

33. Margaret Meredith ( h. April 7. 1806; d. Mch. 13, 1854, unmar- 


12. Mary Read (b. Sept., 1770; d. Jan. 12, 1816), only daughter of Hon. 
George Read, the " Signer," married Matthew Pearce, Esq., and had — 

34. Henry Ward (b. 1788; d. in infancy). 
:l~i. Gunning Bedford (b. 1790; d. s. p.). 
30. Henry Ward (b. 1796). 

37. William ( d. s. p.). 

38. Dr. George Read married Juliana Ward and had four children. 

who died in infancy. She married, secondly, Ambrose C. 

Richardson, Esq. 
3#. Matthew Carroll. See belozv. 
49. David Ross (d. s. p.). 
44. Anastatia Gertrude (b. 1792), married (1826) Dr. Allen McLane 

(d. Jan. 11, 1845.). 

Descendants of Col. John Read. 271 

42. Mary (b. 1794). 

43. Emma. 

44. Two other children, who died in infancy. 

14. Susanne Read (b. Dec. 25, 1776; d. Dec. 3, 1861), daughter of Colonel 
James Read (5) and Susanne Correy, his wife, married (March 17, 1803) 
Joachim Frederic Eckard (d. Sept. 14, 1837), and had — 

45. James Read. See below. 

46. Frederic Simon (b. Aug. 28, 1807; d. 1856), married (June 3, 

1845) Elizabeth X. Kelly. 

47. Mary Read ( b. Dec. 17 1803; d. Dec. 22, 1823, unmarried). 

17. Hon. George Read (3d), eldest son of Hon. George Read, 2d (9), and 
Mary Thompson, his wife, was born June 4, 1788; d. Nov. 1, 1837. He 
married (April 19, 1810) Louisa Ridgeley Dorsey, and had — 

48. George, See below. 

49. William. See below. 

50. J. Dorsey, who married Maria Chapman. 

51. Marian Murray. See below. 

52. Louisa Gertrude, married Captain B. K. Pierce, and died in 1840, 

without issue. 

53. Annie Dorsey. See below. 

54. Caroline. See below. 

55. Julia Rush, married Major-Gen. Samuel Jones (b. 1820; d. July 31, 

1887), and had one daughter, Emily Read, who was unmarried. 
.16. Emily (unmarried). 
22. Catherine Anne Read (b. 1794; d. 1826), daughter of Hon. George 
Read, 2d (9), and Mary Thompson, his wife, married (June 18, 1812) Dr. 
Allan McLane (b. 1786; d. Jan. 11, 1845) and had 

57. Julia. See below* 

58. Samuel ( d. aet. 17). 

58a. Allan, who married and had three children. 

58b. Mary, who married Thomas Veazey Ward. (See " Ward 

Family." p. 378.) 
58c. George who married Mary Ashmead. 

28. Mary Read (b. June 16, 1799; d. July 7, 1875), only daughter of 
Hon. William Read (10) and Anne McCall, his wife, married (1827) Cole- 
man Fisher (b. 1793; d. March 4, 1857) and had — 

59. Coleman P. (d. unmarried). 

60. William Read (b. 1832; living, unmarried, 1893). 

61. Elizabeth Rhodes (d. 1877), married Eugene A. Livingston (d. 

Dec. 22, 1893). 

62. Sally West. 

63. Mary Read. 

29. Hon. John Meredith Read (b. July 21, 1797; d. Nov. 29, 1874), eldest 
son of Hon. John Read (n) and Martha Meredith, his wife, married, first 
(March 18, 1828), Priscilla Marshall (b. Dec. 19, 1808; d. April 18, 1841), 
daughter of Hon. Josiah Marshall; secondly (1855), Amelia Thomson (b. 
181 1 ; d. Sept. 14, 1886). By his first wife John Meredith Read had — 

*The author is indebted to Miss Ross Read Lockwood, of Washington, D. C, a 
granddaughter of Dr. McLane, for valuable information concerning the' descendants of 
Dr. Allan McLane and Catherine Anne Read, his wife. (See page 274.) 

272 Rossi ana. 

64. John Meredith. See below. 

65. Emily Marshall (b. Jan. 5. 1829; d. April 20, 1854). married 

(June 13, [849) William Henry Hyde and had one daughter, 
Emma (b. Nov. iN. 1N52; d. April 16, 1880, s. p.), who mar- 
ried lion. George \Y. Wurts. William Henry Hyde married, 
secondly. Miss Fleming. 

66. Mary (1>. [83O; d. [831). 

67. Mary (1». [83 1 ; d. May. [833). 

68. Priscilla (b. 1833; d. [835). 

39. Matthew Carroll Pearce, son of Matthew Pearce and Mary Read 
(12), daughter of Hon. George Read, the "Signer." married Elizabeth 
Jeanette Groome. by whom he had — 

69. Henry Ward ( d. s. p.). 

70. John Groome ( d. s. p. ). 

71. Matthew Carroll ( d. s. p.). 

72. I li'nry ( Iroome ( d. S. p. I . 

73. I'M ward Ward ( d. s. p.). 

\ Elizabeth [eannette / . , , . . 

74. ; . . „ . ■ twins (both d. s. p.). 
/ Anastasia < rertrude \ 

75. Mary Wallace, married Dr. Andrew Binney Mitchell. 

76. Elizabeth Jeannette. See below. 

77. Ellen M. J. (living, unmarried. [893). 

45. Rev. James Read Eckard (b. Nov. 22, [805; d. Mch. 12. 1X87), son 

of Joachim Frederic Eckard and Susanne Read (14), daughter of Colonel 
James Read (5) and Susanne Correy, his wife, married (May 26, 1833) 
Margaret Esther Bayard (b. Oct. 18, 1N10; d. Feb. 29, 1N72) and had — 

78. James ( h. Feb. 10. [838; d. Sept. 26, 1X41)). 

79. Leighton Wilson. See below. 

80. Jane Elizabeth (b. August 15, [834; d. [894, unmarried). 

81. Anna Maria (b. Feb. 8, [840), married (1881) Dr. Charles L. 


82. Mary Kelly. 

83. Anna Read (b. 1N4N). married Dr. Algernon S. Uhler, and 

had one son, Algernon S., posthumously born. 

84. Elizabeth. 

85. Two other children, who died in infancy. 

48. George Read, 4th (b. Oct. 16, 1812; d. July 22, 1859), son of Hon. 
George Read. 3d (17), and Louisa Ridgeley Dorsey, his wife, married (Nov. 
9, [843) Susan Chapman, and had — 

86. George. See below. 

87. William Thompson (b. Oct. 7, 1857), married (Jan. 7, 1879) 

Antonio Sanders. 

88. Marian ( b. Feb. 3, 1853), married (Nov. 10, 1880) M. F. 

Carleton, and had four children — George, who married Emma 
Anderson; Marian, who married Hamilton Frank; Jessie and 

89. Five other children who died s. p. 

-19. William Read (b. April 24, 1S2.3; d. 1884), son of Hon. George 
Read, 3d (17), and Louisa Ridgeley Dorsey, his wife, married M. E. Beale. 
and had — 

90. George, married Alice Dickson. 

Descendants of Col. John Read. 273 

91. William Thompson. 

92. Emily Truxtun, married General M. C. Goodrell and had two 

children Truxtun* and Marie. 
0:J. .Mary Anna, married J. Bates and had three children. 

04. Gertrude Parker, who married Paul Randolph. 

05. Blair Beale. 

96. Edith Ross, who married E. K. Brodhead and had three 
51. Marian Murray Read (b. Feb.. 1811; d. 1857;, daughter of Hon. 

George Read, 3d (I/), and Louisa Ridgeley Horsey, his wife, married Gen- 
eral James C, Martin, and had — 

07. William Bruce, who married Elizabeth Stark, and had five 

children — Elizabeth, James, Lida, Marianne and George Read. 

08. James, who married Annie Davis, and had two daughters — 

Esther and Annie. Esther married Frank MetZ, and has two 
00. Annie II. Martin (lives in Ashevillej. 
KM). Marian, who married Samuel Tennent, and had (1893) one 
daughter — Annie Martin. 
58. Annie Dorsey Read (b. 1818), daughter of Hon. George Read, 3d 
(17), and Louisa Ridgeley Horsey, his wife, married Captain Isaac S. Keith 
Reeves, and had — 

101. Marian Calhoun Legare (b. 1054). 

102. Annie Horsey. See below. 

103. Caroline Emily. See below. 

104. I. S. Keith, who married Henrietta Young, and had — Marian, 

who married Dr. Sidney Scott, and has two children; I. S. 

Keith, who married Margaret Hoblitzell, and had two children; 

Joan, who married Dr. Frank Duffy; Joseph, unmarried. 
54. Caroline Read (b. [820; d. Sept. 26, 1884)) daughter of Hon. George 
Read, 3d (17), and Louisa Ridgeley Dorsey, his wife, married (March 31, 
[840) Major-General William H. French (b. Jan. 13, 1815; d. May 20, 1881), 
and had — 

105. Frank Sands (b. 1841 ; d. Sept. 4, [865, unmarried). 

100. William (b. July 17, 1844), who married (1879) Emily Ott, and 

had twelve children. 
107. Halverson (d. unmarried). 

♦Truxtun Goodrell, Esq., of Cherokee, Iowa, a descendant of lion. George Read, the 
Signer, writes as follows to the compiler, under date of September, 1908: 
My maternal grandfather was William Read, son of George Read, 3d. lie graduated from 

West Point, and was a first lieutenant, i . S. A., in the Mexican war; married Mary Eliza 

Beale, daughter of George Beale, paymaster I '. S. N. (who received a medal from Congress 
for gallantry in action), and In- wife, Emily Truxtun, daughter of Commodore 'I 1 
Truxtun, who received a vote of thanks from Congress and a ( ongressional medal for his 

victory over the French fleet in 1800. His mother was Kathciinc Von llrond. 
William Read had the following children: 

1. George Beale Read, who married Alice Dickson and had two children — 

George Beale Read, Jr., and Alii' Read. 
U. Emily Truxtun Read, my mother, who married Brigadier-General Mancil 
(lav Goodrell. His father was Hon. Stewart Goodrell, of Iowa, whose 
father was Rev. George Goodrell, and his grandfather was George Good- 
rell, a captain of artillery under General Washington. 
;$. William Thompson Read. 

4. Gertrude Parker Read, who married Paul Randolph. 
K. F. P. Pdair Read. 

<>. Edith Ross Read, who married Elher Howe lirodhead, whose children are: 
Beale, Truxtun and Elber Howe Brodhead. 
Mrs. Brodhead lives in Parksburgh, Pa. All the rest of William Read's children make 
their homes in Washington, D. C, and his grandchildren all live there except myself. 

274 Rossiana. 

108. George Ross (b. July 8, 1857), who married (March 26, 1885) 

Elizabeth H. Findlay, and had one son — Findlay French. 

109. Annie Read (b. May 23, 1853), married (May 24, 1875) Captain 

John L. Clem (b. 1853), U. S. A., and had one son, John L., 
who married Elizabeth Benton. 

110. Rosalie (b. June 4, 1861), married Lieutenant John Conklin. 

U. S. A., and had one son — John. 
57. Julia McLane (b. Feb. 21, 1818; d. Nov. 21, 1880), daughter of 
Catherine Anne Read (22) and Dr. Allan McLane, married (Oct. 20, 1840) 
Dr. John Alexander Lockwood (b. 1812), and had — 

111. John Alexander Lockwood (b. Oct. 30, 1856). 

112. Mary Angela (b. Sept. 14, 1841 ; unmarried, 1893). 

113. Katharine Read (b. Oct. 1, 1843; unmarried, 1893). 

114. Edith. See below. 

115. Sally Read (b. Oct. 3, 1849; d. Aug. 10, 1850). 

116. Florence. 'See below. 

117. Ross Read (b. Sept. 22, 1859). 

64. General John Meredith Read (b. Feb. 21, 1837; d. Dec. 27, 1896), 
son of Hon. John Meredith Read (29) and Priscilla Marshall, his wife, 
married (April 7, 1859) Delphine Marie, daughter of Harmon Pumpelly, 
and had — 

118. Harmon Pumpelly (b. July 13, i860), married (Aug. 24, 1889) 

Catherine Marguerite de Carron d'Allondans (b. Aug. 5, 1866). 
No children. 

119. John Meredith (b. Jan. 27, 1869), married Countess Alix de 

Foras, and has one son, John Meredith Read. 

120. Emily Meredith (b. Jan. 6, 1863), married, first (Aug. 21, 1884) 

Hon. Francis Aquila Stout (d. July 18, 1892), and, secondly, 
Edwards Spencer, Esq. No children. 

121. Marie Delphine Meredith (b. May 9, 1873), married Count Max 

de Foras, and has three children — Countess Huguette, Countess 
Delphine and Count Joseph. 
76. Elizabeth Jeaxxette Pearce, daughter of Matthew Carroll Pearce 
(39) and Elizabeth Jeannette Groome, his wife, married Clinton McCullough, 
Esq., and had — 

122. Clinton (b. Dec. 8, 1876). 

123. Matthew Pearce (b. Oct. 13, 1878). 

124. Hiram (b. Sept. 8, 1880). 

125. Groome (b. Dec. 10, 1882). 

79. Rev. Leighton Wilson Eckard (b. Sept. 23, 1845), second son of 
Rev. James Read Eckard (45) and Margaret Esther Bayard, his wife, 
married (June 3, 1869) Elizabeth Abbot Longstreth, and had — 

126. James Mcintosh Longstreth (b. May 23, 1870). 

127. Bayard Gelston (b. Dec. 25, 1878). 

128. Esther Longstreth (b. Aug. 27, 1872), married (1894) Reeder. 

129. Helen Nevins (b. Feb. 17, 1876). 

130. Jane Louise (b. June 26, 1882). 

86. George Read, 5th (b. Feb. 9, 1847), son of George Read, 4th (48), and 
Susan Chapman, his wife, married (April 15, 1878) Susan E. Salmons, and 
had — 

131. George (d. in infancy). 

Descendants of Col. John Read. 275 

132. Cleveland (b. July 4, 1884). 

133. Alice (b. Feb. 15, 1880). 
133 Vz. Gertrude. 

102. Annie Dorsey Reeves, daughter of Captain Isaac S. K. Reeves and 
Annie Dorsey Read (53), his wife, married Hon. John H. Rodney, and had — 

134. Georges Brydges, who married Nesfield Cotchette and had a son, 

George Brydges. 

135. Annie Read, who married Frank de H. Janvier and had two 

children — Frank Darrough and Margaret. 

136. Keith Reeves, who married Matilda Walton and had a daughter, 


137. John H., Jr. (unmarried). 

138. Sarah Duval, who married Captain A. V. Faulkner, U. S. A., 

and had a daughter, Annie Dorsey. 

139. Dorsey (unmarried). 

140. James, who married Louise Everett and had a daughter, Louise. 
140a. Richard Seymour (unmarried). 

103. Caroline E. Reeves, daughter of Captain Isaac S. K. Reeves and 
Annie Dorsey Read (53), his wife, married William S. Potter, and had — 

141. Carolyn Reeves, who married Rev. Wyllys Rede and had two 

sons and three daughters, George Ross, Kenneth, Emily, 
Carolyn Wyllys, Marion. 

142. Dorsey Read, who married May Wheat and had — May, William 

S. and Florence Allen (d. inf.). 

143. Marian Legare. 

144. Annie Dorsey. who married Frank J. Taylor and had — Anna 

Margaret, Carolyn Reeves and Frank J. 

145. William Walk, who married Mabel Dunham and had five 


146. Emily Read, who married William F. Alexander and had two 

sons — Richard A. and William Fontaine. 

147. Julia Ross (unmarried). 
147a. Nathaniel (unmarried). 
147b. Knight (unmarried). 

114. Edith Lockwood (b. Aug. 29, 1845), daughter of Dr. John 
Alexander Lockwood and Julia McLane (57), his wife, married (May 16, 
1871) Edward William Sturdy (b. Sept. 18, 1845). and had — 

148. Edward William (b. Mch. 3, 1872; d. Aug. 9, 1872). 

149. Henry Francis (b. Nov. 17. 1884). 

150. Julia McLane. See below. 

151. Edith Rhoda (b. Nov. 10, 1875). 

116. Florence Lockwood (b. April 26, 1853), daughter of Dr. John Alex- 
ander Lockwood and Julia McLane (57), his wife, married (Feb. 17, 1878) 
Captain Charles Alfred Booth (b. 1841), U. S. A., and had — 

152. William Chatfield (b. Jan. 12, 1879). 

153. Mary Louise (b. July 24, 1880). 

150. Julia McLane Sturdy (b. Jan. 29, 1873), daughter of Edward Wil- 
liam Sturdy and Edith Lockwood (114), his wife, married Hardee Cham- 
bliss and had — 

154. Joseph Hardee. 

155. John Alexander Lockwood. 

156. Hardee. 


The following account of the American Read family, descendants of 
Colonel John Read, is in the main derived from the " History of Dela- 
ware," and was written by General Meredith Read, but the author and com- 
piler has added much interesting material to the original account: 


George Read was, in a peculiar sense, the father of the State of 

Delaware, for he was the author of her first Constitution in 1776, 

and of the first edition of her laws. He figured in her Assembly no 

less than twelve years, was Vice-President of the State, and at one time 

her acting chief magistrate, He penned the address from Delaware to 

the King, which Lord Shelbourne said so impressed George III. that he 

read it over twice. lie is the most conspicuous figure in the Delaware 

record, for Thomas McKean and John Dickinson were more closely allied 

to Pennsylvania than to Delaware; and while 

Caesar I\odne\ was prominent in the time of the 

Declaration, and afterwards as President of 

Delaware, his premature death in 1783 cut short 

his career. In person. Read was tall, slight, 

graceful, with a finely-shaped head, strong, hut 

refined features, and dark-brown, lustrous eyes. 

His manners were dignified, and he could not 

tolerate the -lightest familiarity, hut he was 

most courteous, and at times captivating; and 

he dressed with the most scrupulous care and 

elegance. lie was one of the two statesmen, 

and the only Southern statesman, who signed 

^SO.^&tfJ) 8£3iU<?J\S all three of the great State papers on which our 

T , TT .. history is based — the original petition to the 

Bookplate of Hon. (ieorge . . 

Read, the " Signer." King of the Congress of 1774, the Declaration 

of Independence and the Constitution of the 
United States. He was the eldest son of Colonel John Read, of Maryland 
and Delaware, .and was born em the 18th of September, 1733, on one of the 
family estates in Cecil county. .Maryland. After receiving a classical educa- 
tion under Dr. Francis Allison, he studied law, and was called to the bar at 
the age of nineteen in the city of Philadelphia, and in 1754 removed to New 
Castle, Delaware, in which province the family also had important landed 

On the nth of January. 1763, he married Gertrude, daughter of the 
Rev. George Ross, for nearly fifty years rector of Emmanuel Church, New 
Castle, a vigorous pillar of the Established Church in America. Mrs. Read's 

' ' " 





George Read, the " Signer." 277 


rother, John Ross, had been attorney-general under the crown. Another *vJy^" 
brother, the Rev. .Eneas Ross, became celebrated as the author of eloquent A s/^s*^***" 
and patriotic sermons during the Revolution; while still another brother, tJif , & • /1 
beorge Ross, was an eminent judge and a signer of the Declaration of /i^s^ka-v* 

Having been appointed attorney-general under the crown at the early age 
of twenty-nine, Mr. Read felt it to be his duty, as a friend to the mother 
country, to warn the British government of the danger of attempting to 
tax the colonies without giving them direct representation in Parliament, 
and in his correspondence with his friend, Sir Richard Neave, afterwards 
governor of the Bank of England, he gave utterance, eleven years before the 
Declaration of Independence, to the remarkable prophecy that a continuance 
in this mistaken policy would lead to independence and eventually to the 
colonies surpassing England in her staple manufactures. Finding no mani- 
festation of change in the position towards the colonies, he resigned the 
attorney-generalship, and accepted a seat in the First Congress, which met 
at Philadelphia in 1774. He still, however, hoped for reconciliation, and he 
voted against the motion for independence. But he finally signed the Declara- 
tion of Independence when he found there was no hope, and henceforward 
was the constant originator and ardent supporter of measures in behalf of the 
national cause. He was president of the Constitutional Convention in 1776, 
and the author of the first Constitution of Delaware and of the first edition 
of her laws. In 1782 he was appointed by Congress a judge in the national 
Court of Appeals in Admiralty. Three years later Congress made him one 
of the commissioners of a federal court to determine an important contro- 
versy in relation to territory between New York and Massachusetts. Tn 1786 
he was a delegate to the convention which met at Annapolis, Maryland, and 
he took an active part in those proceedings which culminated in the calling 
together, in 1787, of the convention in Philadelphia which framed the Con- 
stitution of the United States. In this august body he was also a prominent 
figure, especially in his able advocacy of the rights of the smaller States to a 
proper representation in the Senate. Immediately after the adoption of the 
Constitution, which Delaware, largely under his direction, was the first to 

Professor George Otis Holbrooke, for many years professor at Trinity College, 
Hartford, on the occasion of the birthday of George Read, The Signer, wrote the 
following unpublished verses and sent them to the author: 


Son of the old world, founder of the new, 

Calm and serene he stemmed life's troubled sea. 
What glowing pageants passed before his view — 

Courts, revolutions and a state to be. 
Prophetic, clear, they gaze upon us still. 

Those thoughtful eyes that haunt the ancient frame 
To stir the soul and conscience, and to thrill 

Their hearts who should inherit his pure fame. 
Noble the golden counsels which he traced 

Upon the legal temple of his age; 
Noblest of all the honored name he placed 

Upon the Declaration's tragic page. 



ratify, he was elected to the Senate of the United States. At the expiration 
of his term he was re-elected. He resigned in 1793, and accepted the office 
of chief justice of Delaware, which he filled until his death, on the 21st of 
September, 1798. Chief Justice Read commanded public confidence, not 
only from his profound legal knowledge, sound judgment and impartial 
decisions, but from his severe integrity and estimable private character. 
Those who differed from him in opinion believed that he was acting from a 
sense of duty, and declared that there was not a dishonest fibre in his heart 
nor an element of meanness in his soul. He left three distinguished sons. 
George Read, second, for thirty years United States district attorney of 
Delaware; William Read, consul-general of the kingdom of Naples, and 
John Read, Senator of Pennsylvania ; and one daughter, Mary Read, who 
married Colonel Matthew Pearce, of Poplar Neck, Cecil County, Maryland. 
George Read, the signer, was an ardent member of the Church of England 

Silver Service which Belonged to George Read. 

the " Signer." 

and afterwards of the American Episcopal Communion, and for many years 
one of the wardens of Emmanuel Church, New Castle ; and he lies in that 
beautiful and quiet churchyard, where seven generations of the Read family 

The colonial Read mansion, on the west bank of Delaware Bay, in New 
Castle, in which George Read, the signer, lived and died, was the scene of 
elegant hospitality for many long years. Here the leading magnates of the 
colonies were entertained before the Revolution, and within its hospitable 
walls were gathered from time to time groups of fashionable friends from 
the different parts of the South, as well as from Philadelphia, Annapolis and 
Xew York. Washington and many of the native and foreign Revolutionary 
generals and all the foremost statesmen of the republic slept under its roof- 
tree, and enjoyed the courtly hospitalities of its owners. A portion of this 
mansion was destroyed by fire in 1824. but it was restored and is still stand- 
ing on the Delaware front in New Castle. It was one of the finest family 
residences in the South. In the extensive sardens about it grew venerable 

George Read, 

the " Signer, 


box, cut in fantastic shapes, and tulips of the greatest variety and beauty, 
this being the favorite flower of the family — as the oak was its favorite 
tree. In the rear of the extensive offices and out-buildings were the quarters 
of the slaves — that is. of the house servants, the field-hands being on the 
outlying plantations and at Mr. Read's country-seat, farther south on the 
Delaware shore. George Read was a man not only of the highest integrity, 
but of the greatest liberality, and he gave so generously both his time and his 
money to the service of his country that the aggregate dispensed amounted 
to a very large sum of money for that day. George Read was a man who 
gathered about him a large circle of warm friends who looked up to him for 

Read Mansion on Delaware Bay, Newcastle, Del., in Colonial Days. Residence of 
Hon. George Read, the " Signer." 

guidance and advice. One of the most notable proofs of his own devotion 
to friendship was the proof which he gave of his enduring affection for John 
Dickinson. The latter, having not only opposed but refused to sign the 
Declaration of Independence, thereby lost his popularity entirely. But 
through the friendship and political and personal influence of George Read 
he was after a time restored to public life, became President successively 
of the States of Delaware and Pennsylvania, and afterwards one of the dele- 
gates to the convention which framed the Constitution of the United States. 
There are at least three original portraits of George Read, of Delaware. 
One is by Gilbert Stuart, another by Robert Edge Pine, and a third by 
Trumbull, in the historical painting " The Declaration of Independence," 

280 Rossiana. 

which is in the Capitol at Washington. He figures prominently also in 
various other historical pictures, — among others, "The Signing of the Con- 
stitution of the United States," by Rossiter, and in a " Dinner at General 
Washington's to George Read, of Delaware," by M. Armand Dumaresq. 
The latter was painted for General Meredith Read, the great grandson of 
George Read, and a copy taken by permission of the owner is in the posses- 
sion of William Astor, Esq., of New York. The principal personages repre- 
sented are General and Mrs. Washington, Chief Justice Read, the 
Marquis de Lafayette and Richard Henry Lee. Monsieur Dumaresq had 
previously sketched the portraits in the Trumbull collection at New Haven. 
George Read is also an important figure in " The Dinner Club of the Con- 
gress of 1775," also painted for General Meredith Read by M. Armand 
Dumaresq. The correspondence of George Read has preserved the memory 
of this interesting and select social gathering. It was composed of the 
following eight members (who dined together every day, except Sunday), 
viz.. Randolph, Lee. Washington and Harrison of Virginia. Chase of Mary- 
land, Rodney and Read of Delaware, and Alsop of New York. 


Commodore Thomas Read, the first naval officer who obtained the rank 
of commodore in command of an American fleet, was a brave soldier, daring 
navigator and discoverer. He was the son of Colonel John Read, of Mary- 
land and Delaware, and the brother of George Read, of Delaware, the 
signer, and Colonel James Read, who was at the head of the Navy Depart- 
ment during the Revolution. He was born at the family-seat, New Castle 
County, Delaware, in 1740, and was married, on the 7th of September, 1779. 
to Mrs. Mary Field, nee Peale, at his seat, White Hill, near Bordentown, 
New Jersey, by his friend, the Rev. William White, chaplain of the Con- 
tinental Congress, afterwards the first Protestant Episcopal Bishop of 

On the 23d of October, 1775. at the early age of thirty-five, he was made 
Commodore of the Pennsylvania navy, and had as his fleet surgeon Dr. Ben- 
jamin Rush, subsequently one of the signers of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence. In the following year he made a successful defense of the Delaware, 
and Captains Souder, Jackson, Potts and Charles Biddle gallantly volunteered 
under him at that moment as seamen before the mast. On the 7th of June, 
1776, he was appointed to the highest grade in the Continental navy, and 
was assigned to one of the four largest ships — the 32-gun frigate "George 
Washington," then being built in the Delaware. In October of the same year 
Congress regulated the rank of the officers of the navy, and he stood sixth 
on the list. His ship being still on the stocks, he volunteered for land 
service, and on the 2d of December, 1776, the Committee of Safety directed 
him, with his officers, to join General Washington. He gave valuable 
assistance in the celebrated crossing of the Delaware by Washington's army, 
and at the battle of Trenton commanded a battery composed of guns taken 
from his own frigate, which raked the stone bridge across the Assanpink. 
For this important service he received the thanks of all the general officers. 
as stated in the letter of the 14th of January, 1777. written to his wife by his 
brother, Colonel James Read, who was near him during the battle. 



Commodore Thomas Read. 


After much service by land and by sea he resigned, and retired to h, seat 
White Hill, where he dispensed a constant hospitality, especial ly to his old 
as ates in the Order of the Cincinnati, of which he was one of the original 

c , His friend Robert Morris, the financier of the Revolution having 

h, ed his old frigate, "the Alliance." induced Commodore Read to ake 
ommmd of her, and to make a joint adventure to the Chinese seas and an 
out of season pa sage to China, never before attempted. Taking with him as 
ZltsloZrZ oi his old subordinates, Richard Dale, afterwards the com- 
edo in command, in 1801. of the American fleet sent to the Medi- 
t rranean, and Mr. George Harrison (who became an eminent citizen o 
PI lade phia) as supercargo, he sailed from the Delaware on the 7 th of 

Decoration of the Order of 
the Cincinnati. 

June 1787, and arrived at Canton the following 2 2d of December, having 
madi the first out-of-season passage to China, and f^^/^J^ 
of which he named Morris and the other Alliance Island. Thes ^" d ™ 
a oortion of the now celebrated Caroline Islands, and Commodore Reads 
discover ^ave rights to the United States which have never been properly 
e e T Commodore Read reached Philadelphia on hi, return voyage „ 
he i7th of September. 1788. and on the 26th of October followmg d*d at 
his seat in New Jersey, in the forty-ninth year of his age. Robert Morns 
ncluderhL! obituary ^of him in these words: "While inte^-^ 
patriotism and courage, united with the most gentle — «^ 
and admired among men. the name of tins valuable f^^ 1 * 6 ^!! 
be revered and beloved. He was. in the noble* import ot the word, a man. 
Commodore Read left no descendants. 


Rossi a n a. 

The Minutes of the Provincial Council of Pennsylvania (Vol. x, p. 379) 
contains the following recommendation : 

At a meeting of the Committee of Safety, October 23d, 1775 — This Board 
having taken into their consideration (by the desire of the Hon'ble Assem- 

Commodore Thomas Read (1740-17SS) discovering Alliance and Morris 
Islands, 1787. 

bly) the appointment of a Commodore to command the fleet, Capt. Thomas 
Read was named; and after full consideration of his merits, and inquiring 
into his character and qualifications, it was — 

Resolved. That the said Capt. Thomas Read be recommended as a proper 
person to be appointed by the Honorable House of Assembly to that important 

Commodore Thomas Read. 


The Pennsylvania Committee of Safety, under date of June 7, 1776, 
accepted the resignation of Capt. Thomas Read as commander of the ship 
Montgomery, he " having been recommended to the command of a Continental 
frigate." His new command was the 36-gun frigate George Washington. 
He also commanded ihe frigate Alliance, and in 1780, as appears in an official 
list of the navy of the United States sent to Benjamin Franklin, he was in 
command of the Bourbon, while the Alliance was under command of Paul 

The appended description of Captain Thomas Read's voyage in the old 
Alliance to China is copied from the Pennsylvania Packet and Daily Adver- 
tiser of September 23, 1788: 

Philadelphia, Sept. 23, 1788. — Captain Thomas Read, in the ship Alliance, 
bound to China, sailed from Philadelphia in the month of June, 1787, and 

Frigate Alliance, Commanded by Commodore Thomas Read. 

arrived at Canton the 226. day of December in the same year, having navi- 
gated on a rout as yet unpractised by any other ship. Taking soundings 
off the Cape of Good Hope, he steered to the southeastward, encircling all 
the eastern and southern islands of the Indian Ocean, passing the South 
Cape of New Holland ; and on their passage to the northward again towards 
Canton, between the latitude of 7 and 4 degrees south, and between the 
longitude of 156 and 162 degrees east, they discovered a number of islands, 
the inhabitants of which were black, with curled or wooly hair. Among 
these islands they had no soundings. And about the latitude of 8 degrees 
north, and in the longitude of 160 degrees east, they discovered two other 
islands, inhabited by a brown people, with straight black hair. These islands 
appeared to be very fertile, and much cultivated ; and by the behaviour of 
the inhabitants the ship's company were induced to believe they were the 
first discoverers. — One of them was named Morris Island, the other Alliance 
Island. They did not land on any of them. These discoveries were made 
in the month of November. 

The officers of the European ships in China were astonished to find a 
vessel arriving at that season of the year, and with eagerness and pleasure 
examined the tract of their voyage. 



In coasting near New-Holland," they had the winds generally from S. W. 
and blowing strong, with a great deal of rain. 

They finished their voyage by arriving again at Philadelphia on the 17th 
of September, 1788, having returned by the usual rout of the European ships, 
until they were in the Atlantic Ocean. 


Colonel James Read, one of the fathers of the American navy, was a son 
of Colonel John Read, of Maryland and Delaware, and a brother of George 
Read, of Delaware, the signer of the Declaration of Independence and the 
framer of the Constitution of the United States, and of the daring navigator 
and discoverer. Commodore Thomas Read, of the Continental navy. He 
was burn at the family seat. Xew Castle County, Delaware, in 1743. and died 
at Philadelphia the 31st of December, 1822, in his eightieth year. He was 

Silver Service which Belonged to Colonel James Read. 

regularly promoted from first lieutenant to colonel for gallant and dis- 
tinguished services at the battles of Trenton, Princeton, Brandywine and 
Germantown. He was appointed by Congress, the 4th of November, 1778, 
one of the three commissioners of the navy for the Middle States; and 
on January 11, 1781. Congress invested him with the sole power to conduct 
the Navy Board. When his friend, Robert Morris, became agent, he was 
elected secretary, and was the virtual head of the marine department, while 
Robert Morris managed the finance department of the American confederacy. 
Colonel James Read married, on the 9th of July, 1770, Susanne Correy, of 
the Correys of Chester County, Pennsylvania, and left one son, James Read^ 
born at Philadelphia in 1783. The latter was a great traveler in European 
and Oriental countries. In 1815 he visited Sweden with his friend. Sir 
Robert Ker Porter, and was there created a Knight of the Order of the 
Amaranth by the Queen of Sweden. He was a man of distinguished attain- 
ments as an amateur botanist. He died unmarried, at Philadelphia, the 29th 
of October, 1853. Colonel James Read also left one married daughter, 
Susanne Read, who married, the 27th of March, 1803, Joachim Frederic 


(3®il®msil &£±mmm namum, 


A son of Colonel John Read of !.: 
D eel. of Independence George Read of Delaware. & of the daring navigator & di s coverer Captain Thomas Read 
of the Continental Navy.he was born on on- ntations, New Castle :.&.died 

at Philadelphia 31« Dec. 1822 in his 60"* year. He was promoted from ISLiei :r gallant and 

dietinSuialied aervices at the battles of Trea n,Brandywine, and Germontown. He 

by Congress 4* Nov 1778, one of the 3 Commissioners of Ih- Navy for the Mrdile States; and onthell*Jan- 

:• power to conduct the Nay) . 
became Agent he was elected Secretary, and was the virtual head i Robert 

Morris managed the finance D< 

Colonel James Read. 285 

Eckard, Danish consul at Philadelphia, and brother of His Excellency 
Christian Eckard, Knight of the Dannebrog and honorary councilor to the 
King of Denmark, whose daughter married the Court Grand Huntsman 
lutein, Knight Grand Cross of the Dannebrog, while his sons and grandsons 
were knights of the same order and superior judges of Schleswig-Holstein. 
Consul-General Eckard died at Venezuela the 14th of September, 1837. 
Mrs. Susanne Read Eckard was a woman of remarkable accomplishments 
and great wit, and figures, under the name of Miss Rushbrook, in a novel 
entitled " Justina," by Mrs. Simeon De Witt, published in 1823. It is there 
said : " She keeps the most literary and the most fashionable society in Phila- 
delphia. Her manners are charming, her conversation full of mind, and her 
heart is noble and benevolent." Mrs. Eckard was the author of the historical 
account of " Washington delivering his Farewell Address." Mrs. Eckard 
died at Philadelphia the 3d day of December, 1861, leaving two distinguished 
sons, — ;'. c, Dr. Frederick Eckard, and the Rev. Dr. James Read Eckard. 
The latter was born in Philadelphia on the 22d of November, 1805, and died 
on the I2th of March, 18X7. After graduating with honor at the University 
of Pennsylvania, lie studied law with his cousin, Chief Justice John Meredith 
Read, and was called to the bar. But shortly afterwards he studied theology, 
and graduated at the Princeton Divinity School. His long life was one of 
remarkable usefulness, and his work in India and China redounded to the 
credit of America. In 1845 lie published an authoritative volume on Ceylon. 
Dr. Read Eckard married Margaret Esther, daughter of Dr. Nicholas 
Bayard, the son of Colonel John Bayard, of Philadelphia. He left one son, 
the Rev. Leighton Wilson Eckard, born 23d September, 1845, who gradu- 
ated at Lafayette College and at the Princeton Divinity School, and is also 
a distinguished clergyman. 

Among the papers of the late General Meredith Read was found an 
account of the career of Colonel James Read, written by his grandson, 
Rev. Dr. James Read Eckard, in a letter to General Read, from which account 
the following extracts are made: 

Colonel James Read's father, Colonel John Read, had a mill on his property 
into which he had introduced certain improvements which were esteemed 
as being valuable. One day, when James, his son, was but twelve years old, 
while every white member of the household, except himself, were absent, 
a young gentleman in a light chaise, accompanid by a black servant on 
horseback, drove up and asked if Mr. Read was at home. When the lad 
said he was not, the youthful stranger expressed much disappointment, and 
said: " I have come some distance out of my way to see his mill; I am 
about to build one on my own property and wish to see the improvements 
which I have heard he has made in his." The lad replied: "If that is all, 
I can show them to you and explain them." The stranger alighted and went 
into the mill. There everything was shown and explained. With the aid 
of a black man connected with the place, the mill was set at work and 
some wheat ground to show the practical operation of the machinery. After 
this, and before the stranger left, he said : " My little friend, when your 
father comes home give him the compliments of Colonel Washington, of 
Virginia, and thank him in my name for the politeness of his son, and tell 

286 Rossi ana. 

him from me that you showed all things to me as well as any one could 
have done." It will be remembered that in the spring of 1755 Washington, 
after resigning his Colonial commission, and before engaging to serve with 
Braddock, entered, for a time, vigorously on the improvement of Mount 
Vernon, which he had just inherited. 

Early in September, 1774, the first Continental Congress met in Phila- 
delphia. James Read, then a merchant, lived on Walnut street, a few doors 
below Third, on part of the present site of the Exchange. His eldest 
brother, George Read, of Newcastle (afterward the "signer"), had just 
arrived as a delegate to the Congress, and the two brothers were sitting on 
the porch, on a warm evening about dusk, when a gentleman drove rapidly 
down Walnut street, with two horses, followed by a black servant in livery. 
George Read remarked, "I suppose that is one of the Southern delegates, 
just arrived." James Read replied, "It is Colonel Washington of Virginia; 
I have not seen him since 1 was a hoy twelve years old. but I never could 
forget Colonel Washington after seeing him once." Colonel Washington 
had visited Colonel John Read several times at Christiana, but George Read 
was in Philadelphia on these occasions. 

Several battalions of " Associators " (we would now call them volunteers) 
were formed in Philadelphia. In January. 1776, James Read was elected 
firsl lieutenant, "by a very great majority" of a company (Delaney's) in 
the Third Battalion of Associators, which late in 1776 inarched to join 
Washington after the defeats on Long Island and above New York. It 
was part of Irwin's Brigade when the Delaware was crossed by Washington 
mi Christmas night, 177(1. [rwin's Brigade was to have crossed at Trenton 
Ferry, but the floating ice prevented the greater part of his force from 
crossing. This company, however, got across and remained on the Jersey 
shore for two hours. I went once with my grandfather (James Read) to 
see Trumbull's picture of the "Crossing of the Delaware," at which time 
he referred to his waiting on the Jersey shore of the river, and. as a criticism 
on the picture, objected that the night was so very dark that nothing at all 
could he seen on the water and very little on the land. 

On the night of January 3. 1777. the American army marched to Princeton. 
1 have repeatedly, as a boy, heard my grandfather describe his personal 
share in that event. His baggage had been captured near Bordentown and 
he was lying on the frozen ground, with his feet near a bright fire, trying 
in vain to sleep. The approaching sounds of horses' hoofs aroused him as a 
group of horsemen drew near. One of them rode up to the fire, by the 
light of which he was recognized as General Washington. He asked, " Have 
you a command here?" On being answered "Yes," he again asked, "Can 
your men he under arms in live minutes"-" The reply was, "Yes, in one 
minute." As the men were all awake and dressed, they were under arms 
in less than one minute. After a while they r were ordered to march on 
the Princeton road. As they walked some fell asleep whilst marching and 
were awakened by falling over the frozen ruts in the road. For some time 
a man was behind my grandfather trotting like a dog, aiming thus to keep 
warm by the motion. When it was sufficiently light to dstinguish faces my 
grandfather turned round and saw it was General Mifflin (afterwards Gov- 

Colonel James Read. 287 

emor of Pennsylvania). After exchanging salutations, he asked, "Where 
are we going?" A turn in the road just then brought them in sight of 
something gleaming at a distance. General Mifflin pointed to the gleam 
and said: "That is the morning dawn reflected from a window in Princeton. 
We are going to it, but shall have a bloody time before we reach there." 
Very soon afterwards tiring was heard in front. It was not long before the 
" Associators " were ordered forward and found themselves under fire. My 
grandfather was near to Washington when he rode between the fire of both 
armies as he is represented by the bronze image in the " Circle " in Wash- 
ington City. Referring to that critical moment he wrote to his family after 
the battle: "I would wish to say a few words respecting the actions of 
that truly great man. General Washington, but it is not in my power to 
convey any just ideas of him. I shall never forget what I felt when I saw 
him brave all the dangers of the field, his important life hanging as it were 
by a single hair, with a thousand deaths flying around him. I thought not 
of myself. He is surely Heaven's peculiar care." 

Delaney's company took part in the bayonet charge which decided the 
battle. Whilst charging on the British line my grandfather saw an English 
soldier rushing at him with a fixed bayonet. He had in his hand a fusil 
(which I still own and such as company officers then carried in battle), 
with this he fired at the Englishman, who instantly threw down his musket 
and pressed his hand on ins side. Blood gushed out between his fingers. 
My grandfather felt, as he told me, a terrible emotion as he saw the blood 
and feared he had killed a human being. He sprang up to the man with the 
exclamation: "Have I hurt you?" The soldier said: "Your ball grazed 
my side. I am not mortally wounded." He then went to the rear as a 

After the battle my grandfather was left with a party of soldiers to 
attend to the wounded. A dying English officer was among the prisoners. He 
had been left for dead, but Mr. Read heard him moan. Raising him up 
he endeavored for some time to give relief. The dying man gave his name 
and that of another officer in the British army and requested that his watch 
should be sent to his mother through that officer. Then he said, search in 
such a part of my dress and you will find a razor. It was soon found, and 
he remarked : " Such a razor as that can scarcely be procured in America. 
I wish you to keep it and use it as a gift of gratitude from a dying enemy." 
Both parts of the request were complied with, and the razor was constantly 
used for many years. It was very superior to most others. I know not 
where it is now, but I often saw it in my boyhood. Between Princeton and 
New Brunswick is a descent and ascent in the road which, possibly, by 
modern grading is less marked now than formerly. As the party left under 
my grandfather's command ascended the rising ground on the New Bruns- 
wick side, on their retreat from the battle ground, they saw the advanced 
guard of Lord Cornwallis' army appear on the top of the hill behind them. 

Mrs. Susan Read (my grandmother) entered zealously into her husband's 
patriotic feelings. She was ill in Philadelphia when the battle of Princeton 
was fought. Exaggerated reports of the fight and the slaughter reached the 
city. A friend wishing to quiet her anxiety said, in her hearing: "I do not 

288 Rossi a)i a. 

think that Jimmy Read was in the battle; probably he was in such or such 
a place." Mrs. Read turned to her and said, in a playful manner: "If there 
lia-- been a battle and Jimmy Read was not in it he need not come back to 
me, for I would never live under the same roof with him." 

In February. i~7~. he returned to his duties in Philadelphia as Paymaster 
in the Marine Department. President Wharton of Pennsylvania sent him 
in March a commission giving rank as Lieutenant-Colonel, and constituting 
him " Sub-lieutenant oi the City of Philadelphia for the purpose of muster- 
ing and classing the Militia." Mr. Read declined this office, saying: "I am 
already engaged in the service of the Honourable the Continental Congress, 
in a line of duty which engrosses the whole of my time and attention." 
In June. 1777. he accepted a commission as Major of the 1st Battalion of 
Philadelphia City Militia, and was present at the battle of Brandywine in 
September. I once heard his nephew. Mr. William Read (your granduncle) 
relate how. when be was a small boy. he went to see the American army 
on its retreat from Brandywine. lie was particularly struck with the fine 
personal appearance of his uncle who was riding with his battalion. For 
want of a cloak he had bound a blanket around him with his sword belt, but 
his tine person and military bearing gave him an impressive aspect not- 
withstanding this revolutionary costume. Soon after the battle of Brandy- 
wine Major Read accepted a temporary appointment as brigade major on 
the staff of General Irwin. He held tins position at the battle of Germantown. 

Once, when 1 was riding with him from Abington to Philadelphia, on the 
"OKI York Road." about seven or eight miles from the city, he pointed to 
a wood on the left side of the road and said: "It was in that wood that 

Major and 1 commenced the fighting of the extreme left column of 

the American army at the battle of Germantown." He then gave me a 
full account. He and a Major Somebody (I forget the name) were sent on 
the night of Oct. 3d down the Old York Road with a detachment, to arrest 
and secure every person living on the road, so as to prevent information of 
the advance of the army being carried to the enemy. As they went along, 
in a solitary part of the road, he and his associate in command differed as 
to the day of the week, whether it was Thursday or Friday. For the first 
and last time in his life he made a bet. which he lost. The bet was for a 
pair of gloves. As a matter of principle he never again laid a wager to any 
amount. The day was Friday. When they reached the wood before referred 
to it was early in the morning of the 4th. Leaving the road and passing 
some little distance through the wood they surprised a detachment of British 
soldiers. Firing commenced, but soon the British gave way. Both parties 
were reinforced, but the Americans, in that part of the field, steadily main- 
tained their advantage. The British were driven back from one position to 
another, until the repvdse of the American main column at Chews house. 
Of this disaster most of those on the extreme left knew nothing until some 
time after they were ordered to retreat. Major Read at first supposed that 
the retreat was a retrograde military movement connected with victory. 
After riding some distance he was met by an officer who had been sent down 
the road to meet that part of the army. Major Read earnestly asked what 
this backward movement meant. The other one then told of the defeat in 

Colonel J a Dies Read. 289 

the center and added that a strong body of British troops on another road 

had already reached a place two miles in advance id" where they then were. 

During the battle Major Read was close by a sergeant who stood very 
high as a soldier and who suddenly struck one hand on his forehead and 
kept it there for a lew moments. Major Read asked if he was hurt. 'The 
sergeant removed his hand and showed a musket hall in it. saying that his 
forehead had been struck by that hall without being penetrated. Me com- 
plained of an agonizing pain in his head. By the advice of .Major Read 
he went to the rear to get surgical aid. but he soon died. 

A cannon ball from the I'.ritish artillcn cut through a tree which fell SO 
as somewhat to injure the leg of .Major Read. Me dismounted for a few 
minutes to attend to his hurt limb. Just then Colonel Forrest of Philadel- 
phia came to a rising ground close by. with two field pieces. Colonel 
Forrest was himself engaged in leveling one of the cannons when a well- 
aimed discharge from the I'.ritish battery killed or wounded every man 
standing by both of them, except Forrest. Me quietly finished his work, 
then stooped down, took the match from the hand of the dead artillerist 
and fired the cannon. Major Read who was very near him said that there 

was not the least change of countenance in. Forrest or the lea>t departure 
from perfect tranquility of manner. 

After the battle ^\ (iermintown he returned to his office as Paymaster of 
the Navy. On February uth. 177S. he was directed by the Naval Com 
mittee of Congress to remove his books and papers from Bordentown to 
Baltimore. In 1770 he was made Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant of a 
Regiment of Philadelphia City Militia. Me then. 1 think, resigned his office 

as Paymaster of the Navy. For a while he and Colonel Jonathan Bayard 
Smith were in command of a body of troops near the Robin Mood tavern 
on the Ridge Road, four miles from Philadelphia. I know not the exaei 
lime of this, but 1 think it was in the summer of 177c). 

In 1770 the Continental Congress appointed Colonel Read, together with 
John Wharton and William Winder (father of the late General William 
Winder of Baltimore), as Commissioners of the Navy Board, Messrs. 
Wharton and Winder declined the appointment and Congress passed a 
resolution authorizing Col. Read to perform the duties of all three. Cooper. 
in his Naval History, says: "in October, 1779 — a Board of Admiralty was 
established consisting of three Commissioners who were not: in Congress and 
two that were. Of this Hoard any three were competent to act. In January, 
17S1. James Read (misspelled Reed) was appointed by special resolution to 
manage the affairs of the Navy Board in the Middle Department."* 

Subsequently a different arrangement was made. The Superintendent of 
Finance, Mr. Morris, was directed by Congress to exercise the powers and 
perform the duties of Agent of Marine. Col. Read was appointed Secretary 
in the department thus reorganized. Joseph Pennell was then Paymaster. 
Col. Read continued as Secretary in the department of the Agent of Marine 
until the close of the war. As was before noticed he served again as 
Paymaster of the Navy from July, 17S3, to September 14th, 1784. This was 

•From memoranda of conversation with Col. Read made by Mr. J. R. Eckard, in 1821, 
I infer that lie acted as Commissioner of the Navy Board from 1779. 



by the persuasion of .Air. Morris who needed the assistance of one who 
combined so much pure integrity with extensive knowledge, and accurate 
habits of business. 

When the war was entirely finished, and its naval accounts settled, Col. Read 
was appointed Inspector of Flour for the City and County of Philadelphia. 
He held this office from 1785 until 1803. Subsequently to this he again 
engaged in mercantile operations, chiefly as an importer of teas and other 
Chinese goods from Canton. After some years he retired from all mercantile 

In 1783 Col. Read was appointed by the Executive Council of Pennsyl- 
vania as one of four Commissioners to settle the claims of Connecticut 
emigrants to large tracts of land near Wilkesbarre. In 1793 he was elected 
a Director of the City Library Company, and at a later time a Director 
of the Bank of North America. Both these offices he held until his death. 
He also was a Director, and, for a time, President, of the Mutual Assurance 
Company against Fire. Also a Director of the Insurance Company of North 
America, in which office I think he continued until death. For several 
years he was a member of the Select Council of the City of Philadelphia 
and would have been continued as such hut he declined re-election. During 
the War of 1812 he was appointed by the Select Council one of a Committee 
to provide for the defence of the river Delaware. 

In 1703. when the yellow fever visited Philadelphia so terribly. Col. Read 
sent away his children, but remained himself with Mrs. Read to perforin 
whatever duties might be required at such a time of distress. At last he 
was attacked by the disease. When Mrs. Read perceived that he was ill 
she went to a stable belonging to their house where they kept a horse and 
chair. She harnessed the horse to the chair herself, I think, the prevalence 
of the pestilence making it difficult to get aid. With her assistance Col. Read 
got in the chair. Having fastened the windows and doors she drove into 
tin- country, not knowing where to go. They stopped at several farm 
houses before they found a family willing to receive them. He finally 
reo 'vered. 

It was about 1772 that he married Susan Correy of Philadelphia; perhaps 
the marriage took place a year or two earlier. She died about the year 
1812. Their children were: Maria, who died aged about twenty-five; John, 
who died as a boy. Two others who died in infancy. I know nothing 
about them. Susan, who married J. F. Eckard, from St. Thomas, in the 
1 i.mish West Indies, and who was, for some time, Danish Consul for the 
Middle States. She died at the age of 85 in 1861. James, who died in 
1853, aged 70. Anna Correy. who died in 1847, aged about 55. All of these 
were unmarried except Mrs. Eckard. 

Col. Read was for many years a communicant in the First Presbyterian 
Church of Philadelphia. He died in December, 1822, with a calm and con- 
fident hope in his Saviour. When lying on his death bed he was visited 
by his pastor, the late eminently learned Dr. James P. Wilson. Sitting 
down beside him, Dr. Wilson remarked that he had not come to give instruc- 
tion, or to administer encouragement, but rather for the purpose of receiving 

George Read (>d). 291 

both, by seeing how a Christian could gain the victory over death. At his 
funeral Dr. Wilson remarked that he believed that Col. Read had sins and 
defects because he was human and no man on earth is free from them, but, 
he added that this was his only ground for making the assertion, and that, 
during his long intercourse with him as his pastor he had never known of 
any word or action on the part of the deceased which was inconsistent with 
his profession as a Christian. 

Notwithstanding the limited advantages for education in the part of 
Maryland where he passed his earlier years, Col. Read was a man of 
superior information. His reading in English literature was extensive. 
By means of translations he had a very respectable knowledge of classical 
literature. In regard to poetry his taste was refined and elevated. His 
picture by Otis represents him in an attitude selected by his family as 
peculiarly characteristic. His spectacles are in his hand and a book lying 
open before him. He is supposed to be on the point of telling the family 
circle something instructive, or interesting, about which he has just read. 
The handwriting of Col. Read was uncommonly good. His account books 
and business papers were remarkably well and neatly kept. 

He was six feet in height, well formed and athletic. His manners were 
those of a gentleman of the old school. The amiability and gentleness of 
his character were visible in his countenance and constant deportment. In 
politics he was a decided old-fashioned Federalist. Confidence in and 
admiration for George Washington were like a master passion in his heart. 
Indeed, his own character was formed on the same general model as that 
of Washington, although, of course, decidedly inferior in ability and mental 
power to his great commander. There was a close resemblance between 
them in unambitious modesty, control of temper, disinterested patriotism, 
pure integrity, accuracy in business and brave energy in action. Having 
faithfully served his God and his country he died, as he had lived, without 
fear and without reproach. 


Hon. George Read (2d), of Delaware, eldest surviving son of George 
Read, the signer, was born at New Castle the 17th of August, 1765, at the 
Read mansion. He married, on the 30th of October, 1786, Mary Thompson, 
daughter of General William Thompson, a distinguished Revolutionary 
officer, at the latter's country seat, near Carlisle. Pennsylvania. Mrs. Thomp- 
son was Catharine Ross, the sister of Gertrude Ross, wife of George Read, 
the signer. George Read (2d) was an eminent jurist, and for nearly thirty 
years was United States district attorney of Delaware. He was the owner of 
large plantations in Mississippi. He died at the Read mansion on the 3d 
September, 1836, and was buried at Emmanuel Church. He was a handsome, 
dark-haired man, of rich complexion and courtly manners. His portrait 
was painted by Wortmuller. He restored the Read mansion, and enter- 
tained Lafayette there most sumptuously on the latter's second visit to 





Hon. George Read (3d), of Delaware, son of George Read (2d), of 
Delaware, was born in the Read mansion, at Xew Castle. Delaware. June 
4. 1788. and married, the 19th of April. 1810. Lonisa Ridgeley Dorsey, whose, 
family resided near Baltimore. Maryland, her father being Dr. Nathan 
Dorsey, a surgeon in the Revolntionary navy, who afterwards became an 
eminent physician in Philadelphia. After graduating at Princeton with 
honors, in 1806. he studied law with his father, and was called to the bar 
in Delaware. Distinguished as a lawyer, he was still more eminent as an 

Residence of George Read 2d (1765-1836) at Newcastle, Del. 

advocate and remarkable for his conversational powers, fine taste and 
extensive and varied literary attainments. Frank, generous, benevolent, 
gentle and unassuming in manner, it was said of him that the general regard 
that his many admirable qualities attracted was only surpassed by the warm 
attachment, much more than any man we have known, which he elicited from 
his im mediate friends. His father had occupied for many years the post 
of United States district attorney, and he also filled that office with ability 
during the administrations of three of our Presidents. George Read (3d) 
died at the family mansion, in New Castle, on the 1st of November. 1837. 
and on the eve of his nomination to the United States Senate. He had 
constantly refused the highest State and national offices. 

George Read (4th). 293 


George Read 1 (4th), son of George Read (3d), of Delaware, was born at 
New Castle, 16th Oct., 1812; married, in 1844, Susan Chapman, of Virginia, 
and died in August. 1859, forty-seven years of age at Rossmere, near 
Columbia, Arkansas. He showed early aptitude for business, and was trained 
in the counting house of an eminent firm in Baltimore. In company with 
his grandfather, George Read (2d), he purchased a cotton plantation of 
several thousand acres in Chicot County, Arkansas, on the borders of 
Louisiana, which grew under his masterly touch into one of the great repre- 
sentative plantations of the South. He took an active part in the organiza- 
tion of a parish in his neighborhood, where his kindness and generosity 
made him the object of warm affection. He died in the communion of the 
Episcopal Church, of which he was a prominent member, like all of his 
family. He was characterized by sound judgment, foresight and energy. 
He was most fastidiously refined, a man of medium height, of handsome face 
and carriage. 


George Read (5th), of Arkansas, eldest son of George Read (4th), of 
Delaware, was born at Grand Gulf, Mississippi, February, 1847. and suc- 
ceeded by will to the great plantation of Ro'ssmere, which was much damaged 
by the Union army during the War of the Rebellion. He married Susan 
Salmon, of Lynchburg, Virginia. He is also a successful cotton-planter, and 
a gentleman of great refinement and varied culture. His eldest son, George 
Read (6th), of Rossmere. died in infancy. Two children survive — Cleveland 
Read, born 4th July, 1884, and Alice Read, born 15th of February, 1880. 
George Read (5th), of Rossmere, had seven brothers and sisters; all died 
without issue during the lifetime of their father, except one sister and Wil- 
liam Thompson Read, born at Rossmere, 7th October, 1857, married 7th 
January. 1879, Jono Saunders, cf Chicot County, and has William Thompson 
Read, born at Rossmere 2d of April. 1880. and Earl Read, born 15th July, 
1883. Mr. W. T. Read is a large and successful planter. The only surviving 
sister of George Read (Sth) and William Thompson Read is Marion Read, 
who was born at Rossmere on the 3d of February, 1853; married. 10th 
November, 1880, F. M. Carlton, Esq., of King and Queen County, Virginia, 
and has George Read Carlton, born 9th July, 1883, and Marian Read Carlton, 
born August 1. 1884. 

William Thompson Read, son of George Read (2d), of Delaware, was 
born in the Read mansion, at New Castle, on the 22d of August. 1792, and 

1 In a letter to the compiler, Alice Read, granddaughter of George Read (4th), 

My Grandfather CGeorge Read) married the widow Taliaferro, who was a Miss 
Susan Chapman, of Orange Court House, Virginia. They had three children (who 
lived to be more than infants) — George (my father), Marian, who married Millard 
Fillmore Carlton, and William Thompson, who married Antonio Saunders. 

My father had four children — George, who died in infancy; Alice, Cleveland and 
Gertrude, all unmarried. 

Aunt Marian (Mrs. Carlton) had five children — George, who married a Miss Emma 
Anderson; Marian, who married a Mr. Hamilton Frank (dead), and Jessie and Mattie. 

Uncle Will (William Thompson Read), had four children — William, who married 
a Miss Cook; Erie, unmarried; Gladvs, who married Tohn Breckenridge, and George 

My mother's name was Sue Salmons, of Lynchburg, Virginia. 

294 Rossiana. 

was baptized the 16th of September following at Emmanuel Church. He 
graduated at Princeton in 1816, studied law with his father and was called 
to the bar in Delaware. He resided at Washington for some years, and was 
at the head of one of the government departments, and became later secretary 
of the legation of the United States to Buenos Ayres, and a Senator of 
Delaware. He was also Grand Master of Masons of Delaware, and one of 
the founders of the Historical Society of Delaware. He was a man of great 
culture, an ardent churchman, and highly respected in all relations through 
life. He was the author of a life of his grandfather, George Read, the signer. 
He died in his mansion at New Castle on the 27th of January, 1873, having 
married Sally Latimer Thomas, who pre-deceased him. He left no issue. 
His brothers, Gunning Bedford Read and Charles Henry Read, both lawyers 
of great promise, died unmarried. His sister, Catherine Anne Read, who was 
born in 1794, in the Read mansion at New Castle, and died there in 1826, 
married, on the 18th of June, 1812, Dr. Allen McLane. of Wilmington, son 
of Colonel .Mien McLane. of the Revolutionary army, and brother of the 
Hon. Lewis McLane. Secretary of State of the United States, and uncle of 
the Hon. Robert M. McLane, United States Minister to France. 

William Read, first lieutenant of the United States army, born the 24th of 
April. 1823. at the family mansion. Xew Castle. Delaware, was baptized on 
the 4th of April. 1824. at Emmanuel Church. Xew Castle. He was the son 
of the Hon. George Read (3d), of Delaware, and Louisa Ridgeley Dorsey, 
his wife. He was appointed from Delaware a cadet at West Point the est 
of July. 1840: promoted to be second brevet lieutenant in the Sixth Infantry, 
served with distinction in the war with Mexico; was mack- second lieutenant 
of the Fifth Infantry in 1846, and first, lieutenant of the same regiment in 
1847; resigned 21st of July, 1850. He was Professor of Natural and Experi- 
mental Philosophy in the Kentucky Military Institute from 1851 to 1853: 
assistant examiner of patents at Washington from 1855 to 1861. and a planter 
in Montgomery County. Maryland, from 1861 until his death in 1884. He 
married M. E. Beale. the granddaughter of Commodore Truxton, of the 
United States navy. 

J. Dorsey Read, a graduate of the Naval Academy at Annapolis, was a 
lieutenant in the United States navy. He died in 1858. Married Maria 
Chapman, of Virginia, but left no descendants. He was the third son of 
the Hon. George Read (3d), of Delaware, and Louisa Ridgeley Dorsey, 
his wife. 

Marian Murray Read, born at the Read mansion. New Castle, Delaware, 
was baptized on the 6th of May, 181 1. aged three months, at Emmanuel 
Church. New Castle; was the eldest daughter of the Hon. George Read (3d), 
of Delaware, and Louisa Ridgeley Dorsey. his wife. She married James G. 
Martin. Esq.. of North Carolina, a graduate of West Point, who attained 
the rank of major in the United States army, and became a major-general 
in the Confederate army. 

James G. Martin, eldest son of James G. Martin, of North Carolina, wa9 
counselor-at-law, Asheville, North Carolina. He married Annie Davis. 

Elizabeth Stark Murray Martin was the eldest daughter of James G. 
Martin, of North Carolina. She married William Bruce, Esq., counselor-at- 
law, Norfolk, Virginia. 

George Read (5th). 295 

Annie Hollingsworth Martin was the second daughter of James G. Martin, 
of North Carolina. She died unmarried. 

Marian Martin, the youngest daughter of James G. Martin, Esq., of North 
Carolina, was married to Samuel Tennent, Esq., planter, Asheville, North 

Louise Gertrude Read, horn at the family mansion, New Castle, Delaware, 
second daughter of Hon. George Read (3d), and Louisa Ridgeley Dorsey, 
Ids wife, was married to Colonel B. K. Pierce, of the Lhuted States army, 
brother of General Franklin Pierce. President of the United States. He 
commanded at Governor's Esland at the time of his wife's death, which 
occurred in 1840. She was buried at Governor's Island, New York, having 
no issue. 

Annie Dorsey Read, third daughter of the Hon. George Read (3d), and 
Louisa Ridgeley Dorsey, bis wife, born at the family mansion, New Castle, 
Delaware, was baptized on the 2d of August, 181S, then aged three weeks, 
at Emmanuel Church. New Castle. She married Isaac S. K. Reeves, of the 
United States army, who was born in New York. He was appointed a cadet 
from New York to West Point in 1X3 r, graduated in 1835, served with 
distinction in the Florida War, and attained the rank of major. He died 
prior to the Rebellion. Mrs. Reeves resided in one of the old Read 
mansions at New Castle, Delaware, and had the following children: Keith 
Reeves, only son, an engineer in the United States navy, who married Henri- 
etta Young and has four children — Keith, Marian. Joan and Joseph; 
Marian Legare Reeves, a well-known authoress, who wrote under the 
nam de plume of Fadette, the following novels: " Ingemisco," "Randolph 
Honour " and " Wearie Thome," and in connection with her aunt, Miss 
Emily Read, of New Castle, published " Old Martin Boscawen's Jest." 

Annie Dorsey Reeves married the Hon. John H. Rodney, of New Castle, 
a great grandnephew of the Hon. Caesar Rodney, a signer of the Declaration 
of Independence, and has six sons and two daughters. 

Caroline E. Reeves married Wm. S. Potter, Esq., a planter in Cecil 
County, Maryland, and has four sons and live daughters. Caroline married 
Rev. W. Rede; Dorsey Read married May Wheat: William married Mabel 
Dunham; Marian Legare; Emily Read married Wm. Fontaine Alexander (of 
the Geo. Washington family); Annie Dorse) married Francis Taylor; Julia 
Ross unmarried; Nathaniel and Knight both unmarried. 

Caroline Read, fourth daughter of Hon. George Read (3d), of Delaware, 
and Louisa Ridgeley Dorsey, his wife, born at the family mansion, New 
Castle, Delaware, was baptized on the 22(1 of July, 1820, at Emmanuel Church, 
New Castle. She married, on the 31st of March, 1840, Major-General 
William H. French, of the United States army, a graduate of West Point in 
1837, a distinguished officer of the United States army during the Rebellion. 
He was born on the 3d of January, 181 5, at Baltimore, Maryland. He retired 
in July, 1880, as Colonel of the Fourth Artillery, with rank of major-general. 
He died on the 20th of May, i88r, at Washington. His wife. Caroline Read, 
died on the 26th of September, 1884, at Blue Ridge Summit. Franklin 
County, Pennsylvania. They left the following issue : 

Lieutenant-Colonel Frank Sands French, born in 184 1, at Houlton, Maine, 
entered the United States army, 1861. as second-lieutenant of artillery, 

296 Rossiana. 

and was made captain and brevet lieutenant-colonel for gallant and meritori- 
ous conduct during the war ; died 4th September, 1865, at New Castle, 
Delaware, of wounds received at the battle of Antietam; unmarried. 

William Henry French of the United States army, born 17th July, 1844. 
at Newport, Rhode Island, while his father was stationed at Fort Adams. 
He married Emily Ott in 1879, and has three daughters. 

Lieutenant Frederick Halverson French, a graduate of West Point in 1877, 
second lieutenant United States army same year; first lieutenant i860; 
retired January, 1885 ; unmarried. 

Lieutenant George Ross French, United States navy, born 8th July, 1857, 
at Fort McHenry, Baltimore, Maryland, while his father was stationed 
there; a graduate of the Academy, Annapolis, in 1880; midshipman of the 
United States navy in 1882; ensign, June. 1884; married, in Baltimore, 26th 
of March, 1885, Elizabeth Hollingsworth. daughter of Charles Findlay, Esq. 
Mrs. French was born the 17th of November, 1856. They have one son. 
Findlay French. 

Annie Read French, born the 24th of May, 1853. at Tampa, Hillsborough 
County, Fla.. while her father was stationed there; married, the 24th of May, 
1X75. to Captain John L. Clem, of the United States army. He was born 
at Newark, Licking County, Ohio, in 1853, entered the United States army 
in 1862 as a drummer-boy, and distinguished himself in the battles of 
Chickamauga and Shiloh, and became famous as the "Drummer-boy of 
Chickamauga," and for his distinguished services and gallantry was 
appointed, when only ten years of age, a sergeant in the United States army; 
became second lieutenant in 1870. first lieutenant in 1N74, and captain and 
assistant quartermaster in [882. They have one son, John Clem. 

Rosalie French, born 4th June, 1861, at New Castle. Delaware, married 
Lieutenant J. Conklin, of the l'nited States army. 

Julia Rush Read, fifth daughter of the Hon. George Read (3d), of Dela- 
ware and Louisa Ridgely Dorsey, his wife, born at the family mansion, New 
Castle, Delaware, and married General Samuel Jones of Virginia, who 
graduated at West Point, and attained the rank of captain in the United 
States army. He became a major-general in the Confederate army, and 
commanded during the Rebellion the Departments of South Carolina, 
Georgia, Alabama and Florida. They have one child, Emily Read Jones, 
who is unmarried. 

Emily Read, sixth daughter of the Hon. George Read (3d), of Delaware 
and Louisa Ridgely Dorsey. his wife, was born at the family mansion. New 
Castle, Delaware, where she resided for many years. She has contributed 
to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, and has produced anonymously ** Life in 
New Sweden Two Hundred Years Ago." She is also the authoress, in 
conjunction with her late niece. Miss Marian Reeves, of " Old Martin Bos- 
cawen's Jest," and " Pilot Fortune." 

Lieutenant John Alexander Lockwood, of the United States army, Pro- 
fessor of Military Tactics at the University of Michigan, is the son of Dr. 
John Alexander Lockwood, born at Dover, Delaware, in 1812. by his wife, 
Julia Read McLane, born 21st of February, 1818, at Wilmington, Delaware, 
married the 20th of October, 1840, died the 21st of November, 1880, at Wash- 
ington, D. C. 


Hon. William Read. 297 

Lieutenant Lockwood was born on the 30th of October, 1856, at Dresden, 
Saxony, Germany. He is the grandson of Dr. Allen McLane and his wife, 
Catharine Anne Read, and fifth in descent from George Read, of Delaware, 
the signer. His sister. Florence Lockwood, born at Florence, Italy, the 26th 
of April, 1853, married, the 17th of February, 1878, Captain Charles Alfred 
Booth, of the United States army. 


William Read, of Philadelphia, consul-general of the Kingdom of Naples, 
was the second son of George Read, the signer, of Delaware. He was 
born in the Read mansion, Xew Castle, Delaware, October 10, 1767, and 
died in his own mansion, at Philadelphia, September 25, 1846. He was 
married, at Christ Church, Philadelphia, on the 22d of September, 1796, by 
Bishop White, to Anne McCall, daughter of Archibald McCall and Judith 
Kemble, his wife. Mrs. Read was born on the 2d of May, 1772. and died 
the 17th of July, 1845. Air. William Read, who removed to Philadelphia at 
an early age, was. for many years, consul-general of the Kingdom of Naples, 
and represented several other foreign powers. He was a brother of George 
Read {2d), of Xew Castle, and of the Hon. John Read, of Philadelphia. 
Fie resided in an ancient and spacious mansion on Second street, then the 
most fashionable part of Philadelphia. His eldest son, George Read, of 
Pennsylvania, was born in Philadelphia, on the 10th of June, 1797. in the 
large mansion in Second street, three doors above Spruce, on the west side. 
In accordance with the ancient family usage, he was taken to Xew Castle, 
Delaware, and christened on the 29th of October, 1797, in Emmanuel Church, 
of which his great-grandfather, the Rev. George Ross, was the first rector 
in 1703. Mr. Read resided nearly forty years in Spain, first going thither 
on the 10th of October, 1817. He was for a long time United States consul 
in that Kingdom. He died some years ago, and in his ninety-second year 
was extremely active in his habits, and his anecdotes were at that time as 
interesting and his wit as vivacious as in his earlier years. He wa*S 
unmarried. His three brothers, — William Archibald Read, a planter near 
Xew Orleans; John Read, a prominent lawyer of Philadelphia; and Samuel 
McCall Read, also a planter near Xew Orleans, Louisiana — died without 
issue. His only sister, Mary Read, born the 16th of June, 1799, died the 17th 
of July, 1875; married, in 1827, Coleman Fisher, of Philadelphia, son of 
Samuel and grandson of William Fisher. Mr. Fisher was born in Philadel- 
phia in 1793, and died there the 4th of March, 1857. Their children are the 
present William Read Fisher, Esq., of Philadelphia ; Elizabeth Rhodes Fisher, 
who married Eugene A. Livingston, Esq., of Livingston Manor. Xew York, 
and died in 1877; Sally West Fisher and Mary Read Fisher. The eldest son, 
Coleman P. Fisher, a distinguished engineer, died some years ago unmarried. 
Mrs. Livingston left one son and two daughters. 


The Hon. John Read, of Pennsylvania, an eminent lawyer, financier and 
philanthropist, and one of the leaders of the Federal party, was the fourth 
son of George Read, of Delaware, a signer of the Declaration of Indepen- 

298 Rossiana. 

dence, and a framer and signer of the Constitution of the United States. 
The eldest son, John, named in honor of his grandfather, had died in infancy, 
and the fourth son received the same name, and consequently seemed to take 
the place of his elder brother. His mother, Gertrude Ross, was the daughter 
of the Rev. George Ross, Rector of Emmanuel Church, New Castle, a grad- 
uate of the University of Edinburgh in 1700, and of the Divinity School 
in 1702, who having been ordained by the Bishop of London, became one 
of the founders of the Church of England in America. Air. Ross was born 
in 1670. and died in 1754. His daughter. Mrs. Read, was beautiful in person, 
her manners were refined and gracious, and her piety was shown in a con- 
stant succession of charitable deeds. As her pious father expressed it in his 
autobiography, the family escutcheon was without spot or stain. Her grand- 
father, David Ross, Esquire, of Balblair, was a descendant, through the 
house of Balmachy, of the ancient family of the Karls of Ross. Her eldest 
brother, John Ross, had preceded her husband as attorney-general; a younger 
brother, George Ross, was a distinguished judge and a signer of the Declara- 
tion of Independence, while the patriotic sermons of another brother, the 
Rev. /Eneas Ross (an eloquent divine of the Church of England, who had 
received his degrees at Oxford), had tired the heart of the colonies at the 
opening of the Revolution. 

John Read was horn in the Read mansion. Xew Castle, Delaware, on the 
17th of July, 1769. lie graduated at Princeton in 17N7. studied law with his 
father, was called to the bar and removed to Philadelphia in 1789, where he 
married in 17c/), Martha Meredith, eldest daughter of General Samuel Mere- 
dith, member of the Continental Congress, first Treasurer of the United 
States, and an intimate friend of General Washington, thus connecting 
the ancient families of Read and Meredith. George Clymer, a signer of 
the Declaration of Independence and a framer of the Constitution of the 
United States, was Mrs. Read's uncle. Her mother was the daughter of 
Dr. Thomas Cadwalader, of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsyl- 
vania, and the sister of General John Cadwalader. whose daughter Fanny 
married Lord Erskine, and Colonel Lambert Cadwalader. Her brother-in- 
law, General Philemon Dickinson, commanded the Xew Jersey forces at 
the Millstone ami at the battle of Monmouth, and John Dickinson, author 
of the "Farmer's Letters," was her cousin. Mrs. Read's grandfather, Reese 
Meredith, the son of Reese Meredith, Esquire, of the county of Radnor, was 
horn in Wales in 1705, removed to Philadelphia in 1727, and married the 
granddaughter of Samuel Carpenter, owner of the " Slate Roof House," the 
partner of William Penn and one of the executors of his will. Reese Mere- 
dith sprang from the very ancient Cambrian family of Meredith, to which 
belong Lord Athlumney, Baron Meredith and the Merediths, Baronets of 
Greenhills and Carlandstown, County Meath. He was one of the wealthiest 
men of his day; his town house was in Walnut street below Second; his 
country seat was on the west bank of the Schuylkill opposite Fairmount. 
His son, General Meredith, resided in a large mansion on the north side of 
Chestnut street, two doors above Fifth, opposite Independence Hall. His 
country seats were Greenhills, Philadelphia County; Otter Hall, near Tren- 
ton. New Jersey, and Belmont, near the present town of Scranton, 

Hon. John Read. 299 

John Read was appointed by President John Adams, in 1797, Agent Gen- 
eral of the United States under Jay's Treaty. He filled this important office 
with marked ability also under the administration of President Thomas 
Jefferson, and until its termination in 1809, and published a valuable volume 
entitled " British Debts." He was City Solicitor, a member of the Common 
and Supreme Councils of Philadelphia, and took an active part in the defense 
of the Delaware during the War of 1812. He was also a member of the 

> Pennsylvania Legislature, and chairman of the Committee of Seventeen in 
7 1816. He was Senator from 1816 to 1S17; was appointed by the legislative 
body State Director of the Philadelphia Bank, and on the retirement of his 
wife's uncle, George Clymer, the signer, in 1819, became President of that 
bank, which office he held until 1841. He was also the president of many 
other important corporations. An active, wise and liberal churchman, he 
constantly figured in the national councils of the Episcopal Church, and he 
was for many years Rector's warden of Christ Church, St. Peter's and St. 
I James'. He died at Trenton, New Jersey, on the 13th July, 1854, in the 
eighty-sixth year of his age, and was buried in the Read vault, Christ Church. 
Philadelphia. Pie was the father of the Hon. John Meredith Read. Chief 

-~ Justice of Pennsylvania. His humanity and philanthropy were largely 

manifested during the terrible outbreak of yellow fever in Philadelphia, in 

1793, when he contributed liberally from his purse, and exposed his life 

, throughout the entire course of that epidemic in behalf of his suffering 


Mr. Read had three sons. Chief Justice John Meredith Read, of Penn- 
sylvania ; Edward Read, who died in infancy, and Henry Meredith Read, 
M. A., M. D. The latter was born at his father's mansion in Chestnut street, 
Philadelphia, on the 31st October, 1802; graduated at Princeton in 1820. and 
at the Medical School of the University of Pennsylvania in 1823. He was 
ja man of brilliant promise, but died prematurely and unmarried on the 16th 
bf .March, 1828, in the twenty-sixth year of his age. Mr. Read's daughters 
were Margaret Meredith, born 6th May, 1800, and died in 1802, and Mar- 
garet Meredith Read, born 7th April, 1806, and died, unmarried, the 13th 

\j March, 1854. The latter was a lady of remarkable accomplishments, and a 
general favorite in society. Mr. Read's children were all taken in infancy 

rto Xew Castle to be christened at Emmanuel Church, in accordance with 
ancient family usage. 
Mr. Read's spacious mansion stood on the south side of Chestnut street, 
between Seventh and Eighth streets. Philadelphia, surrounded with gardens, 
wherein tulips bloomed in profusion, running back to his stables which 
fronted on Sansom street. To this hospitable house resorted all the wealth 
and fashion of the early part of the century. Mr. Read, like his father and 
grandfather, was a collector and reader of rare books. His reading was 
extended and profound, and his memory was remarkably retentive, and 
always obedient to his call. He related with dramatic force the incidents 
of his childhood, which was passed among' the most stirring scenes of the 

Mr. Read's miniature by an unknown but admirable artist, represents him 
at the age of twenty-five. The oil painting by Sully gives an idea of him in 

300 Rossiana. 

his more mature years. Unlike his paternal and maternal family, he was 
not above the medium height, but he had the refined but strongly defined 
features of the Reads, and he inherited their courtly and agreeable manners. 


The Hon. John Meredith Read, LL. D., "a great jurist and a wise states- 
man," was the son of the Hon. John Read, of Pennsylvania, grandson of the 
Hon. George Read, of Delaware, and the great-grandson of Col. John Read, 
of Maryland and Delaware. He was born in the mansion of his grandfather, 
General Samuel Meredith, to whom his parents were then paying a visit, in 
Chestnut street, two doors above Fifth street, opposite Independence Hall, 
on the 2ist of July. 1797: and he died in Philadelphia, on the 29th of Novem- 
ber. 1S74, in the seventy-eighth year of his age. He graduated at the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania at the age of fifteen, in 1812; was called to the bar 
in 181S; elected to the Pennsylvania Legislature in 1822, and again in 1823; 
and afterwards became city solicitor and member of the select council, and 
drew up the first clear exposition of the finances of Philadelphia. He was 
appointed United States District Attorney of the Eastern District of Penn- 
sylvania, in 1837. and held that office eight years. He was also Judge Advo- 
cate on the Court of Enquiry on Commodore Elliot. Solicitor-General of the 
Treasury Department, and Attorney-General of Pennsylvania. Although his 
family were eminent and powerful Federalists, he early became a Democrat 
and was one of the founders of the Free Soil wing of that party. This 
militated against him when he was nominated to the Senate in 1845, as Judge 
of the Supreme Court of the United States ; for the Southern senators 
opposed his confirmation, and he consequently requested the President to 
withdraw his name. He was one of the earliest, most ardent and effective 
upholders of the annexation of Texas, and the building of railways to the 
Pacific. He powerfully assisted Andrew Jackson in his war against the 
United States Bank, and yet after its downfall Mr. Nicholas Biddle came 
to him and begged him to be his counsel. In the celebrated trial of Castner 
Planway, for treason. Judge Read was engaged with Thaddeus Stevens and 
Judge Joseph J. Lewis, for the defendant, and made such a masterly argu- 
ment that Mr. Stevens said he could add nothing, for his colleague's speech 
had settled the law of treason in this country. This great triumph gave 
Judge Read an international reputation, and English jurists paid the highest 
compliments to his genius and learning. He showed his repugnance for 
slavery in the Democratic Convention held in Pittsburgh in 1849. where he 
offered a resolution against the extension of slavery, which concluded with 
these remarkable words: " Esteeming it a violation of States rights to carry 
it (slavery) beyond State limits, we deny the power of any citizen to extend 
the area of bondage beyond the present dimension; nor do we consider it a 
part of the Constitution that slavery should forever travel with the advanc- 
ing column of our territorial progress." 

Holding these strong views he naturally became one of the founders of 
the Republican party, and he delivered at the Chinese Museum, in Philadel- 
phia, at tbe beginning of the electoral campaign in 1856, his celebrated speech 
upon the " power of Congress over slavery in the territories." This strucK 


rain m($M. rnwss Mwmmwwwmi mniHE, jljlw, 


Son of Hon.John Read of Perm?, grandson of George Read of Delaware. "the Signer,"and great-grandson of 
Col John Read of Maryland & Delaware. Born opposite Independence Hall in Chestnut Street, Phil-, 21" July; 
1797, and.m accordance with ancient usage m his family, christened at Immanuel Church, New Castle, Dela- 
ware, of which his great-grandfather was the first Rector in 1703. He married 11', Priscilla, daughter of 
Hon.J.Marsliall of Boston, 20? March 1828, who was bom 19? Dec. 1808. and died IS? April 1841. 2^ in 1855, 
Amelia, daughter of Edward Thomson Escf, who died J4? Sej .-.aged 75. Chief Justice Read 

Phil? 2 9 •? of November 1874, in his 78^year, and was buried mule Read Vault, Christ Church, Phil S-, leaving 
an only son. by his first -wife Read . 


Chief Justice John Meredith Read. 301 

a keynote which resounded throughout the country, and his discourse formed 
the text of the oratorical efforts of the Republican party. It was under his 
lead that the Republican party gained its first victory in Pennsylvania, for 
he carried that State in the autumn of 1858, as a candidate for Judge of the 
Supreme Court, by nearly 30,000 majority. This brought him prominently 
forward as a candidate for the presidency of the United States, and Mr. 
Lincoln's friends proposed to nominate Judge Read for President, with Mr. 
Lincoln for Vice-President. This arrangement was destroyed by the defeat 
of Judge Read's supporters by the friends of the Hon. Simon Cameron, in 
the Pennsylvania Republican Convention, in February, i860. Nevertheless 
Judge Read received a number of votes in the Chicago Convention, although 
he had thrown his influence in favor of his friend, Mr. Lincoln. The 
decisions of Judge Read run through forty-one volumes of reports. In 
whatever branch of the law a question arose, he met and disposed of it with 
a like able grasp and learning. He was familiar with civil and criminal 
law, and their practice ; with international and municipal laws, with law and 
equity, with the titles, limitations, and descents of real and personal estates, 
with wills, legacies, and intestacies; with the Constitution, charters, and 
statutes' of the United States, the States and all our cities. His opinion 
was adopted as the basis of the Act of March 3. 1863, authorizing the Presi- 
dent during the Rebellion to suspend the writ of habeas corpus ; and through- 
out the country his talents and his influence were constantly enlisted in behalf 
of the general government, and all his decisions were governed by the ardent 
and lofty patriotism which characterizes his conduct through life. He re- 
lieved the American Philosophical Society froni arbitrary taxation by decid- 
ing that the land in Independence Square, on which its hall stands, was 
granted by the State forever for public uses; and, as it could not be sold by 
any form of execution, no taxes could consequently be a lien upon it. His 
judgment also placed the public buildings of Philadelphia on their present 
site. Another famous decision was that refusing an injunction to prevent 
the running of the passenger tramways on Sunday. He could not consent 
to stop the " poor man's carriage, the passenger car." Many thousand copies 
of this opinion were printed in the East and West, and it carried public 
opinion with it wherever it was read. His associate on the Supreme Bench, 
Judge Williams, in his address to the bar of Philadelphia, said: "Chief 
Justice Read possessed talents and learning of a very high order, and his 
personal and official influence were very great. He was a gentleman in 
every sense of the word ; a gentleman of the old school, of the very highest 
sense of honor, of great dignity of character, and in social intercourse kind, 
affable and courteous. He was a true friend, strong and unswerving in his 
attachments, ready to make any sacrifice for his friends, and when they were 
in trouble he was untiring in his efforts to serve them. He was a man of 
the strictest integrity, and despised everything that was low and vile. With 
him the equity and justice of the case was the law of the case. He was a 
man of chivalrous courage, persistent purpose, and inflexible will. He did 
not know what fear is." A partial list of Chief Justice Read's published 
writings are to be found in Allibone's " Dictionary of Authors." and his 
merits as a lawyer and a judge were ably and eloquently portrayed by the 

3<D2 Rossiana. 

Hon. Eli K. Price, in his discourse upon Chief Justice Read, before the 
American Philosophical Society. " Judge Read was one of the last of the 
great Philadelphia lawyers, for he was a leader among such men as the Ser- 
geants, Binney, Chauncey. the Rawles and the lngersolls." In speaking of 
his inherited qualities, Colonel Forney said: "Chief Justice Read belonged 
to a race of strong men. He was a man of the most marked individuality, 
and was constantly engaged in originating useful measures for the welfare 
of the General and State Governments, and his amendments formed an 
essential part of the constitutions of Pennsylvania and New Jersey, and his 
ideas were formulated in many of the statutes of the United States which 
owed their existence to him. He was contented to create useful legislation 
which smaller men often fathered. He never sought office, and frequently 
refused the highest national posts. 

Chief Justice Read was Grand Master of Masons of Pennsylvania, his 
grandfather. Dr. Thomas Cadwalader, having been one of the founders of 
Masonry in that Province, and members of his family, the Reads, having 
filled the highest offices in Masonry in Delaware. 

There are many portraits of Chief Justice Read. One hangs in Masonic 
Hall, in the gallery of Grand Masters ; another adorns the Supreme Court 
room in Philadelphia, and another hangs in the Philadelphia Law Library, 
but perhaps the best likeness is a miniature by J. Henry Brown, which was 
admirably engraved by Samuel Sartain. This engraving was copied in the 
London Graphic, in connection with a spirited notice of Chief Justice Read, 
written by his kinsman, Charles Reade. the famous novelist. 

Chief Justice Read married first, Priscilla, daughter of Hon. J. Marshall, of 
Boston, on the 20th of March, 1828; Mrs. Read, who was born the 19th of 
December, 1808, died in Philadelphia on the iSth of April, 1841. She was 
the granddaughter of Lieutenant Marshall, of the Revolutionary army, and 
eighth in descent from a captain in Cromwell's army, who was promoted for 
conspicuous services at the siege of Leicester, and at the battles of Marston 
Moor and Naseby. Mrs. Read and her sister Emily Marshall, afterwards 
Mrs. William Foster Otis, of Boston, were the most celebrated belles of their 
day. By his first wife Chief Justice Read had six daughters, of whom only 
one survived infancy, viz.. Emily Marshall Read, who married, in 1849. Wil- 
liam Henry Hyde, Esq., and died in 1854. leaving an only daughter. Emma 
H. Hyde, who married George W. Wurts, esq.. First Secretary of Legation 
and Charge d' Affairs of the United States, at Rome, and died at Rome 
without issue. 

By his first wife, nee Marshall. Chief Justice Read had also an only son — 
General John Meredith Read, late United States minister to Greece. 

Chief Justice Read married secondly in 1865, Amelia, daughter of Edward 
Thomson, Esq., and sister of Hon. John R. Thomson, United States Senator 
from New Jersey, and of Admiral Edward Thomson of the United States 

Chief Justice Read died at Philadelphia, on the 29th of November, 1874, 
in his seventy-eighth year. His widow, Mrs. Amelia Thomson Read, sur- 
vived him twelve years, dying the 14th of September, 1886. without issue. 

Bornm Philadelphia. 21« Febiniax^l837. 
Died 2 7*- Dec ember 1896. Paris, Prance. 



General John Meredith Read. 



General John Meredith Read, Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the 
Redeemer of Greece, F. S. A., M. R. I. A.. F. R. G. S.. son of Chief Justice 
John Meredith Read, of Pennsylvania, grandson of Hon. John Read, of 
Pennsylvania, and great-grandson of George Read, of Delaware, the signer 
of the Declaration of Independence, and fifth in descent from Colonel John 
Read, of Maryland and Delaware, was born on the 21st of February, 1837, 
at his father's residence, 85 South Sixth street, Washington Square, Phila- 
delphia, and received his education at a military school. Graduated at Brown 
University, Master of Arts, 1859; at the Albany Law School, LL. B. ; studied 
civil and international law in Europe ; was called to the bar in Philadelphia ; 
and removed to Albany. New York. At the age of eighteen he commanded 
a company of national cadets, 
which afterwards furnished many 
commissioned officers to the 
United State Army during the Re- 
bellion. At the age of twenty he 
was appointed aide-de-camp to the 
Governor of Rhode Island, with 
the rank of colonel. He engaged 
actively in the presidential cam- 
paign of 1856, and in i860 organ- 
ized the Wideawake movement in 
New York which carried the State 
in favor of Mr. Lincoln for the 

Having been offered shortly af- 
terwards a foreign appointment, 
or the office of Adjutant-general 
nf the State of New York, he ac- 
cepted the latter, with the rank of 
Brigadier-General, at the age 
of twenty-three. In February, 
1861, he was chairman of the 
government commission which 
falo, and escorted him by a 

CiENKK.Vi. MKiti urn; Read. 

. .,r TMI ll.;,„: 

Heraldic Achievement of General Mere- 
' dith Read as a Knight Grand Cross of 
the Redeemer. 


welcomed President Lincoln at 
special train to the capital. In 
nary of that year, in conjunction with Governor Morgan, he urged 
the appropriation of half a million of dollars by the Legislature to 
place the State of New York upon a war footing. This wise precaution was 
not taken by that body, which did not perceive that a struggle for national 
existence was imminent. But two months later, when the news of the firing 
upon Fort Sumter reached the north. General Read was appointed chairman 
of a committee of three to draft a bill appropriating three millions of dollars 
for the purchase of arms and equipments; and he afterwards received the 
thanks of the War Department of the United States for his " energy, ability 
and zeal," in the organization and equipment of troops during the war, in- 
cluding the inspection and care of the wounded. Like most of those who 
were earnestly engaged on either side during the war of the Rebellion, Gen- 



eral Read considered that when the war was finished animosity should 
entirely cease, and he was always a strong friend of the South, where 
his family originated, and where many of his connections have always resided. 
In 1868 he took a leading part in the election of General Grant to the presi- 
dency, who appointed him Consnl-Generai of the United States for France 
and Algeria, to reside at Paris — a newly created post — which he was called 
upon to organize in all its various details. General Read likewise acted as 

Genj kal Meredith Read, at the age of 23, as Adjutant- 
General of. the State of New York, at the breaking 
out of the Rebellion. Taken from a photograph of the 

Consul-General of Germany during the Franco-Prussian war. and directed, 
during a period of more than nineteen months, all the consular affairs of that 
empire in France, including the protection of German subjects and interests 
during the first and second sieges of Paris. 1870-71. 

Upon the declaration of war Mr. Washburne was requested to act as 
Minister for Germany, and Baron Rothschild at the same time having 
resigned the office of German Consul-General. General Read was requested 
to act as Cor^ul-General for Germany in France and Algeria. On the 17th 

General John Meredith Read. 305 

of June, 1871, Mr. Washburne surrendered his charge of German affairs to 
Lieutenant-Colonel Count Waldersee. the new Charge d' Affaires of the 
German empire near the French government, Mr. Washburne having acted 
for ten months and a half. At the request of Count Bismarck and the French 
government. General Read consented to continue to act as Consul-General; 
and both sides acknowledged that his consenting to do so, with the thirty- 
five consuls and consular agents under him, prevented the possibility of a 
renewal of the conflict between the two countries, by rendering unnecessary 
the presence in France of German consular officials at a time when the minds 
of the French people were highly excited against all Germans. At this period 
the German Ambassador, in an official letter to General Read, said : " 1 can- 
not omit to express to you once more the sentiments of gratitude with which 
I am inspired by the persevering solicitude which you have never ceased to 
manifest in procuring for my compatriots the protection of the laws." As 
Vapereau. in his Biographical Dictionary, says : " Upon the declaration of 
the Franco-Prussian war, General Read was charged with interests of German 
subjects in France, and employed himself usefully during nearly two years in 
preventing the possibility of a renewal of the conflict : " and Gambetta de- 
clared that while General Read was shut up in Paris during the two sieges, 
he employed himself actively in relieving the distress of the French popula- 
tion. His kindness to the French was also warmly acknowledged by the 
Parisian press of all parties. His unremitting efforts in behalf of his own 
countrymen were universally recognized in the American press, and his atten- 
tion to persons of other nationalities were warmly praised by the principal 
organs of the English press. For these various services he received the 
commendation of the President of the United States. General Grant, in his 
annual message to Congress on the 4th of December, 1871, which was couched 
in the following language : 

" The resumption of diplomatic relations between France and Germany 
has enabled me to give directions for the withdrawal of the protection ex- 
tended to Germans in France by the diplomatic and consular representatives 
of the United States in that country. It is just to add that the delicate duty 
of this protection has been performed by the Minister and Consul-General at 
Paris and the various consuls in France, under the supervision of the latter, 
with great kindness, as well as with prudence and tact. Their course has 
received the commendation of the German government, and has wounded no 
susceptibility of the French." 

He also received the repeated thanks of both the French and German 
governments, and the official and personal thanks of Prince Bismarck. The 
Emperor himself desired to confer upon him an order of knighthood, and 
to present to him a rare and costly service of Dresden china. The joint 
resolution sent to Congress for the purpose of allowing diplomatic and con- 
sular representatives in France to receive these marks of esteem from the 
Emperor of Germany having failed through the objection and the personal 
feeling of Mr. Sumner towards Mr. Washburne. the Emperor's intentions 
could not be carried out. Four years after General Read had ceased to act 
as Consul-General for Germany, Prince Bismarck sent him his likeness with 
a complimentary autograph dedication. On a later occasion the German gov- 
ernment again took occasion to show its appreciation of General Read's ser- 

306 Rossiana. 

vices by directing its representative at Athens to give the American repre- 
sentative there the precedence. In France his popularity was great, and in 
1872 he was invited by General de Cissey, French Minister of War. to form 
and preside over a commission to examine into the expediency of extending 
the study of the English language in the French army; and for his successful 
labors in this direction he again received the thanks of the French govern- 
ment. In recognition of his various services he was appointed on the 7th 
of November. 1873. United States Minister to Greece. During his mission 
there, which covered a period of six years, he received the thanks of his gov- 
ernment for his ability and energy- in securing the release of the American 
ship " Armenia." and for his success in obtaining from the Greek government 
a revocation of the order prohibiting the sale and circulation of the Bible 
in Greece. He also received the thanks of the Board of Foreign Missions of 
the Southern Presbyterian Church, and of the British and American Foreign 
Bible Societies. During the great financial crisis in America in 1S76-77, 
while studying at Athens the commercial situation, he became possessed of 
secret and valuable information from Russia and England, which convinced 
him that America could regain her national prosperity at a bound. He 
accordingly addressed the following despatch to the Secretary of State, 
pointing out that the Russo-Turkish war had closed every grain port in Russia 
except one, and that America could actually deliver wheat at that point at a 
less price than the Russians, owing to the hitter's heavy duties and their want 
of facdities for handling grain: 

To the Hon. William M. Evarts, Secretary of State. Washington, D. (.'. : 

No. 305. 

Corfu, (".recce. July 23, IsTT. 

Sir. — It seems to me, that in the present condition of affairs in the United States, 
it is very desirable to direct the attention of our people to what the English call " the 
corn trade," which includes all cereals. The present war has closed all the ports of 
Southern Russia, and although there is an abundant harvest in that great country, it 
can find no outlet, for two reasons: First. On account of the single line railway -ystem, 
which prevails throughout the Russian Empire. Many loads of grain are lying blocked 
at various stations on the different railways, ami in many rich districts the crops will 
rot upon the ground for lack of means of transportation. Second. Because the port of 
Riga is really the only cue which remains open. Owing to various causes, very well 
understood with us. cereals delivered at this point in ordinary times cost in the 
neighborhood of fifteen per cent more than grain delivered on ship-board in our 
country. Even at the best moment, owing to customs difficulties and lack of mechanical 
means, ships loading at Russian ports were subjected to at least seven day's delay. 
Whereas, with our " elevators," and our comparatively easy customs regulations, no 
time is lost in our ports. If we can once succeed in diverting this trade it will never 
return to its old channels. 

This point has been already seized upon by certain shrewd British capitalists, and 
I have reliable information to the effect that six large iron vessels of thirty-eight 
hundred tons burthen are now being built, four of them in the Clyde — for the trans- 
portation of breadstuffs, on English account, to the United States. By a prompt 
movement we might secure the English. French, and Italian markets, and command 
a trade which would greatly enhance our national wealth, and give money and employ- 
ment to a large number of our population. 

I write in haste to bring this important subject to the immediate attention of the 
Department, but my facts and my conclusions may be entirely relied upon. They are 
the result of wide inquiries and long study. We ought to strain every nerve, not only 
to furnish the world with breadstuffs. but also the ships to carry them. 

I have, &c, iVc, 

John Meredith Read. 

vwss vmwzmwm. mnim 



General John Meredith Read. 


General Read's suggestion was taken up, and the exports of breadstuffs and 
provisions from America rose within a twelvemonth seventy-three millions of 
dollars, thus giving a grain supremacy upon which the subsequent prosperity 
of America was substantially based. General Read revisited his native 
country in 1874, and was received with the warmest demonstrations of welcome 
by all political parties, banquets being given in his honor at Washington, 
Philadelphia and New York, while at Albany an imposing dinner was given 
to him by the citizens irrespective of party, over which the mayor presided. 
On the latter occasion General Read spoke in the warmest terms of the 
services rendered during the Franco-German war by the consuls who served 
under him. by his deputy, Air. Franklin Olden Olcott, and his secretaries, 
Mr. Thirion and Mr. David Fuller, and by the personnel of the consulate- 

In England he was the recipient of marked courtesy at the hands of 
the Queen and the leading members of the royal family. For his literary 
and scientific services he received the thanks of the State Department 
of the United States, of the National Academy of Design, of the English 

Jewel and Eagle. 

East India Company, of the Russia Company, of the Society of Antiquaries 
of London, of the Archaeological Society of Greece, and of the French 
Academy. He took a deep interest in the foundation of the French Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science. He was President of the American 
Social Science Congress at Albany in 1868, and Vice-President of the British 
Social Science Congress at Plymouth in 1870. He was an honorary member 
of a great number of learned societies. He had received the Thirty-second 
Degree in Masonry in America, and Greece conferred upon him the highest, 
namely, the Thirty-third. He made a series of rich collections of unpub- 
lished historical documents in each country which he has visited. Among 
the more remarkable were those upon the Franco-German war, including the 
siege and the commune ; upon modern and mediaeval Greece ; upon the 
Colonial and Revolutionary War of America, and upon English history and 
antiquities. During a visit to Switzerland in 1879. he discovered a series of 
important unpublished letters from many of the most distinguished men in 
Europe of the eighteenth century, including Voltaire, Rousseau, Gibbon, 
Frederick the Great, and Malesherbes. He was the author of many public 
addresses, official reports, learned papers, and an important historical inquiry 
concerning Henry Hudson, originally delivered in the form of the first anni- 

308 Rossiana. 

versary discourse before the Historical Society of Delaware, and published 
at Albany in 1866, which received the highest commendation from the most 
eminent scholars in Europe and America. An abridged edition of this work 
was published at Edinburgh in 1882 by the Clarendon Historical Society. In 
1876 his letter upon the death of his friend, the eminent historian. Lord Stan- 
hope, was published in Athens in Greek and English. General Read, as 
United States Minister, received the thanks of his government for his prompt 
and efficient protection of American persons and interests in the dangerous 
crisis in Greece in February, 1878. Shortly afterwards, the United States 
Congress having, from motives of economy, suppressed the appropriation for 
the Legation at Alliens. General Read, at the suggestion of the State Depart- 
ment, and at the earnest request of the King and the minister of foreign 
affairs of Greece, consented to continue to act. and carried on the diplomatic 
representation at that court at his own expense until the 23d of September, 
1879. when he resigned. On this occasion the Secretary of State addressed 
to him an official dispatch expressing the extreme regret of the United States 
government at his retirement, and concluding thus: '"The manner in which 
you have conducted the duties as minister of this government in Greece has 
been such as to merit hearty approval; and the patriotic sacrifices which you 
have made in order to secure, without interruption, the representation of the 
United States in that country, entitle you to the respect and commendation 
of your countrymen. It gives me great pleasure to repeat the frequently ex- 
pressed satisfaction with which this government has regarded your conduct 
of the interests entrusted to you during a period of eleven years in the for- 
eign service of the country, and my own sincere concurrence therewith. 
Your performance of the delicate and important duties of Consul-General in 
Paris during the Franco-German war was such as to call forth the approba- 
tion not only of your own government, but also of the French and German 
authorities; and your subsequent service .is a diplomatic representative of 
the United States in Greece has received the frequent commendation of this 
ernment. While the government is thus unfortunately deprived of your 
services in an important capacity. 1 cannot but hope that you will still have 
many years of happiness and usefulness before you. and that your country 
may continue to enjoy your active interest in all that concerns its prosperity." 
The official organ of the Prime Minister of Greece expressed its opinions in 
the highest terms, saying : " The departure of General Read from Greece 
has called forth universal regrets. He has become one of the most remark- 
able authorities in all matters relating to the Eastern Question, and there 
is certainly no foreigner who understands as well as he the character and 
capabilities of the Greek race. YVe are certain that his eminent abilities will 
not fail Greece in the present juncture, when the territorial question is not 
yet solved. He is so well known throughout Europe, and counts among his 
friends so many influential persons in England, France and Germany, that 
his views cannot fail to have the most happy influence." The moment he 
was freed from official ties. General Read set to work with generous ardor 
to promote the interests of the struggling people who were then pleading 
their cause before Europe, bringing all the resources of his unrivaled ac- 
quaintance with Eastern affairs to bear in the highest quarters. He jour- 
neyed, at his own expense, from one important point to another, arguing and 

General John Meredith Read. 


urging the return to Greece of at least a portion of the ancient territories 
lying beyond her present borders. During his long sojourn in Greece he 
had won the confidence alike of the sovereign and of the people, and he was 
in a position to see that additional territory was essential to the existence of 
the Greeks as a nation. When the efforts of King George and his ministers 
were crowned with success the unselfish labors of General Read were not 
overlooked. The newly appointed Greek minister to London was directed, 
while passing through Paris, to convey to him the thanks of his government; 
and the King, who shortly afterwards visited that metropolis, called upon 
him to express His Majesty's personal thanks. In 1S81, when the territories 
adjudged to Greece had been finally transferred, King George, in recognition 
of General Read's services since his resignation of the post of United States 
Minister, created him a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Redeemer, 

Grand Cross of the Redeemer. 

the highest dignity in the gift of the Greek government, at the same time 
that His Majesty conferred a similar honor upon M. Waddington, Prime 
Minister of France, who had presented the Greek claims to the Berlin Con- 
gress, and upon Count Hatzfeldt, Minister oi Foreign Affairs of Germany, 
who had successfully urged the same claims at Constantinople. For his many 
eminent services to his country during the War of Secession, General Read 
was named Honorary Companion of the Military Order of the Loyal- Legion. 
The French government offered the commandership of the Legion of Honor 
to him, which he declined. 

When the Historical Society of Delaware was organized in 1S64, Chief 
Justice Read, of Pennsylvania, was the chairman of the delegation appointed 
by the Historical Society of Pennsylvania to be present ; and on the same 
occasion his cousin, Mr. William Thompson Read, of New Castle, was chosen 
first vice-president, and General Meredith Read was invited to deliver the 

310 Rossi a ii a. 

first anniversary address before the Society, to which allusion lias already 
been made. For this and many other services General Read was elected an 
honorary member of the Society. He was an honorary member and after- 
ward a regular member of the revived Society of the Cincinnati of Delaware. 

General Meredith Read married at Albany. New York, on the 7th of April. 
iS^Cj, Delphine Marie, daughter of Harmon Pumpelly, Esq.. an eminent citizen 
of Albany, whose father. John Pumpelly, born in 1727 (on the same day as 
the celebrated General Wolfe), served with distinction in the early Indian 
and French wars was present at the siege of Louisburg, was at the side of 
Wolfe when he fell, mortally wounded, on the heights of Abraham, in 1759. 
and assisted in closing that heroic commander's eyes. John Pumpelly was 
also an officer of merit during the war of the Revolution, and attained a 
great age. dying in his ninety-third year, in 1S20. The Pumpelly family, like 
the Wadsworth family, removed in the latter part of the last century from 
Connecticut to Western New York, where they acquired large landed prop- 
erties. Mr. Harmon Pumpelly, who was born in Salisbury. Connecticut, on 
the 5th of August, 1795, died at Albany on the 29th of September, 1882, in 
the eighty-eighth year of his aye. His three elder brothers. James. Charles 
and William, like him readied r 11 advanced age. and were distinguished also 
for their wealth, philanthropy and public spirit. Mr. Harmon Pumpelly was 
largely interested in all the most important institutions and enterprises of 
central and western New York, and hi- home was the -eat of a refined and 
unremitting hospitality. 

Mrs. Read, nee Pumpelly, one of the most beautiful and attractive women 
of her day. was as popular at Athens as she was at Paris, and her salon in 
both capitals was a centre of American and European fashion and culture. 
Mrs. Read also gave proof of the highest attributes of womanhood, viz., 
courage and humanity, in the most trying moments of the Franco-German 
war. During the horrors of the siege of the Commune she remained in Paris 
with her husband and calmly faced the terrible dangers of that time. 

They had four children. Major Harmon Pumpelly Read, John Meredith 
Read. Jr.. Mi-- Emily Meredith Read, now Mrs. Edwards Spencer, and 
Delphine Marie Meredith Read, now Countess Max de bora-. General John 
Meredith Read died December 27, [896. 

Harmon Pumpelly Read, eldest son of Gen. Meredith Read, and his wife. 
Delphine Marie Pumpelly. was born at Albany, New York, on the 13th day 
of lul\. [860. Educated at Paris and Athens, at a military school, and at 
Trinity College, he became a member of the Historical Societies of Penn- 
sylvania and Xew York, a fellow of the Royal Geographical Society of Lon- 
don, and a fellow of the Geographical Society of Paris. He has devoted 
much time to historical research: is an active and influential member of the 
Republican party: was a candidate for the Legislature in a strong Democratic 
district, where he greatly reduced the Democratic majority; and was 
elected President of the Young Men's Association of Albany — a position 
to which some of the most eminent men in the State of Xew York have 
aspired. He was Inspector of Ride Practice, with the rank of Major, in 
the Xew York State National Guard. Major Read is an eminent Mason, 
and one of the most learned members of the craft in Masonic history, and 


General John Meredith Read. 


has reached the thirty-second degree. He is captain-general of the Knights 
of the Golden Cord. Ancient French Rite. He is one of the authorities on 
Symbolism and Heraldry in the United States, and has written many notable 
articles for the newspapers of the country and many other publications. His 

Major Harmon Pumpelly Read. 

ancestor in the sixth degree was one of the founders of the first Lodge of 
Masons in America. His grandfather. Chief Justice Read of Pennsylvania, 
was Grand Master of Masons, as was his cousin, Hon. William Thompson 
Read of Delaware, while his father. General Meredith Read, received the 
highest degree in masonry from the Grand Council of Greece. He was 
Regent three years of Philip Livingston Chapter, Sons of the Revolution. 

3 I2 

Rossi an a. 

He was Acting Chairman of the Committee of Eminent Citizens appointed 
by the Mayor of Albany to receive the Duke of Veragua. He was also 
secretary of the committee of citizens appointed by the mayor to receive the 
Postal Congress. Captain and Governor-General of the Knights of Albion. 

First National Guard of- 
ficer to receive official 
recognition as such in 
France. Married Mar- 
guerite de Carron d'Al- 
londans. (Arms of Car- 
ron d'Allondans azure 3 
titles or, Crest out of a 
coronet an eagle dis- 
played, hearing on its 
breast a tile. ) 

John Meredith Read, 
Jr.. second son of Gen- 
eral .Meredith Read, and 
his wife Delphine Marie 
Pumpelly, horn at Al- 
bany. New York, on the 
27th of June, 1869, is a 
member of the Historical 
Societies of Pennsylvania 
and New York. During 
the Spanish War he 
raided a regiment of 2,700 
men. 800 of whom were 
in the city of Albany. He 
married Countess Alix 
de Foras ; he has one son, 
John Meredith Read. 

Emily Meredith Read, 
eldest daughter of Gen- 
eral Meredith Read, and 
his wife Delphine Marie 
Pumpelly. married at her 
father's residence, New- 
port; Rhode Island, on 
the 21st of August. ^884. 
Francis Aquila Stout, 
Esq.. of New York, son 
of the late A. G. Stout. 
Esq., by his wife, Louise 
Morris, of Morrisania, a 
granddaughter of the Hon. Lewis Morris, a signer of the Declaration of 
Independence, and grand-niece of Hon. Gouverneur Morris, one of the fram- 
ers of the Constitution of the United States, and afterwards United States 
Minister to France. She married, secondly, Edwards Spencer, Esq., a 
descendant of Jonathan Edwards. 

Colonel Johx Meredith Read (1S69 ), in cos 

tume representing George Read, the Signer, ii 
Revolutionary Tableaux at Albany Bi-Centennial 


General John Meredith Read. 313 

Marie Delphine Meredith Read, second daughter of General Meredith 
Read, and his wife Delphine Marie Pumpelly, was horn in Paris, while her 
father was United States Consul-General to France, and was christened at 
the American Episcopal Church in the Rue Bayard, her godfather being Sir 
Bernard Burke; married Count Max de Foras, of the Castles of Marclaz 
and Thuyset ; they have three children: Countess Huguette, Countess Del- 
phine and Count Joseph. Arms of Foras are or a cross azure. 

The arms of the Read family are gules a saltire, between four garbs or. 
Crest, on the stump of a tree vert a falcon rising belled and jessed or. 

Motto — Cedant Arma Togae. 


The illustration on the opposite page represents General John Meredith 
Read's book-plate, which gives his coat-of-arms as a Knight Grand 
Cross of the Order of the Redeemer. In connection with these arms, 1 think 
it will be of some interest to the readers of this work to give the appended 
letter to General Read from H. M. the King of Greece. General Read 
had asked His Majesty to give him an augmentation to his arms — if I 
remember rightly he wished supporters, which would symbolically hand down 
for all time a record of his distinguished services. It was unfortunate that 
His Majesty did not stretch a point, as he did, I believe, in the case of the 
title given to his eldest son, the Duke of Sparta ; for it was a little, a very 
little, thing that General Read asked, and, after all, it was asked only because 
of his children. The letter, however, is most interesting and is one of a 
great many owned by the author and compiler. This letter, in my humble 
opinion, shows a charming character — there is such a delicacy of sentiment 
and such an evident desire to avoid offending an old and tried friend. 

Letter to General Read from H. M. George I of Greece. 

General Meredith Read, 

128 Rue la Boetie, 

Cnamps Elysees, 


Athens 19th Decbr 1893. 
My Dear General — 

Will you kindly accept my excuses for not having answered and thanked 
you yet for your very kind letter? You must have seen from the papers 
the course of political affairs here, and I am sure you will understand how 
difficult it was for me to find a quiet moment in the midst of all that trouble 
and anxiety. Of course you know that, my thoughts as usual, are very often 
with you. 

I have asked my wife to give me one of her new photos, which I shall 
send you next week, she hopes it will please Mrs. Read, and show you 
how much we always think of you. We are very sorry indeed to hear that 
Mrs. Read is continuing to suffer, but we sincerely hope she will recover 

Xmas and the new year being at hand, I beg you and Mrs. Read to accept 
our very best and most heartfelt good wishes, may every blessing attend 

314 Rossi ana. 

you and yours. The Almighty alone knows what this year will bring us 
here. I feel very sad and melancholy about the future. Though the measures 
taken by the government now are only provisoires, the situation is very 
uneasy and complicated. I have been thinking much about your desire 
concerning the addition to your coat of arms. The Greek Constitution does 
not acknowledge titles or coats of arms, therefore I do not know if I have 
a right to confer even an addition to existing coats of arms. As to the 
Greek grand cross, as well as all the minor decorations, it is exclusively a 
personal distinction and cannot, as weli as its motto, be handed over to 
one's male or female heirs. 

I feel quite sure, my dear General, that you will understand the reasons 
why I think that it perhaps would be difficult for me to fulfil this wish of 
yours, which it, of course, would have been a real pleasure for me to do at 
once. I wrote to you quite openly, as befits old and true friends, and I 
know you will not misunderstand me. With my best wishes for a Happy 
New Year, and thanking you once more from all my heart for your very 
kind letter, believe me, dear General ever your very sincere and affectionate 

George I. 
Letter from Queen Alexandra. 

A recognition of the services of General Meredith Read to the Kingdom 
of Greece, and to the King of that country, is contained in a letter to General 
Read from the present Queen of England, sister of King George I. of Greece, 
which letter is now in possession of the compiler. The letter reads: 



January 6th, 1879. 
Dear General Re\d: 

I cannot allow the New Year to begin without writing a few lines to thank 
you for all you have done, and for all the devotion you have shown my dear 
brother during the one that has just closed. 

Believe me. I am deeply touched by it, and have considered that should 
an}- good befall my dear brother and his country it will be in a great measure 
owing to the efforts you have made in his behalf. I am certain he will never 
forget or cease to appreciate your untiring exertions, and will always regard 
you as one of his truest and most constant friends. God grant that this noble 
cause may at last be crowned with success. 

With many thanks for your kind letters, and every good wish for a happy 
New Year for you and Mrs. Read, believe me. dear General Read, 

Yours sincerely, 




GENERAL JOHN MEREDITH READ, during the latter years of his 
life, was engaged in the preparation of an autobiography, and though 
much had been written, it was unfinished at the time of Ins death. The 
appended extracts from General Read's unpublished narrative may be found of 
interest to the readers of this volume: 


I was born in my father's old mansion in Sixth street, Washington Square, 
Philadelphia, when that part of the city was a very fashionable locality. 
I first saw the light on the 21st of February, 1837, and a few hours later the 
bells and cannon were ushering in the birthday of Washington. In conse- 
quence of this there was always a joke in the family that I was a Colonial 
character, for I was born before the Father of Our Country. My coming 
was a source of great rejoicing, for the five children who preceded me were 
all girls, and were all dead in early infancy save one — my sister Emily, who 
was born on the 5th of January. 1829. and died in New York on the 20th of 
April, 1854. I was a child of good and generous impulses, which were 
fostered by my family surroundings. 

In the old garden grew magnificent tulips, an inheritance from my great- 
grandmother, Mrs. George Read, and pinks both white and red ; the myrtle 
crept along the wall, the modest violet peeped from beneath the box. the 
lily of the valley and the snowdrop nestled in the sunshine, and whenever 
I hold in my hand a bit of lemon verbena, the perfume brings before me the 
great shrubs which my mother planted and which stood at the entrance of 
the marble bridge which led into the garden. 

The old mulberry tree in the corner was my favorite resort. On a high 
branch, among the luxuriant foliage, I had constructed a seat, to which I 
would climb with one of Scott's novels and a bag of sweet cakes, and. 
drawing up my rope ladder, remain for hours entranced in the creations of 
the great Scotchman. 

Odors are strange things. The other day I found a magnolia blossom 
from lower Florida, and it brought before me immediately my dear Aunt 
Margaret, my father's sister, who spent some time in that country, but who 
has been dead thirty-four years. 

In my childhood many odd customs and objects still remained which have 
since disappeared. The streets were filled with strange cries, and the 
chimney-sweep was a familiar sight. Each hour of the night was called, 
ending with " and all is well." In the neighborhood of Washington and 
Independence Squares — then surrounded by a high iron spear fence, whose 
points were gilded, and which was divided at regular intervals by iron posts 

316 Rossiana. 

representing ancient Roman fasces — were scattered the round boxes of the 
city watchmen, who were to be found therein in all cold and stormy nights, 
wrapped in huge " watch coats," with capes and high collars. These boxes 
were large enough to shelter two or three persons, and a small iron stove, 
which served to warm the weary and chilly in the long winter nights; and it 
was the amusement of roystering youngsters to catch the city guardians 
napping and tip over their towers. 

I forgot to mention the great English walnut tree which grew in an 
adjoining garden, threw its huge limbs over our premises, and in the autumn 
generously showered the ripe treasure on walk and lawn. 

The house was a roomy mansion, filled with mysterious nooks and corners. 
It had three cellars ■ — one below the other, and in the lowest were three 
wells, for what purpose no one ever knew. In the centre of the house was a 
winding staircase, which ran from the ground floor to the garret, and was 
lighted by a glass dome on which the rain pattered and the hail sometimes 
rattled like shot. 

The high balustrade beneath the dome was the place of execution for the 
dolls, who were sometimes suspended for high treason. Their residence 
was- in a large " baby house " which belonged to my sister, and which, with 
the movable doors and windows and furniture, was a constant source of 
delight. The garrets of this old home were filled with the remains of two 
centuries of family life, and many articles of antiquity, now worth their 
weight in gold, were carelessly thrust into these huge receptacles, which 
were my favorite resorts ; for even at a tender age I took the strongest 
interest in whatever was ancient and illustrated a partially forgotten period. 

There was some strange connection between the outer air and the lower 
cellar wells ; for when I was a very little boy I dropped a tin sword through 
an aperture in the exterior basement wall of the house, and I heard it 
clanging down the sides and finally falling with a splash into the water. 
A thorough search did not reveal whither it had gone. 

The great rooms and halls in the old house were filled with ancient books 
and pictures, and from the walls looked down the full-length portraits of 
many generations of departed ancestors. 

As the logs on the spacious hearth threw out brilliant lights and dense 
shadows, the originals seemed stepping from the frames to mingle in the 
dreams of their youthful representative. 

One experience is deeply imprinted upon my memory. I had gone to bed 
early in my vast, high, old-fashioned four-post bedstead, into which I 
climbed with the aid of several mahogany steps, and was suddenly awakened 
by terrific claps of thunder, and, as I sat up in bed, my little heart throbbing 
with fear, a flash of lightning played across the life-sized portrait of an 
ancestress dressed in a white satin court robe, and as the lightning vanished, 
by its expiring spark I saw through the long windows the white tombstones 
in the old unused cemetery far away on Fifth street. I shall never forget 
the sensation of that terrific moment — the being of one hundred and fifty 
years ago seemed to be aroused to life and beckoning me with its well- 
fashioned hand towards the abode of the departed. To this day I always 
look upon that picture with a shudder. 

Recollections of General Meredith Read. 317 

After many years' absence, and after my father's death, I came back and 
found the old house occupied by a community of nuns, and an altar stood on 
the very spot where I was born, in the great back room of the second story. 

The family papers and correspondence furnished me with a complete 
insight into the changes and chances of political and fashionable life during 
two hundred years. In the mouldering pages I saw the rise of new families, 
and traced with emotion the extinction of many distinguished names. It is 
an interesting journey backwards into the centuries which are gone, and one 
makes acquaintance with all that is really worth knowing in the social history 
of the country. For society only began to settle down into comfortable 
existence at the close of the seventeenth century — and it was still very far 
from the luxuries of the nineteenth. It is true that there was more form 
and ceremony, and the unfortunate spirit of equality had not yet reached 
its present height. 

As I grew in intellectual stature under the guidance of able tutors and the 
decided influence of my father, I felt my deficiencies and was inclined to say 
" I know nothing." Then, as I was told I was really making a progress 
which was worthy of my age and my opportunities, I plucked up courage and 
fell to work with renewed ardor. 

My first inclination was for a military life. This idea met with the 
greatest opposition on the part of my father ; but it was finally agreed that, if 
after trying a period of instruction at a preparatory military school, I still 
desired to enter West Point, not only would there be no opposition to it 
on the part of my father, but that he would at once procure me an appoint- 
ment, his commanding influence making this a very easy matter. I accord- 
ingly pursued my studies at a celebrated military institution in the State of 
New York. 

My plans, however, were entirely frustrated a year or two later by an 
accident which occurred during an absence at home, from an explosion of 
percussion powder, which shattered my right hand in the most dreadful 
manner and laid me for months upon a bed of excruciating and dangerous 

I shall never forget the morning that I stood in the old hall entirely 
alone, holding together with my left hand, which was also wounded, the 
shattered remains of the other, with the blood also streaming from my face 
and head. The servants, all possessed with a sudden fear, had rushed out of 
the house to seek for surgical or medical aid, and there I, a boy of only 
fourteen, was left alone to look death in the face, for there seemed no hope 
that anyone would come in season to save my life. The nephew of the 
housekeeper, a steady person, fortunately encountered a medical man in the 
street, and, explaining the circumstances, asked him to come at once to my 
assistance. To his indignation and astonishment, however, the doctor hesi- 
tated, saying that he did not wish to interfere with the family physician. 
" But," said Francis, " the young gentleman is bleeding to death." and 
seeing that he still declined to come in, he seized him by the collar and 
forced him into the house and stood over him until the first dressings had 
been made. The doctor then thought of severing the thumb and half of the 
hand which were but slightly connected with the wrist with a pair of 

318 Rossiana. 

scissors ; but I had sense enough to combat this idea, in which I was sec- 
onded by our old housekeeper Trainor. Thus the matter went on until the 
arrival of Drs. Keating and Norris. who cared for me with that skill for 
which the\' were so famous. They seemed to think that I behaved with great 
courage and fortitude, especially as I refused to take anodynes ; and, looking 
back upon it now, it appears to me that for a youth of that age to bear such 
a calamity with a light heart, a gay laugh and a thought for others was not 
a bad thing. 

This accident had a curious effect upon my constitution. Up to that time 
I had been short, round and muscular, with a tine ruddy complexion and 
every evidence of robust health. I issued from this illness, which at one 
time threatened to terminate my life by lockjaw, lean, lank and feeble, and 
for years I never knew what health was. My military taste, however, 
although this accident put an end to my receiving a regular military educa- 
tion at West Point, was not cooled ; and while at Brown University, at the 
early age of eighteen, I became captain of a company in the regiment called 
the National Cadets, which afterwards furnished a large number of efficient 
officers to the Union army during the Rebellion. It was at this time that I 
made General Bnrnside's acquaintance, who was then at the head of the 
Rhode Island Militia, with the rank of major-general, and in after years 
succeeded General McClellan in command of the Army of the Potomac. 

Colonel William Sprague, in those days, commanded the Marine Artillery. 
He had a slim, delicate, yet wiry, figure. His features were prominent, his 
dark eyes were full of tire, and his straight black hair and slight moustache 
and beard contrasted with his rich complexion, in which the blood mantled 
when he was aroused. His movements were quick and nervous, and he had 
a perfect command over his men. 

When the war came on he was Governor of Rhode Island, and in conse- 
quence of his previous experience he was enabled to offer immediately a 
regiment and a battery of light horse artillery which he led to the field. 
He served with distinction during the peninsular campaign, having one or 
more horses shot under him. and was offered and declined the commission 
of brigadier-general. Shortly after he was chosen to the United States 
Senate, where he served for six years, and was then re-elected, serving six 
more, twelve in all. /. <\, from 1863 to 1875. 

Two years after becoming a captain in the National Cadets I was appointed 
by Governor William Hoppin, of Rhode Island, one of his military aides, 
with the rank of colonel, and in this situation I made the personal acquaint- 
ance of all the leading military and public men in that State and in the 
surrounding States. 

Governor Hoppin belonged to a family distinguished for its charming 
manners and its artistic, literary, political and social tastes. His father, 
Mr. Benjamin Hoppin, erected, in the early part of this century, on the north 
side of Westminster street in Providence, a stately brick mansion with 
graceful white pillars on the front, which ran from a spacious piazza up to 
the projecting roof, which it supported. Each of the windows of the two 
upper stories was ornamented by graceful wrought-iron balconies. This 
house seemed to be so out of proportion to the elder Mr. Hoppin's needs — 


Recollections of General Meredith Read. 319 

for at that time he was unmarried — that his neighbors called it " Hoppin's 
Folly." He soon, however, demonstrated his wisdom by taking unto himself 
a most agreeable wife and filling the spacious rooms with children. In this 
delightful home Governor Hoppin was born as long ago as 1807, and he died 
a year or two ago in a fine residence which he had erected upon the property 
adjoining his birthplace. He was a man of the most genial manners and 
with a keen sense of humor. He sat a horse with remarkable grace, and 
I can see him now with his son, Colonel Frederick Street Hoppin, by his 
side as we galloped forward towards the reviewing line. His town house 
and his country seat at Warwick Neck were the scene of much attractive and 
generous hospitality, presided over for many years by his agreeable wife — 
who was a sister of Mr. Augustus Russell Street, of New Haven, who 
founded the Street Professorship of Modern Languages in Yale College and 
the Titus Street Professorship in the theological department, and presented 
to Yale one of its most attractive buildings, the School of Fine Arts. Gov- 
ernor Hoppin's brother, the Rev. Dr. Mason Hoppin, is a clergyman and 
author of high distinction. Their uncle, Mr. Thomas Hoppin, resided on 
the upper part of Westminster street in a roomy mansion which has been 
commemorated by his accomplished son, the artist and author, Mr. Augustus 
Hoppin, in a volume entitled " Recollections of Auton House." The latter's 
brother. Mr. Thomas Frederick Hoppin. studied under Delaroche in Paris, 
and designed the four Evangelists which compose the great chancel window 
of Trinity Church in New York. He likewise modelled the figure of a dog, 
which is believed to have been the first piece of sculpture cast in bronze in 
the United States. He married a well-known heiress. Miss Jenkins, and 
resided in my youth on Benefit street, in a beautiful house whose outlines 
and interior decorations were due to his taste. Another brother. Mr. William 
Jones Hoppin. was one of the founders of the Century Club of New York, 
which resembles in its aims and composition the Athenaeum Club of London. 
He is widely and agreeably known in England, having been for ten years 
Secretary of Legation at the Court of St. James, and at various times acting 
as Charge d'Affaires. 


About 1850 my aunt. Mrs. Woods, bought a beautiful tract of land on the 
very summit of Warwick Neck, Rhode Island. Upon this she built a hand- 
some residence with a tower, from whence the eye ranged along Narragansett 
Bay from Providence to Newport, a distance of thirty miles. Looking east 
we could just discern the dim outlines of Bristol, on the opposite shore; 
and. turning to the west, the ground rolled down to the waters of Greenwich 
Bay. behind whose skirting hills the sun sank to rest among the glories which 
light up declining day in that part of America. 

This was the first northern country house which was fitted throughout in 
the interior with southern pine. Sitting on the broad piazzas we saw the 
vessels gliding by, and marked the more rapid course of the excursion 
steamers. The lawns, with their rare shrubs and many colored flowers, 
swept to a ridge, beyond whose outlines lay the vegetable gardens, enclosed 
upon the other side by a second ridge. Here grew sweet potatoes and many 
things usually only to be found in southern latitudes. Bevond, groves of 

320 Rossiana. 

fine trees marched in intersecting lines to the bay, where a pier, pleasure 
boats and bathing houses held out many temptations. 

It was delicious to bathe in the early morning beneath the widespreading 
foliage of " Horn Spring," as the eastern part of the property was called, or 
to push out under graceful sail, and sweeping through the waves, tempt the 
many fish with gaily tinted ribbons. 

Opposite, in the wide waters, stretched the Islands Patience, Prudence, 
Hope and Despair. On the two former in the autumn there was good sport 
with dog and gun. Here was excellent plover shooting, and there were ducks 
in abundance, while woodchucks awaited our attacks in holes which seemed 
to penetrate to the center of the earth. 

Prudence Island, by the way, was originally the property of Governor 
John Winthrop, chief executive of Massachusetts and the founder of Boston. 

At the end of the Neck was a lighthouse, and a little way out we used to 
lie in our boats for hours fishing for shark and dog fish. There was a strong 
chain and iron hook, baited with pork, with which we landed many an ugly 

When I visited Warwick Castle in 1857 I carried away from Guy's Tower 
a root of ivy, which I planted at Warwick House — and it flourished and 
grew until it completely embowered the tower in which my apartments were; 
and there seemed a certain fitness in this; for Warwick, in Rhode Island, 
received its name from the Earl of Warwick two centuries and a half ago. 
After my aunt's death the house was accidentally burnt to the ground, and 
when I returned there a few years ago I found nothing but a heap of ruins, 
whose melancholy segments were almost entirely covered by the growth of 
the little spray of ivy which I had originally placed there. 

On Warwick Neck many agreeable families finally built summer residences, 
including the Hoppins, the Malls and the Ives, and beyond Apponaug were 
the hospitable seats of the Goddards. Driving from Providence one came 
first to the village of Patuxet and next to the seat of the Francis family. 

Warwick Neck was named by the Indians originally Shawomet, meaning 
a spring. 

The township was sometimes also jokingly called " Greeneland," for it was 
the stronghold of that remarkable family, and every other man seemed to 
be named Greene. 

Besides giving several Colonial Governors to Rhode Island, this family 
contributed to the Revolutionary cause Colonel Christopher Greene, the 
hero of Fort Mercer, and General Nathaniel Greene, who stood second only 
to Washington in military skill and force of character. I well remember 
Judge Albert C. Greene, the author of "The Baron's Last Banquet" and 
" Old Grimes ; " also Mr. Albert G. Greene, Attorney-General of Rhode 
Island, and the venerable Chief Justice Greene, and Mr. Arnold Greene, of 
Providence, a distinguished lawyer and eminent scholar, who was my class- 
mate and friend : and General George S. Greene, a graduate of West Point, 
who distinguished himself in the service of the government in the War of 
the Rebellion, served for many years as chief engineer of the Croton Aque- 
duct, and is still living, in his ninetieth year, in the full enjoyment of his 
remarkable physical and mental qualities. 

Recollections of General Meredith Read. 321 

I nearly lost my life at Warwick Neck in this wise: While I was shooting 
on the low grounds bordering on Greenwich Bay. I fell into a quagmire or 
quicksand hole, and in an instant was up to my shoulders and would have 
quickly disappeared. Fortunately my gun fell across the treacherous spot and 
touched solid ground on either side, and after superhuman struggles I freed 
myself. No one was with me, and those slimy waters might have closed 
over my quivering body — and I might have disappeared forever without 
leaving the slightest clue to my dreadful fate. 

I never hear of quicksands without a shudder — as the agony of that 
terrible moment, long ago, shoots into my memory. 

Before the completion of my aunt's house on Warwick Neck I remember 
staying with her at the Gardiner House, which was situated at the entrance 
to the Neck, at the head of a cove, beyond which lay the farm of Mr. Randall 
Holden, whose ancestor Randall Holden. was one of the original purchasers 
of Warwick in 1642 from Miantonomi, chief of the Narragansett Indians. 
It stood under the shade of ancient trees, and its lands comprised perhaps 
a hundred acres. 

Mr. Thomas Wickes Gardiner was its owner. He was a tall, slender 
man. with prominent features, and a voice which seemed to indicate weakness 
of the chest ; nevertheless, he lived to a good old age, dying a few years ago 
at between eighty and ninety. 

The Gardiner Arms hung in the drawing-room, with this quaint inscrip- 
tion : " He beareth Or on a Chevron Gules, between three Griffons Heads 
eraz'd Azure, two Lyons passant Respecting each other Argent, Crest, a 
Saracen's Head full fae'd eraz'd at the Neck, having on a cap of Or, by the 
name of Gardiner." 

The fireplace in this room had a back plate with a monogram and the date 
1726. Around it ran a double row of purple tiles, representing the tower of 
Babel, Abraham and Isaac, David before Saul, Grapes of Eskalon, Joshua and 
Caleb, Moses on the Mount, Rebecca at the Well, Jonah and the Whale, 
Pharaoh crossing the Red Sea, and the somewhat improperly suggestive 
picture of Joseph escaping from Potiphar's Wife. 

Over the front door the date of the erection of the house was repeated ; 
and in the hall stood a fine old-fashioned long clock, made by William Clag- 
gett in Newpo rt, Rhode Island ^ who was born in 1696 and died in 1749. 

In the bedrooms, on the second floor, the porcelain tiles were blue and 
represented rustic scenes. 

Near the house stood a deep well of excellent water, which was reached 
by one of the ancient " well sweeps," once universal in rural neighborhoods 
in New England. 

There was on this property an old orchard, which, like many others in 
anciently settled places in New England near the sea, had been utterly 
neglected, and produced a crop of fibrous apples which even my youthful 
teeth could not penetrate. I suppose that by this time the crops each year 
are veritable wooden apples. 

The farmer, who resided in a small house on my aunt's property, and had 
entire charge of the place during the absence of the family, was extremely 
nice to me in every way ; and when I drove down to the Neck in the winter, 

322 Rossiana. 

with some of my young companions, for a little duck shooting, he had 
everything in order in the big house and large fires in all the rooms to give 
us a warm welcome. In the warmer seasons he taught me where to find the 
favorite pools of the trout and the best game covers. One very hot Sunday 
he begged me to give him the pleasure of my company to church. Although 
I did not feel much inclined to go, I did not like to hurt his feelings, and 
consequently accompanied him. 

He was a worthy Baptist, and worshipped in a little church which then 
stood a short distance beyond the entrance to the Neck. We arrived rather 
late, and, entering the ancient little building on tiptoe, proceeded to take a 
back seat. The windows were open, but there was little or no air stirring, 
and under the influence of the drowsy hum of the minister and the insects 
my poor friend fell fast asleep, and began to snore in the most frightful 
manner. Fearing that this would lead to his disgrace, I took out my cravat 
pin intending to give him a gentle little prick which might bring him to his 
senses. Unfortunately, in carrying out my intention I slipped, and the 
sharp golden rod went up to the hilt in an extremely tender part of his 
body. With one wild yell, that made us for an instant think that the Indians 
were upon us, he planted his feet against the back of the opposite seat, and, 
with a superhuman effort, broke down the back of his own and fell with it 
upon the top of a stove, which he also demolished, with its long and serpen- 
tine pipe. The meeting broke up in the greatest disorder, but the honest 
farmer never knew what hurt him. He imparted to me though that he 
thought " rheumatics is sometimes cussed wicked things." 

On one occasion I was talking with this kindly son of the soil about 
Dr. Samuel Johnson and his famous dictionary. " Dr. Johnson ? " he 
queried, scratching his head. " There never was any doctor of that name 
in Warwick ! 

My aunt. Mrs. Woods, as I first remember her, was a woman of remark- 
able attractions and accomplishments. Her dark chestnut hair, when 
released, swept in rippling masses to the ground. Her eyes were hazel and 
darkened or lightened as she talked. She had a retrousse nose and a sensi- 
tive mouth, which broke into sunny smiles, displaying beautiful teeth. Her 
complexion was delicate and the color in her cheek came and went with 
each varying emotion. She had a sweetly modulated voice, and whatever 
subject she touched she enlightened by her rich and original imagination. 
She was fitted to adorn a court. For her manners were perfect, and she 
had a natural gift of inducing each person to appear at his best. 

She loved music, and her acquaintance with painting was so remarkable 
that she discovered and secured, at that early day, some of the best pictures 
by old Italian masters. Under her guidance, I became acquainted with the 
works and biographies of all the great men of past times in literature and in 
art. She was fond of society and largely contributed to the entertainment 
of her friends. At the same time she was essentially but not obtrusively 
devout. She established and sustained a Bible class in the poorhouse, 
where, as long as her health allowed, she resorted regularly, bearing hope 
and comfort to many a desnairing soul. At Christmas her servants carried 
there a wagon load of presents which she distributed with her own hands, 

Recollections of General Meredith Read. 323 

with a loving and appropriate word for each recipient. After her health 
failed her husband, the Rev. Dr. Woods, carried on these charitable ministra- 
tions. He likewise in charity preached regularly every Sunday at the State 
prison — when many were moved and comforted by his words. 

My aunt's town and country houses were filled with the works of the 
good and great of all nations, and I was there made acquainted with the 
British poets and all the prose writers who have illumined British letters. 

My aunt had a keen eye for likenesses, and I remember that there hung 
in the library an engraving representing John Knox administering the 
communion. The principal female figure bore a striking resemblance to her 
celebrated sister, the beautiful Emily Marshall, afterwards Mrs. William 
Foster Otis. Passing by a print shop in Boston she had noticed this picture 
in the window and eagerly bought the engraving. 

I used to drive from Providence with a pair of spirited horses, taking 
care to load the carriage with all the latest newspapers, reviews and books. 
One afternoon I started rather late, and arrived at the Warwick woods in 
the midst of intense darkness and a terrible tempest, which bent the huge 
trees as if they were saplings. Suddenly the lightning flashed on all sides, 
and trees were struck to the right and to the left of the shadowy wood. 

It was at the same moment that my friend, Colonel William Goddard, was 
landing a dozen miles away, at Potowomet, from his pleasure boat. He had 
placed his hand on the bowsprit and was about to spring ashore, when the 
electric current struck his support, ran down his body, melting his gold 
watch chain and studs, burning his boots and half paralyzing him. Assist- 
ance was immediately at hand, and after some months of suffering he arose 
from his bed a perfectly well man. Showing that a Goddard constitution 
will survive even a thunderbolt. 

Spring Green, the seat of Governor John Brown Francis, was situated on 
Narragansett Bay, below Pawtuxet. seven miles from Providence, midway 
between that city and Warwick Neck. It was a fine estate of seven hundred 
acres, which had been purchased in the last century from the Greenes — 
whose ancient family burying ground, I remember, was on the place. 
Mr. John Brown, the grandfather of Governor Francis, bought it in the 
spring of the year, and on this account and because it had belonged to the 
Greenes — he called it Spring Green. The ancient mansion was in part in 
the style of the seventeenth century. The modern portion had a fine door- 
way, over which was the date of this later erection — 1707. 

This interesting old seat was the resort of my early boyhood, and among 
its curiosities I remember in the coachhouse, the old chariot which General 
Washington used when he visited Rhode Island in 1790. 

The body of the old vehicle was suspended on heavy thorough braces 
attached to strong iron holders as large as a man's wrist; the forward ones 
were so curved as to allow the forward wheels to pass under them, in order 
that the chariot might be turned within a small compass. There was but one 
seat for two persons, and there was an elevated seat for the driver, which 
was separated from the main body. The wheels were massive — the hind 
ones being twice the height of the forward ones, and their tires were attached 
to the felloes in several distinct pieces. 

324 Rossidna. 

On the property there was also an old cone-shaped icehouse — probably- 
one of the most ancient in Rhode Island. 

The windows and piazzas of the house commanded fine views of well-kept 
lawns and groves, with the broad waters of Narragansett Bay to the 

Here lived, with patriarchal hospitality, John Brown Francis, for many 
years Governor of Rhode Island and afterwards United States Senator. 
He was a magistrate of fine presence, with a noble forehead, long curling, 
silvery hair, handsome aquiline features, a fresh, ruddy complexion, blue 
eyes and a mobile yet firm mouth. He was a great-grandson of Tench 
Francis, Attorney-General of Pennsylvania in 1750, and his mother was a 
daughter of John Brown, whose large brick mansion, now occupied by his 
descendants, the Gammells, is still standing on Power street in Providence, 
and bears this inscription : " Erected by John Brown Esquire, A. D. 1780." 

My pen might run on with many more of these reminiscences, but I must 
stop, or I will have no chance to tell my later experiences. 

The fact is that I have known intimately in America so many interesting 
and remarkable people from Maine to Louisiana, that I might easily fill a 
dozen volumes with agreeable descriptions; but I must not forget my 
European experiences, which embrace personages and events less known to 
my fellow-countrymen. 

I may, however, be permitted to mention here that my cousin. Mr. Marshall 
Woods, married a beautiful and accomplished daughter of the Spring Green 
House. Their salon in Paris during the Empire was the resort of the most 
distinguished men and women of the day, and for his services to France my 
cousin received from the Emperor the dignity of the Legion of Honour. 


My first memory of a peach is associated with the Maverick House, then 
a fashionable place of resort in East Boston, which was named after the 
celebrated Samuel Mavericke (1602-1670), who settled as early as 1629 on 
Noddle's Island, now East Boston. I was only three years and a half old 
when I enjoyed this luscious fruit, but I can taste that peach yet and enjoy 
the delicious perfume. It was selected with great care from a large basket 
by the majordomo, who was a tall man with a big nose and a large hand. 
1 can remember nothing more about the Maverick House, except what I 
learned in later years. It appears that Mr. Samuel Mavericke, for he wrote 
his name with a final c, shared the property on Noddle's Island with 
Mr. David Thompson, and they built there a small fort with four great guns, 
to protect them from the Indians, somewhere near the site of the later 
Maverick House Hotel. 

Related Families. 


THE ancient family of Meredith of Radnorshire, from whom descended 
General Samuel Meredith, of the American Revolution, was for 
many years seated at Llangunllo (Llangynllo), a parish comprising 
the upper and lower divisions in the union of Knighton, hundred of Kev- 
enlleece. county of Radnor, South Wales, four miles west from Knighton, 
which derived its name from the dedication of its church to Saint Cynllo, 
an ancient British saint who flourished about the middle of the fifth cen- 
tury. The following description of Llangunllo is taken from " Lewis's 
Topographical Dictionary of Wales" (vol. 2, pp. 50, 51; edition of 1848): 

It is situated in the north-eastern portion of the county, about two miles 
to the west of the road leading from Knighton to Pen-y-Bont; and is 
bounded by the parishes of Beguildy and Heyop on the north, on the south 
by that of Blethva, on the east by that of Knighton, and on the west by 
that of Llanbister. It extends nearly four miles in length and three in 
breadth, comprising by computation about 4,000 acres, of which 1,000 are 
arable, 2,500 pasture, and the remainder woodland; the surface is moun- 
tainous, and the scenery, though not distinguished by any striking pecu- 
liarity of features, is in general pleasant, and on the side towards Knighton 
in many parts highly picturesque. The Lug, an inconsiderable stream, runs 
through the parish, which is rich in oak coppice, and commands from the 
more elevated grounds some interesting finely varied prospects of the valley 
of Cwm Heyop, which is partly within the parish; the hills are dry and 
afford good pasturage for sheep; and in the vale the soil is rich and fertile, 
and produces good wheat, oats, barley and turnips. This place is styled 
" Llan Gynllo cum Capellis," and the parochial church of Pillith is said 
to have been formerly a chapel to the mother church of this parish. Llan- 
gunllo with Pillith constitutes a prebend in the collegiate church of Breck- 
nock, valued in the King's Books at £13, and in the gift of the Bishop of 
St. David's. The living is a discharged vicarage, with the perpetual curacy 
of Pillith annexed, rated in the King's Books at £5 is. o^d., and endowed 
with £200 royal bounty ; present net income £98, with a glebe house ; 
patron, the Bishop. Three-fourths of the tithes of this parish, and also 
of that of Pillith, belong to the prebendary of Llangunllo, and the remain- 
der to the vicar ; they have been commuted for a rent-charge of £400, of 
which the sum of £300 is payable to the prebendary and £100 to the vicar; 
which latter is subject to rates, averaging £6 13s. 6d. ; and the incumbent 
also has a glebe of four acres valued at £5 per annum. The church is an 
ancient edifice, consisting of a nave and chancel, and is eighty feet in 
length and thirty in breadth in the middle, and contains about two hundred 
sittings, of which twelve are free. 


The following sketch of the parish of Llangunllo and its departed greatness 
is taken from the " History of Radnorshire," by Rev. J. Williams (pp. 
277, 278) : 

Some years ago the parish of Llangunllo was noted as well for the number 
as for the respectability of its landed proprietors, who resided on their 

328 Rossi ana. 

respective freeholds, and exercised the duties of hospitality. The pressure 
of excessive taxation occasioned by the American and French revolutions has 
destroyed this link of the social chain, and swept away from this parish this 
once respectable and useful order of people. Their dwelling-houses, also, 
which were always open to the stranger and the poor, are fallen into a dilapi- 
dated state, and scarcely competent to shelter the depressed tenant from the 
inclemency of the weather. Even Weston Hall, which was once the residence 
of a Welsh chieftain, from whom was descended Sir William Meredith, a 
patriotic and an eloquent member of the House of Commons, is now reduced 
into so ruinated a condition as to be fit only for the occupation of a pauper, 
though it has become the joint property of Richard Price, Esq., of Knighton, 
M. P., and of Mrs. Pritchard, widow, of Dol-y-felin. The site of this mansion 
still retains some vestiges of its ancient grandeur, and presents many traits 
of delightful scenery. Of late years, however, some of these habitations have 
undergone a tenantable repair, or rebuilt upon an inferior scale. Bailey 
House, indeed, emulates the characteristic feature of better times; situated 
on the brow of a hill, and surrounded with numerous and fine plantations of 
trees, this mansion commands a most beautiful and extensive prospect of the 
vale of the Lug, .and presents to the eye of the traveler, wearied with the 
melancholy view of desolated dwellings, an object singularly refreshing and 

In this parish is an antique farm-house, called Mynach Ty, or Monk-house. 
This was certainly an habitation of that description. Several years ago some 
stone coffins were dug up in the ground adjoining. The present structure is 
chiefly composed of timber and lath, the interstices filled up with mortar, and 
therefore not of so remote a date as monastic edifices in general. Thither 
at the dissolution, in the time of Henry VIII, the ejected monks of the 
Abbey Cwmhir transferred their establishment, and in this seat of seclusion 
from the world maintained privately their former religion and habits, in 
opposition to the recent innovations of Cranmer, &c. 

The inhabitants of the parish of Pilleth retain in their recollections an 
event which evinces that a general dissatisfaction prevailed among the people 
of this kingdom, even in the glorious reign of Queen Anne, similar to that 
which is too much the character and temper of the present times. A numer- 
ous colony of Radnorshire Non-conformists migrated to Pennsylvania, in 
North America. To their labours are owing the printing and publishing of 
the first Concordance that ever appeared in the Welsh language. It was the 
product of the Philadelphia press. 

The parish of Llandegla derives its appellation from the name of the 
patron and female saint Tecla. Castell Cwmaron, that is, the castle in the 
dingle of the river so called, is in this parish, and about two miles distant 
from the village. There is also in this parish an estate named Swydd, the 
tenure of which was in ancient times official. . . . The antique appearance 
of the church of Llandegla renders the supposition probable that some parts 
of its structure are composed of the fragments of some despoliated monastery, 
perhaps of Abbey Cwmhir, and removed hither at a time immemorial. The 
church-yard is spacious, and contains many memorials of the dead. ... In 
the year 1637 the clear annual sum of £4 was devised by Evan ap John 
Morris, by deed, charged upon land, and vested in Thomas Jones, John 
Meredith, and Evan Phillips, for the benefit of decayed inhabitants of this 
parish not receiving parochial relief. ... In the year 1721 Mrs. Anne 
Griffiths bequeathed by will the sum of £120, which produces an annual interest 
of £9, and is now vested in John Griffiths, James Phillips, Thomas Williams, 
Thomas Jones, Howel Evans, and Richard Williams, to be distributed among 
the decayed housekeepers and poor of the parishes of Llandegla, Llanfihangel- 
nant-Moylin and Colfa. ... In the same year Mrs. Bridget Clarke left 
by will a rent-charge of is. per week, secured upon land left by John 
Meredith, called the Wern, in this parish, and vested in Thomas Beversley. 

A hundred and fifty years ago the Welsh language prevailed in Radnorshire; 
now the English is used. 

Meredith Family 



Following is the condensed pedigree of the ancient and honorable family 
of Meredith of Radnorshire from — 

Madog ap Meredith, Prince of Powis, whose arms were argent, a lion sable. 

Llewellyn ap Meredydd, descendant of Madog ap Meredith. 

Morgan Meredydd, who married Elizabeth, daughter of David Lloyd. 

David Meredith, High Sheriff of Radnorshire. 

Morgan Meredith, High Sheriff of Radnorshire. 

Nicholas Meredith, High Sheriff of Radnorshire. 

Richard Meredith, J. P. and High Sheriff of Radnorshire. 1 

Reese Meredith. 

Reese Meredith, of Landoglen, Radnorshire. 

Reese Meredith, merchant and gentleman, who married Martha, daughter 
of John Carpenter, and who came to Philadelphia in 1730. He entered the 
counting house of Carpenter ; became the proprietor of Greenhills, nearly 
one-third of the present city of Philadelphia; was said to be the richest 

P^ 1 


H ■ * so 


) m 



■»" .*.«r* ! 

Castor, Tankard, Server and Coffee Pot which Belonged to Reese Meredith, and 
to His Son, General Samuel Meredith. 

man of his day in the Colonies; was educated at Oxford; gave $5,000 in 1778 
to clothe and feed the soldiers at Valley Forge ; was, like most of the promi- 
nent Philadelphians of his day, a Quaker. Reese Meredith was the first 
person who introduced General (then Colonel) Washington into good so- 
ciety in Philadelphia. He had — 

Samuel Meredith, who married Margaret, daughter of Thomas Cad- 
walader. Hon. Samuel Meredith was born in Philadelphia, 1741 ; 
died at Belmont (his country seat), February 10, 1817. He was edu- 
cated at Dr. Allison's Academy, and became a partner in business with 
his father and brother-in-law, George Clymer. He enlisted as Major 
in the Third Battalion of Associators in 1775, and in December, 1776, 
was made Lieutenant-Colonel, later participating in the battle of 
Princeton. As Brigadier-General of the Pennsylvania Militia he 
served at Brandywine and Germantown. Fie resigned in August, 
1778, and was subsequently member of Assembly for several years, 

1 This pedigree down to the first Reese Meredith was furnished by a relative many 
years ago to my father. — H. P. R. 

330 Rossiana, 

and member of the Continental Congress from 1786 to 1788. At the 
organization of the Federal Government Washington appointed him 
Treasurer of the United States, which office he held for more than 12 
years. The first money ever paid into the Treasury was $20,000 
loaned by him to the government. He subsequently loaned the Treas 
ury $140,000. He retired, after 1S01, to his seat called " Belmont," 
near Pleasant Mount, Wayne County, Pa., where he lived in great 
state. He owned 75,000 acres of land in Wayne county and 67,000 
acres in Lackawanna and Wyoming counties, and George Clymer and 
himself owned altogether nearly a million acres in Pennsylvania, New 
York, West Virginia and Kentucky. He had — 

1. Martha, who married (1796) Hon. John Read. (See Read 


2. Elizabeth (died, unmarried, November 18, 1826). 

3. Anne, wbo married Samuel Dickenson. 

4. Thomas (born 1778; died in infancy). 

5. Thomas 1 (born, 1779; died at Newton, N. J., March 5, 1855), 

studied law with John Read and was admitted to the Bar of 
Philadelphia in 1803; but in 1805 removed to his father's resi- 
dence, Belmont. He was a Major of the Pennsylvania Militia 
in the War of 1812. and Prothonotary, Register of Wills, 
Register of Deeds, etc., for Wayne county, 1821-3. He after- 
wards lived at " Meredith Cottage," Carbondale Township. 

6. Margaret (born, 1781 ; died, unmarried, 1824). 

7. Maria (born, 1783; died, 1854). 

The preceding pedigree is all I have been able to obtain concerning the early 
Merediths, and was drawn up many years ago by a descendant of Reese 
Meredith. The two generations preceding the Reese Meredith who came to 
America are correct. I have had in my possession a document written by 
his father, Reese Meredith of Landoglen, Radnorshire, Wales, and General 
J. Meredith Read has verified the preceding generation (the first Reese 


I wrote to my distant kinsman. Lord Athlumney and Meredyth, in regard 
to this pedigree, and received the following reply : 

3 Charles street, Berkeley Square \\\, 

London, June 28, 1907. 
My Dear Kinsman: 

For such I trust I may call you. Your father, General Meredith Read, was by name 
well known to me, and you are quite right in stating that he and my father were con- 
nected. I can well remember my father speaking of him many times, and he attached 
great importance to our keeping in touch with our kinsmen across the sea. Up to your 
father's death I used to hear from him every year, and on my first, and every subsequent, 

*A seal cut in 1S00, in London, England, on a red carnelian, and used by Thomas 
Meredith, had a demi lion rampant, chained, and collared or, above an oval in which 
was cut the letters " T. M." joined. This stone was used by Judge Read and lost. 
Another seal, cut long before this one, had the arms as well as the crest. 

Meredith Family. 331 

visit to Philadelphia I have always tried to find some trace of the family, but without 

I have at home pictures of several of the Reads — General Meredith Read and a John 
Read, who was governor of Pennsylvania. 

On> receipt of your letter I wrote to my friend Burke (editor of Burke's Peerage, etc.), 

and I enclose his reply. In his private letter to me he says: 

As far back as the Bishop's father the Meredyth descent has been put to the proof 
legally and the pedigree has been officially recorded. The Welsh part is, however, 
mainly traditional, as in the case of most Welsh pedigrees. You might refer your 
correspondent to Dunn's Visitation of Wales. 

He mentioned nothing about the origin of the arms for which you asked. I will be 
seeing him shortly and will make a point of finding out. 

I am so glad to find that 1 have still some representatives of the family in the States, 
and only wish I had known it before, as I have been over so many times. Now that the 
ice has been broken, I trust we shall not lose track again. If you should come over 
here believe me a warm welcome awaits you, and when next I visit the States I will not 
fail to let you know. 

I beg to sign myself, 

Your kinsman, 


Burke's Pedigree of the Meredyth s of Ireland. 

The note by Burke, mentioned above by Lord Athlumney, is as follows : 

Lord Athlumney, who is also Lord Meredyth in the peerage of the United Kingdom, 
is the representative of the family of Meredyth of Dollardstown, Co. Meath, 1 cadets 
of the family founded in Ireland in 15S4 by the Right Rev. Richard Meredyth, Bishop of 
Leighlin and Ferns, descended out of Wales. 

The Right Hon. Sir Robert Meredyth, Knt., P. C, the eldest son of the bishop, was 
ancestor of Meredyth, Bart., of Greenhills, Co. Kildare. 

Sir Thomas Meredyth, Knt., second son of the bishop, was ancestor, through his eldest 
son, Charles, of Meredyth, Bart., of Carlandstowu, Co. Meath. 

Arthur Meredyth, ot Dollardstown, Co. Meath, second son of the last-named Sir Thomas 
Meredyth, Knt., was ancestor of the family now represented by Lord Athlumney. 

Lord Athlumney descends, in the male line, from Sir Marcus Somerville, 4th Bart., 
M. P., and Mary Ann, his wife, only daughter and heir of Sir Richard Gorges Meredyth, 
Bart., of St. Katherine's Grove, Co. Dublin, and Mary, his wife, daughter and heir of 
Arthur Francis Meredyth, of Dollardstown, son and heir of Lieut. -Gen. Thomas 
Meredyth, eldest son of Arthur Meredyth, of Dollardstown, above mentioned. 

The Bishop of Leighlin, who founded the family in Ireland, was educated at Jesus 
Coll., Oxford — B. A., 1573; M. A., 1575; prebend, of Coll. Church of Brecon, 1574; 
rector of Burton, Co. Pembrook,, 157S; vicar of Llanavon Vawr, Co. Brecon, 1579; 
cursal prebend, of St. David's, 1580; rector of Nangle, Co. Pembrook, 1580; chaplain to 
Sir John Perrott, Lord Deputy of Ireland and Dean of St. Patrick's, Dublin, 1584, and 
Bishop of Leighlin and Ferns, 1589 till his death, 1597. He was son of Robert Meredyth 
ap Grouw, with whom the registered pedigree in Ireland begins. He is said to have 
been grandson of Thomas a Meredith of Llangylo in Wales and descended from Howel 
ap Maddoc Llangylo. 

In Wales family names were not in general use until long after the time 
of Queen Elizabeth. Hence a coat-of-arms is a more certain guide to a 
man's early pedigree than his name vould be. 

The Meredyths of Ireland and our own Radnorshire Merediths are without 
question of the same family and blood. The tradition of this has been 
handed down from generation to generation ever since the former went to 
Ireland and the latter came to America. The arms used by the American 

1 Lord Athlumney's landed estate in County Meath. Ireland, according to the Encyclo- 
pedia Uritannica, amounts to 10.213 acres. 

332 Rossiana. 

family long before the Revolution are the same as those used by the Irish 
Mefedyths. One of the early American Merediths called his country estate 
Green Hills, after an estate in Wales, while the Irish Meredyths did the 


According to Sir Bernard Burke, there was confirmation of ancient arms 
argent a lion rampant sable, gorged with a collar and chain affixed thereto 
retlexed over the back or. Crest a dcmi-lion rampant sable collared and 
chained or, Motto, Heb dduw heb ddim. a Duw a digon, 1574, And accord- 
ing to the same learned authority these arms were originally granted to com- 
memorate the Meredith descent from the Prince of Powis. However that 
may be these arms were always used by both Reese Meredith and Samuel 
Meredith on their carriage- and <m their silver plate and seals. 

In Guillim's " Display of Heraldry " (printed by Thomas Cotes for Jacob 
Blome. 1638). at page 266, the following is found: 

He beareth, argent a Lion Rampand sable, gorged with a collar and a 
chaine thereto affixed, reflexing over his backe, or. by the name of Mere- 
dith. Such form of bearing may -i.onifie some Bearer thereof to be capti- 
vated by such an one a- was « « f greater power than himself. No beast 
can be truly -aid t<> be free that i> tied about the neck, which Aristotle 
observeth. saying: " Halliom animal tunc est liberum, quando collum suum 
vinculis habet solutum." 


First Treasurer of the United States. 

The following sketch of the career of General Samuel Meredith, written 

by Wharton Dickinson, will be found of much interest: 

In the noble eulogy on Emanuel Swedenborg, delivered by Mr. Samuel 
Sandel. member if the Royal Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, at the 
request of that body, in the Great Hall of the House of Nobles, on the 
7th of October, 177-'. occur these words: 

" Xature and art form the ornaments of the earth; birth and education form those of 
the human race. A fruit-seed does not always produce a tree which yields as excellent 
fruit as that which produced it: which often i- owing to the modifications effected in the 
tree by art, which occasion a difference in iis products, but do not at all alter its nature. 
Experience supplies us with a great many similar instances in our species. But it 
would be hazarding a paradox were we to attempt to determine how far certain virtues 
are hereditary in families, or are introduced into them by education. Be this as it may, 
it cannot be denied, that the advantage of having sprung from a respectable and virtuous 
family, inspires a man with confidence, when he is conscious that he does not disgrace 
his descent. In every condition, it is a real advantage to be born in a family which has 
been, for a long time, the abode of honor and virtue, and a nursery of citizens every 
way useful to the country." 

To such a family belonged the subject of this sketch. The son of a man, 
himself distinguished for his virtue, integrity and patriotism, a friend of 
liberty and a benefactor of his country, we are not surprised to find Samuel 
Meredith, at an early day, openly advocating the cause of the colonies. 

Reese Meredith, the father, was a native of Leominster, Herefordshire, 
where he was born in 1708. His father, John Meredith, a woolen mer- 
chant of that town, was the youngest son of " Richard Meredith of Pres- 
teigne, Gentleman," living in 1673, the representative of the ancient line of 
" Merediths of Radnorshire," to whom Queen Elizabeth granted the right 
to bear arms in 1572, viz.: "Argent, a lion rampant, sable, collared and 
chained, or : Crest a demi-lion. rampant, sable, collared and chained, or." 
Reese Meredith was educated at Oxford, and at his father's death, in 1729, 
came to this country, landing in Philadelphia in February, 1730, where he 
entered the counting house of John Carpenter, second son of the well- 
known Samuel Carpenter, Member of the Provincial Council, Treasurer 

Meredith Family. 333 

of the Province, and one of the two Lieutenant-Governors appointed by 
Penn to assist Markham in the government of the Province; the commis- 
sion bears date September 24, 1694, and was issued to John Goodson and 
Samuel Carpenter. In 1738 Mr. Meredith married his employer's daughter, 
Martha, and was taken into partnership with his father-in-law, and on his 
death succeeded to the business. He lost his wife August 26, 1769; he sur- 
vived her nine years, dying on the 14th of November, 1778. During the 
darkest hours of the revolution Mr. Meredith's faith in the ultimate success 
of the colonies never wavered, and when the patriots were perishing from 
cold and hunger, at Valley Forge, in the winter of 1777-78, he generously 
gave, from his ample means, the munificent sum of £5.000 to feed and 
clothe the starving soldiers. George Clymer and Colonel Henry Hill, 
names well known to the students of American history, were his sons-in-law. 

Samuel Meredith, the son. was born in the city of Philadelphia in the 
year 1741, in his father's mansion, which stood on the corner of Second 
and Walnut streets. The house was built by his great-grandfather, Samuel 
Carpenter, soon after the settlement of the city. When about fourteen 
years of age he entered the academy of Dr. Robert Allison, of Philadelphia, 
a noted Presbyterian divine, where he remained some four years. Upon 
leaving the academy he immediately went into his father's counting house, 
and devoted himself to learning mercantile business. March 22d, 1765, 
George Clymer married his sister, Elizabeth Meredith, and in April the 
two young men were admitted as partners in the business, the firm name 
becoming " Meredith & Sons." It so continued until 1778, after which it 
was " Meredith & Clymer," until 1782. when it was dissolved. November 
7th, 1765, all three of the firm signed the " Non-Importation Resolutions," 
the great forerunner of the " Declaration of '76." About this time Mr. 
Meredith began to take a deep interest in the political affairs of the day. 
He was an earnest advocate of the principles of the Whig party, and served 
a term or two in the General Assembly. On the 19th of May, 1772, he was 
united in marriage, at the Arch street Meeting House (Friends), to Mar- 
garet, daughter of Dr. Thomas Cadwalader. one of Philadelphia's leading 
surgeons, and a member of the Governor's Council. They enjoyed a happy 
married life of forty-five years, and were blessed with six children. On 
the 20th of May, 1774, Mr. Meredith attended the first of the meetings, 
held by the citizens of Philadelphia, to protest against the unjust preten- 
tions and usurpations of Great Britain. On the 18th of June he was present 
at the great meeting held in the State House yard, at which John Dickin- 
son and Thomas Willing presided, when it was determined to be expedient 
to issue a call for a Continental Congress. Mr. Meredith was sent, as a 
deputy from Philadelphia, to the Provincial Convention, held at Independ- 
ence Hall from the 23d to the 28th of January, 1775. On the 24th of April, 
1775, he was one of the great meeting held in the State House yard, at 
which it was estimated over eight thousand citizens were present. Here 
it was that the citizens of Philadelphia determined to form battalions for 
the defence of their lives, liberty and property. One of these battalions, 
the Third, was officered as follows: John Cadwalader, Colonel; John Nixon, 
Lieutenant-Colonel; Thomas Mifflin, Senior Major; Samuel Meredith. 
Junior Major. , 

The first appearance of these citizen soldiers was in May, when they 
marched out to meet the southern delegates to Congress, and escort them 
into the city; a like compliment was paid to the delegates from the Eastern 
States a few days later. The third battalion is historically known as the 
" Silk Stockings," so called from the social standing of its officers and 
men. Early in 1775 a number of the prominent citizens of Philadelphia, 
favorable to the cause of independence, organized an association, which 
they named the " Whig Society." Each member presided in turn for a 
month. In August, 1775, this honor fell on Major Meredith. The ques- 
tions discussed were, of course, of a political nature. The society generally 
met at the " City Tavern." Washington, in July, 1776, requested that the 
associators be sent to the defence of Amboy. In pursuance of these orders, 
•Colonel John Dickinson with the First battalion, and Colonel John Cad- 

334 Rossi ana. 

walader with the Third and the Second, the name of whose Colonel is 
unknown to us, left Philadelphia on the 12th of July for Amboy, and 
remained there six weeks. In December, upon Washington's recommenda- 
tion, the three battalions were consolidated into one brigade of 1,200 men, 
with Colonel Cadwalader as Brigadier-General. Nixon became Colonel of 
the third, and [Meredith, Lieutenant-Colonel, the Senior Major, Mifflin, hav- 
ing been elected to Congress. They left Philadelphia for Trenton on the 
10th. Washington, in a letter to the President of Congress, dated Decem- 
ber 13th, 1776, says: " Cadwalader, with the Philadelphia militia, occupies 
the ground above and below the mouth of the Neshaminy River, as far 
down as Dunk's Ferry, at which place Colonel Nixon is posted with the 
Third battalion of Philadelphia." 

When Washington planned the attack on Trenton, he arranged for the 
main army to cross at " McConkey's Ferry," nine miles above Trenton; 
Dickinson, with the New Jersey Militia, to cross at Yardlyville, four miles 
above the town: Ewing at the Falls opposite; and Cadwalader at Bristol. 
Owing to the ice, the main army alone succeeded in crossing. Cadwalader, 
with a detachment, crossed over at Bristol, but had to return, as his entire 
force was unable to move. He succeeded, however, in crossing on the 30th, 
and marched to Lambertown, now South Trenton, on the south side of the 
Assunpink Creek, and his entire command took an active part in the battle 
of Princeton on the 3d of January, 1777. The Americans then went into 
winter quarters at Morristown. Cadwalader's brigade remained there until 
about February 1st, when they returned to Philadelphia. 

In the latter part of January Washington paid a living visit to Philadel- 
phia, as would appear from the following extract from a letter to Colonel 
Meredith from his wife, bearing date January 27, 1777: " General Wash- 
ington invited himself to breakfast with me yesterday: the children were 
at table, and behaved themselves extremely well. I observed that the Gen- 
eral is very grave. I do not wonder at it: a man of his reflection must feel 
strongly our present unhappy situation. * * * Experience teaches me, 
my dear husband, that true happiness can alone be found in the bosom of 
independence." The intimacy between' General Washington and the Mere- 
diths was one of long standing, and Reese Meredith used to relate the 
following anecdote as to its origin, which has been handed down to us by 
successive generations. Says he: "In the fall of 1755 I happened to step 
into the Coffee House to lunch. While sitting there I noticed a genteel- 
looking stranger, sitting apart from the rest, reading a paper. I took the 
liberty of a Friend to approach the young man. and inquired his name and 
place of residence, and was answered in reply that he was Colonel George 
Washington of Virginia; that he was here on business for the Governor 
of Virginia in relation to the Indians. I was highly pleased with the young 
man's appearance, and invited him home to dine with me on fresh venison." 
This acquaintance, thus happily begun, lasted through life, and was only 
broken by the death of Washington in 1799. 

April 5. 1777, Colonel Meredith was commissioned Brigadier-General of 
the Fourth Brigade; June 5th, 1777, John Armstrong was commissioned 
Major-General, and on the 26th of August James Irvine, Brigadier-General. 
The four brigades were placed under Armstrong, the Brigadiers ranking 
as follows: John Cadwalader, First Brigade, date of commission, Decem- 
ber 25, 1776; James Potter, Second Brigade, date of commission, April 5, 
1777: Samuel Meredith, Third Brigade, date of commission, April 5, 1777; 
James Irvine. Fourth Brigade, date of commission. August 26, 1777. In 
this rank they took part in the battles of Brandywine and Germantown, 
and shared the discomforts of Valley Forge. 

General Meredith's military service ended January 9, 1778, when he 
resigned his commission, and returned to Philadelphia. He was succeeded 
by his senior Colonel, John Lacey, whose commission dates January 9. 
1778. This step was occasioned by his father's ill health, and the continued 
absence of his brother-in-law. Mr. Clymer, to the great detriment of the 
business of the firm of Meredith & Sons. General Meredith had taken 
the oath of allegiance to the new State Government of Pennsylvania. 

Meredith Family. 335 

August 7, 1777. and on the 6th of November, 1778, was elected to the 
Assembly from the city of Philadelphia. He served until October, 1779. 
He was again elected to the Assembly in November, 1781, and served until 
October, 1783. In the fall of 1779 he, with George Clymer and Henry Hill, 
fitted out the sloop-of-war " Mariah," commanded by John Lord, carrying 
eight guns, and manned by twenty-five men. 

In the spring of 1780 he and George Clymer subscribed £5,000 ($25,000) 
each to the fund of $315,000, contributed by ninety-three citizens of Phila- 
delphia for the support of the army. Mr. Meredith was also a director of 
the Bank of North America, organized by Robert Morris and others in 
May, 1781. In August, 1781, he was elected President of the Welsh Society 
in Philadelphia, which bore the rather high-sounding title of the " Royal 
Society of Ancient Britons." In 1782 he and Mr. Clymer dissolved part- 
nership. November 26, 1786, he was elected to the Congress of the Con- 
federation and served on the committee, composed of one delegate from each 
State, which issued the call for the Federal Convention, in pursuance of the 
recommendation contained in the letter issued by the Annapolis Convention 
of 1786. General Meredith served until November, 1788 (two terms). 
August 9, 1789, he was appointed by President Washington Surveyor of the 
Port of Philadelphia, but he held the office only six weeks, as appears from 
the following: 

" " Journal of the Senate, Friday, September 11, 1789. — A message from the President of 
the United States, which Mr. Lear, his secretary, delivered to the Vice-President and 
withdrew: 'Gentlemen of the Senate: I nominate for the department of the Treasury of 
the United States Alexander Hamilton of New York, Secretary; Nicholas Eveleigh of 
South Carolina, Comptroller; Samuel Meredith of Pennsylvania, Treasurer; Oliver 
Wolcott, Jr., of Connecticut, .Auditor; and Joseph Nourse of Pennsylvania, Register; 
* * * and in case the nomination of Samuel Meredith should meet with the advice 
and consent of the Senate, I nominate as Surveyor of the Port of Philadelphia William 

George Washington." 

General Meredith entered upon the duties of his office when the Treasury 
of the country was in a most distressing condition. It required financial 
ability of the highest order; but Washington well knew the character of the 
man whom he had selected to fill this most responsible position. He held 
the office twelve years and six weeks; his annual reports were models of 
their kind, and always received deserved recognition from the hands of 
Congress. During his long administration as Treasurer not a single dis- 
crepancy marred the entire correctness of his accounts. During the first 
year he resided in New York in a house on Broadway, opposite the Presi- 
dential Mansion. He was on terms of intimacy with Chancellor Livingston, 
with whom he frequently dined in a " friendly manner." He was also a 
frequent guest at the table of the first President, as appears by the latter's 
private journal. He resided in Philadelphia from 1790 to 1800, and in 
Washington until October 31, 1801, the date of his retirement. He served 
under Washington and the elder Adams, and seven months under Jeffer- 
son; and his chiefs were: Alexander Hamilton, 1789-95; Oliver Wolcott, 
1795-1800, and Samuel Dexter. 1800-1802. His retirement was due to ill- 
health and financial embarrassments, his private affairs having become 
sadly neglected during his official life; upon it he received the following 
complimentary letter from Jefferson: 

Monticello, September 4, 1801. 

Dear Sir. — I received, yesterday, your favor of August 29th, resigning your office as 
Treasurer of the United States after the last of October next. I am sorry for the 
circumstances which dictate the measure to you; but from their nature, and the deliberate 
consideration of which it seems to be the result, I presume that dissuasives on my 
part would be without effect. My time in office has not been such as to bring me into 
intimate insight into the proceedings of the several departments, but I am sure I 
hazard nothing when I testify in your favor, that you have conducted yourself with 
perfect integrity and propriety in the duties of the office you have filled and pray you to 
be assured of my highest consideration. 

Mr. Meredith. Thomas Jefferson. 

General Meredith retired to his estate called " Belmont," situated in Clin- 
ton, Mount Pleasant and Preston townships, Wayne County, Pennsylvania. 
It was some twenty miles in length, and two in breadth, and contained 

33 6 


nearly 26.000 acres. He had purchased this tract about 1796, and about 
1812 erected a dwelling on it, about a mile from Mount Pleasant, at a cost 
of $6,000. Here he spent the remaining sixteen years of his life, superin- 
tending the settlement and development of his vast estate. He, with his 
brother-in-law, George Clymer, from 1774 until 1800 purchased vast tracts 
of wild land, situated in Bradford, Luzerne. Pike, Schuylkill, Sullivan, Sus- 
quehanna, Wayne and Wyoming counties, Pennsylvania; Sullivan and Del- 
aware counties, New York and in Western Virginia and Eastern Kentucky; 
in all about 500,000 acres. 

General Meredith departed this life at " Belmont," on Monday, February 
10th, 1817, in the seventy-sixth year of his age; his wife survived him nearly 
four years, dying September 20th, 1820. They were both buried in the pri- 
vate burial-ground of the family, on the "manor tract." We know of no 
better personal description of the General than the following, taken from 
a letter written by the venerable Alvah Norton, of Aldenville. Wayne 
Countv. to Dr. Meredith Maxwell, of New York, a great-grandson of the 
General. It is dated June 30th. 1877. Mr. Norton was then in his eighty- 
first year. 

Dear Sir.— Received vour letter dated June 20th, 1877, concerning General Samuel 
Meredith. In reply to your first inquiry, I remember an elderly gentleman attired 
in dress coat and knee-breeches of navv-blue broadcloth; shoes and silken hose; gold 
buckles at the knee and shoes; buff or white vest; ruffled shirt front and ruffles at the 
wrist falling over his delicate hands; hair powdered and worn in a queue, tied with a 
ribbon the color of his coat. In height about five feet ten inches, straight as an arrow, 
spare in flesh. A well-balanced head, bright, restless, light-blue eyes under a well- 
develope'd forehead, an aquiline nose, a firm mouth and decided chin. I have often seen 
him walking the porch of his residence, hands linked behind him. with nervous move- 
ments, ofttimes thinking aloud. There hung (in the old days), in the parlor at Belmont, 
a portrait of him. taken, 1 judge, about the age of forty, which was considered by the 
family to be an excellent likeness; * * * Of his habits of life I may not be a 
competent judge; should think he kept as closely to his city habits as change to country 
life would permit. * * * He kept a colored housekeeper named Rachael who, I 
think, came with the family from Philadelphia. She always, after his death, insisted 
that " < >ld Massa " visited the sleeping-rooms, after the occupants were asleep, to see 
if the lights were out — an invariable habit of his, as long as he lived. * * * His 
daughters were expected to take as much care of their personal appearance as though 
living in Philadelphia. They were always in full dress at dinner. 

Three hours were occupied at the dinner-table daily, and the utmost 
ceremony observed. 

On the gentle declivity of the Moosic, overlooking the lovely valley of 
the Lackawaxen, lie the remains of the beloved friend of Washington and 
the first Treasurer of the Union; by his side sleeps his noble and accom- 
plished wife. A movement was set on foot July 4, 1877, for the erection 
ni a monument to mark the site. Hon. Edward Overton, member of Con- 
gress from Pennsylvania, has introduced a joint resolution in the House 
at Washington for an appropriation of $10,000. 

Of General Meredith's issue, we shall make slight mention of three. His 
only son, Thomas Meredith, was a lawyer by profession; held the commis- 
sion of Major during the War of 1812; served as Prothonotary, Clerk of 
Courts, Recorder and Register for Wayne county, 1821-30, and was largely 
interested in the development of the Lackawanna coal fields. He opened 
the first mines in Carbondale in 1824, obtained a charter, and had the route 
surveyed for a railroad from Scranton to Great Bend. The route is now used 
by the northern division of the Delaware. Lackawanna and Western Railroad. 
He died at Trenton. New Jersey, in 1855, aged 76. 

General Meredith's eldest daughter, Martha, married Hon. John Read, 
Agent-General of the United States for British Debts, member of the Penn- 
sylvania House of Representatives and Senate, City Solicitor of Philadelphia, 
and President of the Philadelphia Bank, 1819-41. Their son was the late 
Hon. John Meredith Read, LL.D.. member of the Pennsylvania House of 
Representatives, Attorney-General of Pennsylvania and Justice of the Supreme 
Court. Pennsylvania, 1858-72; Chief Justice, 1872-73, and father of General 
John Meredith Read. LL.D., F. S. A.. M. R. I. A.. Regent of Cornell Uni- 
versity, Adjutant-General of the State of New York, Consul-General to 
Paris. 1869-73 ; Minister and Charge d'Afifaires to Athens, 1873-79. General 

Meredith Family. 337 

Meredith's third daughter, Anne, married Samuel Dickinson, Esq., of Tren- 
ton, father of Philemon Dickinson, Esq., President of the Trenton Banking 
Company, 1832-79, United States Pension Agent for many years, member of 
the New Jersey Constitutional Commission, 1873, and chairman Board of 
Managers of the State Sinking Fund, a Mason of high rank, an honorary 
member of the New Jersey Historical Society and of the State Society of the 
Cincinnati, and also of Colonel Samuel Dickinson's First New Jersey Militia, 
and captain of Company E, Tenth U. S. Infantry during the Mexican war. 


In connection with the foregoing matter concerning the Meredith family, 
I have thought that an address made before many thousands of people at 
Pleasant Mount on the occasion of the unveiling of statue to Gen. Samuel 
Meredith, would nor be uninteresting to the readers of this book. This statue 
was erected by the State of Pennsylvania to commemorate Meredith's great 
services to his country during the American Revolution. The author was 
asked to make this address by the Meredith Monument Association and the 
State. Many very able orations were made by distinguished men who had 
gathered from all parts of the State to do honour to this great patriot. 
1 can yet remember with pleasure and admiration Judge Edwards' masterpiece. 

Mrs. Captain Graham, a granddaughter of General Meredith, unveiled the 
statue. Under it are buried the bodies of the general and his wife, Margaret 

Members of the Samuel Meredith Monument Association, Ladies and 
Gentlemen : 

" The fathers and founders of our country were friends to truth, virtue and 
liberty "— to that glorious band of patriots, statesmen and soldiers who 
founded this great nation Gen. Samuel Meredith belonged. It may be said 
with perfect truth that of all the leaders of the American Revolution none 
were more generous, none more unselfish and few risked as much as he. 
He had little to gain and much to lose. Blessed with a very large fortune, 
the Meredith family, when the Revolution broke out, stood in the front rank 
among the richest and most influential families in this country. 

General Meredith was born in Philadelphia in 1740 and was the son of 
Reese Meredith, who occupied a high social position in that city and who 
was born in Radnorshire, Wales, and was the son of Reese Meredith, of 
Landoglen, Radnorshire, gentleman, and was eighth in descent from Llwellyn 
ap Meredydd, or Meredith, a native prince of Wales. General Meredith 
received a liberal education at the College of Philadelphia, now the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, and in the spring of 1765 he and his brother-in-law, 
George Clymer, who married his eldest sister, became partners with the 
elder Mr. Meredith. On the 7th of Nov., 1765, he and they signed the 
Non-Importation Resolutions. 

He married, on the 21st of May, 1772, Margaret Cadwalader, daughter of ■ 
Dr. Thomas Cadwalader, of Philadelphia, and sister of Col. Lambert and 
Gen. John Cadwalader. On October 2nd, 1774, he took his seat in the 
Common Council as successor to Gen. John Cadwalader, and served until 
1776. He was a member of the Provincial Conference of Pennsylvania in 
1775 and the same year was chairman of the Revolutionary Committee of 
Safety of Pennsylvania. He was Major of the famous "Silk Stocking" 
Regiment of Philadelphia that enlisted for and participated in the battles 
of Trenton and Princeton and was General of the Fourth Brigade of Penn- 
sylvania troops at the battles of Germantown and Brandywine. 

He was twice a member of the Colonial Assembly. In 1780, at a moment 
of great financial distress, when the army was in a precarious condition, 


Rossi ana. 

Gen. Meredith and his brothers-in-law. Colonel George Clymer and Colonel 
Henry Hill, each subscribed five thousand pounds for the public relief. He 
was a member of the State Board of Finance from 1781 to 1785. He repre- 
sented Pennsylvania in the Continental Congress from October, 1786, to 
October, 1788, serving until that body disbanded. He voted aye for the 
adoption of the ratification of the Federal Constitution by that historic last 
Congress. On August 3rd, 1789, Washington nominated him Surveyor of 
the Port of Philadelphia, but in the following month of September appointed 
him Treasurer of the United States, he being the first person who held that 
office. He ably seconded the endeavors of Alexander Hamilton to restore 
the financial credit of the country. It has been publicly stated that the first 
money paid into the Treasury of the United States after its formal organ- 
ization in 17S9 was a draft of Gen. Samuel Meredith for $20,000 on the Bank 
of Pennsylvania, of which he was a director. To this he shortly afterward 
added one hundred and forty thousand dollars. Secretary Sherman declared, 
in an address in New York, that not one dollar of this money has ever been 
repaid by the government. He served as Treasurer under Washington and 
Adams, resigning when Jefferson came into office in 1801 against the desire 
of the new President. In conjunction with Robert Morris, Benjamin Rush, 
Geo. Clymer and others, he had in the meantime purchased a large tract of 
land in northern Pennsylvania. In 1796 he made an individual purchase of 
5,000 acres in Wayne county. He also owned one hundred and twenty 
thousand acres of land in Delaware county, N. Y., upon which stand the 
three towns of Meredith, and was a large landed proprietor in Virginia. 

He named his great estate in Wayne county Belmont. It extended from 
the Mousic Mountains northward to the New York State line, a distance of 
22 miles, and was two miles wide. Upon this property he built a fine man- 
sion surrounded with outhouses for his servants and dependents. A part of 
this house was still standing a few years ago and was unfortunately burned. 
Gen. Meredith died on February 16th, 1817, at Belmont Manor. His daugh- 
ter, Martha Meredith, b. 1773, married at Christ Church on the 25 June, 1796, 
my great grandfather, Hon. John Read, Senator of Pennsylvania, Agent- 
General under Jay's Treaty. Gen. Meredith was nearly 6 feet tall, straight 
as an arrow, spare in flesh, with a well-balanced head, bright, lively blue eyes 
under a well-developed forehead, and having an aquiline nose, a firm mouth 
ami a decided chin. 

He usually wore a dress coat and knee breeches of navy blue broadcloth, 
a buff waistcoat, white silk stockings and gold buckles at the knee and upon 
the shoes, and from his fob pocket hung his costly seals, a ruffled shirt and 
lace at the wrists falling over his delicate hands, hair powdered and worn 
in a cue tied with a ribbon of the same color as the coat completed the 
costume. As a younger man he often wore a velvet coat and velvet breeches 
and a sword and diamond buckles to his shoes. Such was the man whose 
memory we have gathered here together to-day to do honour to. It is most 
fitting that here in this beautiful country where he lived and died, and which 
he loved so well, the first public monument erected to Samuel Meredith 
should stand, and that among many of those attending this unveiling to-day 
so many descendants of those who loved and knew Meredith should be found. 

Samuel Meredith, the patriot, the soldier, the financier and the gentleman 
is indeed a name that all of you in this county of Wayne in particular and 
in the State of Pennsylvania in general should be justly proud of. In the 
service of his country he never counted the cost. He lived to see much of 
his vast wealth swept away from him and to feel that his country was not 
even grateful enough for his great services to pay to him what it owed, and 
yet never an unkind word came from Meredith. It is surely high time that 
our country should remember this debt by erecting in the city of Washington 
a statue to this great man who did so much to make us what we are. 

Meredith Family. 339 


General Samuel Meredith's old colored housekeeper, who had originally 
come from Philadelphia with him many years before, and had ever since been 
in charge of the Belmont manor house, stated that, after his death, she had 
often seen the ghost of the " old massa " visiting the sleeping rooms after 
the occupants were wrapped in slumber, to see if the lights were out, which 
had been his invariable custom as long as he lived. 

It is also related that General Meredith's colored body servant, thirteen 
days after the general's funeral, was lighting the lights in the great hall in 
the early evening and, hearing someone coming down the stairs, turned to 
see who it was. To his amazement and consternation, he beheld the well- 
known figure of General Meredith, dressed in his best blue coat and gold 
buttons, blue shorts, yellow silk hose and waistcoat, pumps with diamond 
buckles, and in his hand his gold snuff-box, on the lid of which was his crest 
formed of diamonds. The old servant nearly fainted when the general, 
turning to him, said : " Do not fear me, Sam, for I am pleased with you and 
your faithful work since I have been away. Tell my sen, your master, to 
look under the grey stone slab in the cellar for the one hundred pounds in 
gold for which he has been looking since I left here." The ghost then 
vanished. The one hundred pounds was found under the stone, and Sam 
got one of them as a reward. 

The last time the ghost of General Meredith was said to have been seen 
was when the last remnant of the old manor house was burned many years 
ago. Among the persons attracted by the fire from Pleasant Mount was to 
be seen an elderly and erect looking man, dressed in a blue coat, yellow 
shorts and waistcoat, white silk stockings and a three-cornered hat, with his 
white hair done in a cue and tied with a black ribbon. He went among the 
people urging them to extinguish the fire. When the house had finally burned 
down, he was joined by a young man and a lovely looking lady, and all three 
turned, took one farewell look at the smouldering embers, and walked across 
the field to the place where were buried the bodies of General Meredith, his 
wife and grandson, Dr. Henry Meredith Read, and vanished in the gloom of 
the trees. 


Rossi ana. 


Samuel Carpenter (b. 1649), at one time the richest man in the Colony of 
Pennsylvania, the trusted friend of William Penn, a member of the Provin- 
cial Council, and Treasurer of the Province, married on October 12. 1684, 
Hannah Hardiman (b. 1646, d. 1728), a native of Haverford, West South 

_ I at.- J. ,.-. . ■ ■, iV. 

£ I PSVLSIA. -i_ 

Wales, (laughter of Abraham Hardiman. She and her brother, Abraham, 

arrived in Philadelphia in the late spring of 1683. She was a noted preacher. 

Samuel Carpenter's son, 
John Carpenter (b. March 5. 1690), married Ann, daughter of Dr. Richard 

Hoskins, and had, 

Martha, who married Reese Meredith. (See Meredith pedigree.) 
Carpenter Arms. — Argent, a greyhound sable, a chief of the last. 


GENERAL SAMUEL MEREDITH married, on May 19, 1772, Margaret 
Cadwalader, daughter of Dr. Thomas Cadwalader, of Philadelphia. 
Their daughter, Martha, married Hon. John Read, son of George 
Read, the " Signer." Margaret Cadwalader brought into the Meredith fam- 
ily two ancient pedigrees — probably the most ancient in America — of 
Cadwalader. These pedigrees, as given below, are taken from Rev. Compton 
Reade's " Record of the Redes " : 


Rhodri-Mawr, King of all Wales, died 876 

Cadell, Prince of South Wales. 

Howell-dda, King of all Wales. 

Owen, Prince of South Wales. 

Einion, eldest son, k.v.p. 

Tudor-Mawr, Prince of South Wales. 

Rhys ap Tudor-Mawr, Prince of South Wales. 


Griffith ap Rhys, Prince of South Wales. 

Rhys ap Griffith, Chief Justice of South Wales. 

Rhys Gryd, Lord of Yestradtywy. 

Rhys Mychyllt, Lord of Llandovery Castle. 

Rhys Vaughn, of Yestradtywy. 

Rhys-Gloff, Lord of Cymeydmacn. 

342 Rossi a n a. 

Madoc ap Rhys. 

Trahairn-Goch, of Llyn, Grainoc, and Penllech. 

David Goch, of Penllech. 

Evan ap David-Goch, of Grainoc and Penllech, temp. 1352, had by his wife, 
Lady Eva, daughter of Einion ap Celynnin, of Llwy- 
diarth. in Montgomeryshire a descendant of Bleddyn 
ap Cynfyn, Prince of Wales, founder of one of the 
Royal Tribes, 

Madoc ap Ievan, of Grainoc. 

Deikws-Ddu, who had by his wife, Gwen, daughter of Ievanddu, a descend- 
ant of Maeloc Crwm, chieftain of the 7th Royal 
I Tribe of Wales, 11 75, 


Einion ap Deikws, w1io=Morvydd, daughter of Matw ap Llowasch. 

Howel ap Einion, w1io=Mali, daughter of Llewllyn ap Ievan. 

Griffith ap Howel, w1io=Gwenlian, daughter of Einion ap Ievan Lloyd. 

Lewis ap Griffith, of Yshute, w1io=Ethli (or Ellen), daughter of Edward 

ap Ievan Llanoddyn by his wife. 
Catharine Griffith, a descendant of 
I King Edward I. 

Robert ap Lewis, wIio=Gwrvyl (or Gwyrrl), daughter of Llewllyn ap 
I David, of Llan Rwst, Denbighshire. 

_ I 
Evan ap Robert ap Lewis, of Rhiwlas and Vron Goch. 



Owen ap Evan. 

Ellen Evans=Cadwalader Thomas ap Hugh, of Kiltalgarth, Llanvawr, 
Merionethshire, and had by him, who died ante 1683, 

John Cadwalader, of Philadelphia, who=at Friends' Meeting, Lower Merion. 
I Pa.. 29th December, 1699, Martha, daughter of Dr. Ed- 

ward Jones by his wife, Mary, daughter of Dr. Thomas 
I Wynne, of Philadelphia, also of Royal Descent. 


Dr. Thomas Cadwalader, of Philadelphia, who=i8th June. 1738, Hannah, 

daughter of Thomas 

Cadwalader Family. 343 

Margaret Cadwalader, who=i9th May, 1772, General Samuel Meredith. 

Martha Meredith, \vho=i/96, John Read, of Philadelphia (son of George 

Read, a Signer of the Declaration of Inde- 

Chief Justice John Meredith Read, of Philadelphia, born 1797, died 1874, 

who had, by his first wife, Priscilla Marshall, 

the late 

General John Meredith Read. 



Marchweithian, Prince of one of the 15 Tribes of North Wales and Lord 
of Ys Aled. 


March wystt. 








Kyrnrig ap Llowarch. 






David ap Eiynion. 

Evan ddu. 

Evan ap Coch of Bryammer, co Denbigh. 

Tudor ap Rees. 

Rees goch ap Tyder. 


Evan ap Rees goch. 



Hugh ap Evan. 


Thomas ap Hugh. 

Cadwalader ap Thomas ap Hugh — Ellen Evans. 

Hon. John Cadwalader of Phila.=MARTHA Jones, from whom was de- 
scended (vide preceding pedigree) 
the late General John Meredith 

Cadwalader Arms. — Azure, a cross pattee fitchee or. Crest. — A cross 
partee fitchee. 

i the Mayflower Families of Cushman, 

and Cook, a?id frotn the Early New 

Freeman and Marshall, 
hon Pumpelxy Read, 1907) 


\ ; 

4 I 
arren William Bradford 

— Alice Southworth 

irren William Bradford 

— Alice Richards 

Francis Cook 

Mary Cook 
John Thompson 

=John Bradford Jacob Thornpson=Abigail Wadsworth 

I I 

>rd=**Jonathan Freeman John Thompson=Joanna Adams' 
(See below) 

ms Thompson 

losiah Marshall 
(See below) 

iall=Jobn M. Read 

u Meredith Read=Delphine Marie Pumpelly * 


THE family of General John Meredith Read is descended, by intermarriage, 
from at least four distinct families who came over in the Mayflower in 
1620. The appended chart shows the descent from the Mayflower 
families of Cushman, Allerton, Warren, Bradford and Cook, as well as from 
the early New England families of Waterman, Freeman and Marshall. 
General Read's family is descended from these eight families through Hon. 
Josiah Marshall, whose daughter, Priscilla, married Hon. John M. Read, father 
of General Read. The heavy face figures herein refer to the chart numbers of 
the heads of families : 


1. Robert Cushman, a Plymouth Pilgrim, was born in England in 1580; 
died in England in 1625. He was instrumental in obtaining the patent in 
which the King granted toleration to the American Colonists for their form 
of religion, and Cushman embarked with his family on the Speedivell (which 
was intended to accompany the Mayflower, but which was compelled to return 
to Plymouth) August 5, 1620, but returned with that vessel, and remained in 
England to act as financial agent for the colonists. The next year he went 
to New England, accompanied by his son, Thomas (afterward Elder), but 
remained there only two months. While there he preached a sermon on 
" Sin and Danger of Self-Love," which became noted as the first sermon 
delivered in the New World that was published. It was published in Eng- 
land in 1622, and republished in Boston in 1724. While returning to England 
in 1621, he was captured by the French, held two weeks, and then released. 
In 1623 he obtained a grant of territory on Cape Ann, where a new band of 
Pilgrims made the first permanent settlement within the limits of the Massa- 
chusetts Bay colony. Robert Cushman had one son — 

Elder Thomas Cushman (born in England), who married Mary, daugh- 
ter of Isaac Allerton (2), and had — 

Rev. Isaac Cushman, first minister of Plympton. Selectman of Plym- 
outh, and Deputy from Plymouth to the General Court of the Colony, 
1690. He married Mary Rickard, and had — 

Mary Cushman (born October 12, 1682), who married Robert 
Waterman. (See Waterman Family.) 


2. Isaac Allerton (born 1583) sailed for America in the first voyage of 
the Mayftozver in 1620, and was an enterprising member of the Colony until 
1631, when he had a dispute with the settlers, and removed to Marblehead, 
establishing several trading stations. He died in New Haven in 1659. His 
wife was Mary Norris, by whom he had — 

Mary Allerton, wdio married Elder Thomas Cushman. (See above.) 
Mary Allerton was the last survivor of the Mayftozver company. Her 
daughter, Mary Cushman, married Robert Waterman. (See belozv.) 

JOHN MEREDITH READ from the Mayflower Families of CushT ^ 
Allerton, Warren, Bradford and Cook, and from the Earl, ^a**' 
England Families of Waterman, Freeman and Marshall ^ 

(Prepared by Major Harmon Pumpelly Read, 1907) 


1 I a I 3 I 4 , 

Robert Cushman Isaac Allerton Richard Warren William Bradford c... ' 

— — rK *Ncis Cook 

MaryNorris Alice Soinhworth EstheV 

Mary Cook N 
John Thompson 

Thomas Cushman=Mary Allerton 

Joseph Warren 

William Bradford 
Alice Richards 

Isaac Cushman=Mary Rickard Mercy Warren=John Bradford Jacob Thompson=Abigail Wadsworth 

Mary Cushman=*Robert Waterman Mercy Bradford=**Jonathan Freeman John ThomDson-r™„„, 

(See below) j (See below) nompson-Joanna Adams 

Thomas Waterman=Mercy Freeman 

Freeman Waterman=Joanna Adams Thompson 

Priscilla Waterman=***Josiah Marshall 
(See below) 

Priscilla Marshall=john M. Read 

General John Meredith Read=Delphine Marie Pumpelly 

Harmon Pumpelly Read Emily Meredith Read John Meredith Read, Jr. " Marie Delphine Meredith Read 

Countess Alix de Foras Count Max de Foras 

Marguerite de Carron 

1st Francis A. Stout 
Ud Edwards Spencer 

John Meredith Read, 4th 

Countess Huguette" Countess Delphine Count josepli 


Robert WATERMAN=Elizabeth Bourns 
(Plymouth, 1U35) I 

John Waterman=Anna Sturtevant 

'Robert Waterman=Mary Cushman 
(See above) 


Edmund Freeman^ — 
(Early at Plymouth) I 

Thomas Freer. 

♦♦Jonathan Freeman- Mercy Bradford 
(See above) 


8. Thomas Marshall^ 
(Plymouth, 1634) 

John Marshall=Mary Burrage 

John Marshall^Eunice Rogers 

Isaac Marshall = Phebe Richardson 

Isaac Marshall=Abigail Brown 

♦«*Josiah Marshall^ Priscilla Waterman 
(See above) 
(A detailed descent of Hon. Josiah Marshall appears elsewhere.) 

346 Rossiana. 


3. Richard Warren, one of the Mayflower Pilgrims, was married, and 
had — 

JosErH Warren, who was married and had — 

Mercy Warren, who married Major John Bradford, grandson of 
Major William Bradford [-4], and had — 

Mercy Bradford, who married Jonathan Freeman. (See Freeman 
Warren Arms — Gules a lion rampant, argent, a chief chequy or and 
azure; crest, out of a ducal coronot a demi-eagle displayed; motto, Pro 
patri a mori. 


4. Major William Bradford. Colonial Governor, was born in Austerfield, 
Yorkshire, England, March, 1590, and died in Plymouth, Mass.. May 9, 1657. 
From early childhood he was religiously inclined, and at an early age joined 
the Puritan Congregation at Scrcoby Manor. Persecution arose in Notting- 
hamshire, and the Puritans, or Separatists, emigrated to Holland as they 
could find opportunity. After imprisonment and delay, Bradford and his 
companions reached Amsterdam in 1608, and joined the Colony there, which 
in 1C09 removed to Leyden, and in 1620 to America. A patent was obtained 
for the settlement from the New England Council in 1629. It was a grant 
cf the Plymouth plantation to William Bradford, his heirs, associates, etc. 
In 1640 he made over the property to the body of colonists, reserving for 
himself no more than one settler's share. His leisure was largely spent in 
writing, and after his death these interesting manuscripts were published. 
Among them were the following: "A Diary of Occurrences" (relating the 
history of the colony during the first year, and written with the help of 
Edward Winslow) ; " Some Observations of God's Merciful Dealings with 
Us in This Wilderness ; " "A Word to Plymouth ; " " Memoir of Elder 
Brewster," and "History of Plymouth Plantation." (American Supp., Enc. 
Brit., p. 543.) Major William Bradford became the second Governor of the 
Colony (April 21, 1621), succeeding John Carver. While in Leyden he mar- 
ried (November 20, 1613) Dorothea May, by whom he had one son, John, 
born before the emigration, who was in Duxbury in 1645, and in 1652 was a 
deputy to the General Court. William Bradford's wife, Dorothy, was 
drowned in Plymouth Bay, December 7, 1620. On August 14, 1623, he mar- 
ried Alice Carpenter (who came over in the Anne, and died March 26, 1670), 
widow of Edward Southworth. by whom he had — 

Major William Bradford (born June 17, 1624; died July 20, 1704), 
who married Alice, daughter of Thomas Richards of Weymouth (she 
died December 12, 1671, aged 44 years). He married, secondly, the 
Widow Wiswall, and, thirdly. Mr?. Mary Holmes (nee Atwood), who 
died January 6, 1703 William Bradford was Lieutenant-Governor of 
Plymouth. By his first wife. Alice, he had — 
Major John Bradford (1655-1756). first representative of Plymouth 

to the General Court, who married Mercy Warren, granddaughter 

of Richard Warren (3), by whom he had — 

Mercy Bradford, who married Jonathan Freeman, grandson of 
Edmund Freeman (7). (See Freeman Family.) 

Mayflower Descent. 347 


5. Francis Cook 1 came over in the Mayflozver. His wife was Esther 
. by whom he had. with other children. — 

Mary Cook (born, 1626; died March 21, 1715), who married (December 
26, 1645) Lieutenant John Thompson (born, 1606; died, 1696), who 
came to Plymouth in 1621 ; settled at Halifax, 1673 ! was f° r several 
years delegate to the Massachusetts General Court. They had — 
Jacob Thompson (born, 1662; died, 1740), who married Abigail Wads- 
worth, daughter of Captain Samuel Wadsworth. They had — 
John Thompson (born, 1700; died, 1790), who married Joanna 
Adams, and had — 

Joanna Adams Thompson, who married Freeman Waterman. 
(See Waterman Family.) 


Tradition asserts that this family is of Welsh descent, and was an ancient 
family of some military note. Like most of the families of that time, it was 
endowed with a coat of arms. This bears the motto, " Mare Ditat," meaning 
" The Sea Enriches," referring probably to the avocation of one Thomas, 
who finally came to bear the second name of Waterman, possibly because he 
had some commission in the navy, and his descendants were known by the 
same surname. Thomas Waterman left Wales and settled in Norwich, 
England, near the close of the sixteenth century or early part of the seven- 
teenth. From him is supposed to have descended — 

6. Robert Waterman (died, 1655), who was in Plymouth as early as 1635. 
He married Elizabeth Bourns, by whom he had — 

John Waterman (born. 1642; died, 1718), who was one of the first two 
deacons of the church in Plympton. He married Anna, daughter of 
Samuel Sturtevant of Leyden, who had followed the Puritans to 
America, and had — 

Robert Waterman, who married Mary, daughter of Rev. Isaac 
Cushman, and had — 

Thomas Waterman (born, 1707; died, 1789), who married Mercy, 

daughter of Jonathan Freeman, by whom he had — 

Freeman Waterman (born 1748: died, 1833), who was a member 

of the Massachusetts Convention and voted for the Federal 

Constitution. He married Joanna, daughter of John Thompson, 

and had — 

Priscilla Waterman (born, 1782: died, 1S60), who married 
Hon. Josiah Marshall. (See Marshall Family.) 
Waterman Arms — Barry of six argent and gules, three crescents two 
and one, counterchanged ; crest, a lion rampant ; motto, Mare ditat. 

1 Savage says: " Francis Cook came over in the Mayflower, with one child, John. 
His wife, Esther and other children, Jacob, Jane and Esther, came over in the Anne 
in 1623, so that he counted six shares in the division of lands in 1624. In 1626 Alary, 
who married Lieutenant John Thompson, was born, and he (Francis) had seven shares 
at the division of cattle. Francis Cook was called by Bradford, " a very old man 
(in 1650) who saw his children's children have children. He married, in Holland, a 
native of The Netherlands, of the Walloon church; was one of the first purchasers of 
Dartmouth. 1652, and of Middleborough, 1662; he died April 7. 1693. 

348 Rossi a n a. 


7. Edmund Freeman (1590-1682), of Devonshire, England, was early at 
Plymouth ; he was married and had — 

Deacon Thomas Freeman, who was married, and had — 

Jonathan Freeman of Harwich. Mass., who married Mercy, daughter of 

Major John Bradford, and had — 

Mercy Freeman, who married Thomas Waterman. (See Waterman 

Freeman Arms — Azure three lozenges or; crest, a demi-lion rampant 
gules, holding in the paws a lozenge or ; motto, Liber et audax. 


8. Thomas Marshall, who came from England about 1634, was 
descended from Thomas Marshall, one of Cromwell's soldiers, noted for his 
good services at the battle of Naseby, for which he was made a captain ; 
from Naseby he went to Leicester, and thence to Marston Moor. Thomas 
Marshall (1634) was captain of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Com- 
pany in 1640; was admitted freeman in 1641, and was representative to the 
General Court for six years. He died December 23, 1689. He had — 

John Marshall (Sergeant), of Billerica. Mass. (born, 1632; died, 1702), 
who married Mary, daughter of Thomas Burrage of Charlestown, and 

John Marshall (born, 1671 ; died, 1714), who married Eunice, daugh- 
ter of John Rogers (1641-1675), and had — 

Isaac Marshall (born, 1712; died, 1797), who was a Selectman in 
1750. He married Phebe. daughter of Andrew Richardson, and 
had — 

Isaac Marshall (born. 1737; died, 1813), who served as a lieuten- 
ant in the Revolutionary army. He married Abigail, daughter of 
Samuel Brown, and had — 

Hon. Jostah Marshall (born 1773; died 1841), who married 
Priscilla, daughter of Freeman Waterman, of Halifax. (See 
chart of Marshall Family.) 

Marshall Arms — Sable three bars argent, a canton or; crest, out of 
a ducal coronet a stag's head all or. 


HON. JOSIAH MARSHAIvL,=Priscilla Waterman 

Sabina Josiah T. 
b: 1801 b: 1803 
d: 1803 d: 1876 

b: 1805 
d: 1863 

:Rev. Dr. 



b: Aug. 11 


Pres. of 

Univ. of 
and the 
Univ. of 

b: 1807 
d: 1836 

William Foster Otis 

Son of Hon. 

Harrison Gray 


Marshall = Anne Geo. Alleyne Emily— Samuel 

dau. of 
Gov. John 

b: 183.i 
d: 18 18-!) 


Pres. of 

Mary Alleyne=Alexander 
H. Stevens 
of N. Y. 
son of 




of Gen. 


Hon. John Abbie=Samuel A. 
Carter Abbot 

Brown of Boston, 

son of 
Judge Abbot 

William Emily M. 
F. Otis 

Eben Fanny A. I,adenburg=Emily 

Mary E. 

Priscilla=Hon. John M. Henry Marian=John Geo. Charlotte=Com. Horatio 

b: 1808 Read b:1812 Holbrooke b: 1819 Bridge 

d: 1841 U. S. N. 

Gen. John Meredith=Delphine Emily M. Stephen Geo. Otis 

U. S. Minister 

to Greece 
S. A., M. R. I. A. 
K. G. C, O. R. 
etc., etc., etc. 

dau. of 





Bank, etc. 

M. A. 


of L,atin in 





Harmon P. Emily=F. A. Stout John Marie 
b: July 13, Meredith of N. Y. Meredith Meredith 

1860, b: 1863 b: January, b: in Paris, 

F. R. G. S. 18G9 France, 

Pres. of the May, 1873 
Y. M. A. 
of Albany 


County of Northumberland. 

THE family of Governor William Bradford (1589-1657) being connected 
by direct line, through the Hon. Josiah Marshall, of Boston, with the 
family of General John Meredith Read, the pedigree of the Bradford 
family prior to the colonial governor has been deemed of sufficient interest to 
add to this volume. The appended pedigree is from the Genealogist, first 
series, vol. 5, page 293 : 

Paragraph I. Avenel de Bradford was feoffed by Henry I. of Bradford, 
County Northumberland, which he held of the King in capite and per 
baroniam. This appears from the Testa de Neville in a notice of an Alex- 
ander de Bradeford some reigns later (vide, Record Commission Publications, 
P- 393)» where it is stated that the latter held Bradford in capite by Knight's 
Service, as did all his ancestors since the reign of the first Henry (1100-1135), 
who feoffed Avenel de Bradeforde, the ancestor of this Alexander. In 
another part of this record, Bradford, held by the above Alexander de 
Bradeforde, is called a barony. 

From the name, Avenel, it is evident that the above Avenel came from the 
Norman Avenels of the Biarz, as in the early feudal ages the patronymic 
of a great family was never taken as a baptismal name. He must, therefore, 
have been an Avenel who, with his descendants, derived the name of Bradford 
from the place in Northumberland. 

The Avenels of the Biarz are mentioned by Mr. Plandie in his work, " The 
Conqueror and His Companions," and he gives Vincent de Beauvais, an 
historian of the thirteenth century, as his authority for stating that Harold 
Avenel, who was a kinsman of Rollo, first Duke of Normandy, landed with 
him in Normandy in 910, and in 913, when Rollo became Duke, Harold 
acquired the Lordship of Biarz. His descendant, William Avenel, accom- 
panied Duke William to England in 1066 and was distinguished at Senlae 
(incorrectly, Hastings). His grandson, — Avenel, was feoffed of Brad- 
ford by Henry I., and his grandson — 

Paragraph II. Robert de Bradeforde (temp. Henry II.) is returned by 
the Sheriff of Northumberland (14 Henry II.) [1167] as among the Barons 
who did not send on charters of respect to the tenements for the aid of the 
marriage of Maude, daughter of the King. (Vide Magna Rotutis Pipcc, 14 
Henry II.) His son — 

Paragraph III. Alexander de Bradeford pays Scutage of XLs. in 7th 
Richard I. (1195) for two knight's fees (a piece of land yielding an annual 
income of £40) and in order to avoid crossing the sea in the second army 

3^o Rossiana. 

to Normandy. (Vide M. R. P. 7th Rich. I.) He is again mentioned in the 
M. R. P., 9th John (1207). His son and heir — 

Paragraph IV. Alexander de Bradeforde is mentioned in M. R. P., 20th 
Henry III. (1235), as paying 100s. for his relief. In this same year the King 
accepts his homage and gives him livery of his inheritance of all his father's 
lands. (Vide Excerpta et Rotutis Finium [Roberts], vol. 1, p. 307.) In the 
inquisition post mortem on his estate (No. 238, 29th Henry III.) [1244] it 
is stated that he was hereditary keeper of Bamborough Castle at the time of 
his death, and his widow, Ada, is mentioned, and Sybilla de Bradeforde was 
his daughter and heir, aged nine years. (Excerpta et Rotutis Finium 
[Roberts], vol. 1, p. 433.) H ; s brother — 

Paragraph V. Johannes de Bradeforde, called " uncle " of Sybilla, 
(2,2, Henry III.) [1248I ( E. et R. F. [R.], vol. 11. p. 13), paid homage to the 
King as nearest heir and relation to Sybilla, and had livery of all her lands 
as her guardian. His inquisition post portem (50 Henry III.) [1265] states 
that his son and heir — 

Paragraph VI. Alexander de Bradeforde was 19 years old, first 
son (50 Henry III.) [1265]. This Alexander pays homage to the King 
(52 Henry III.) [1267], as son and heir of Alexander, being then of full age, 
and held Bradford in capite per baroniam. and was also hereditary keeper 
of Bamborough Castle, and attended Edward I. into Wales, forty days. He 
was also on the roll of feudal barons under Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of 
Essex and Hereford, at the Mu<ter at Carlisle on the eve of St. John the 
Baptist (28 Edward I.) [1299]. His inquisition post mortem was held loth 
Edward II. [13 16], and his sen and heir — 

Paragraph VII. Thomas de Bradeforde was then 40 years of age. 
His inquisition post mortem was held two years later (12th Edward II.) 
[1318], and it is stated that his mother's name was Elena, and that his son 
and heir ■ — 

Paragraph VIII. Thomas de Bradeforde was four years old. This 
second Thomas left (no dates) a son and heir — 

Paragraph IX. Roger de Bradeforde, of whom no dates are given, but 
whose son and heir — 

Paragraph X. Johannes de Bradeforde, whose inquisition post mortem 
was held 21 Richard II. [1397], in which it is stated that he was a minor. 
Here the record of the Northumberland Bradfords ends, until it is resumed 
in the Visitation of Northumberland, as given in the Genealogist, N. S., 
vol. — , p. — , in the person of Thomas Bradford of Bradford (temp. 

A brother of Roger de Bradford (9) 

Paragraph XI. Henry de Bradford was witness to a release by Robert 
de Molendino to Adam de Stamfordice for lands in Halifax, W. R. York 
(17^2 miles from Leeds and 8J/2 from Bradford) in 1379. (Calender Ancient 
Deeds, vol. 2, p. 247, B. 1943.) His son — 

Paragraph XII. Roger de Bradford was living at Halifax 10 Richard II. 
[1386]. (Cal. Anc. Deeds, vol. 3. p. 50, A. 6540.) He had three sons — 

Pedigree of Bradford of Bradford. 351 

1. William. See No. 13. 

2. Henry, mentioned in his brother John's will; died unmarried. 

3. John Bradford of York, master stonemason, died October 2, 1438. 

In the inventory of his estate (will not published) his brothers, 

William of Wakefield and Henry of Halifax, are mentioned. 

(Surtces Society Pub., vol. 30, p. 192.) 

Paragraph XIII. William Bradford of Wakefield seems to have acquired 

Heath-Hall, in the Parish of Warmfield Hundred, of Wakefield, W. R. York, 

by marriage with the daughter and heiress of Thomas Heath of Heath-Hall. 

His two sons were — 

1. William. See No. 14. 

2. Thomas Bradford of Bradford, W. R. York (for whose line, see 

Visitation of York, Hasliean Collection, vol. 16, p. 36). He 
married Elinor, daughter of John Horseley of Wychester, and, 
dying in 1477, had — 

1. Jasper of Bradford ; married Ogle of Chapyngton, and 
had — 

1. Ralph of Bradford; married Euphemia, daughter 
of Gilbert Manners of Ithell, and had — 

1. John of Bradford; married Isabel, daugh- 

ter of Edward Craston of Babyngton, 
and had — 

1. Margaret, died s. p. 

2. Thomas of Bradford; married Elinor, 

daughter of Leonard Moreton of More- 
ton, Co. Northumberland, and had — 

1. Thomas of Bradford; married 

Jane, daughter of John Claver- 
ing, and had — 

1. Elizabeth, living 1565. 

2. Philippa, living 1565. 

3. Thomas, living 1565. 

4. Florence, living 1565. 

2. Robert. - 

3. William. 

4. George. 

5. Lyonell. 

6. Uycolas. 

7. Hugh. 

8. Bertram. 

9. Anthony. 

10. Jane; married George Tomson. 

11. Constance; married Roger Armerer. 

12. Margaret. 

13. Julyan. 

3. Antony. 

4. George. 

5. Elizabeth. 

352 Rossi a ii a. 

2. Edward. 

3. Agnes ; married John Hall. 

4. Cyssely ; married Robert Carr. 

5. Mabell ; married Robert Bylieu. 

6. Margaret ; married Fenwycke. 

7. Elenor ; married, first, Games Walles ; second, Ralf 


2. George. 

3. Oswald. 

4. Bertram. 

5. Elinor; married Sir Edward Gray. 

6. Philippa : married John Byll. 

7. Grace; married Alexander Chester. 

Paragraph XIV. William Bradford, inherited Heath Hall (called 
" Heth " in the old documents) and various other properties from his mother, 
besides which, he himself acquired a very considerable estate partly by pur- 
chase and partly through his wife, Isabel, who seems, like his mother, to have 
been an heiress. He died in December, 1476; will dated December 14, 1474; 
proved January 23, 1477. (Testamenta Eboraca, Vol. III. Surteer Society 
Publication, Vol. 53, p. 108.) Calls himself " William Bradeforde of Warm- 
field " and orders that out of his lands in Preston, Jacklyn, Featherstone and 
Ayketon, a sufficient sum be taken to furnish a chaplain to say masses for 
his soul for three years, in the chapel of the Holy Trinity at Warmfield and 
at St. Tithe in Bradford. To Isabel, his wife, he leaves the lands at " Le 
Heth" (Heath Hall) and Over-Walton for life; to his son Bryan, the lands 
at Stanley, Outethorp and Wakefield; mentions grandson George, son of 
Bryan ; daughter Constance and daughter Agnes St. Paul ; son John his heir 
and residuary legatee. His issue were — 

1. John. See No. 15. 

2. Bryan of Stanley, Outethorpe and Wakefield (for pedigree as 

follows : See Foster's Yorkshire Pedigrees, p. 326 ; Surtees Society 
Pub., Vol. 36, p. 229, and Visitation of York, Har. Coll., Vol. 16, 
p. 37). Bryan had — 

1. George of Stanley; married Alice Manleverer, and had — 
t. Bryan of Stanley; married Alice, daughter and heir 
of Amyas Horreberry, and had — 

1. Bryan, died in infancy. 

2. Thomas, died in infancy. 

3. Robert of Stanley; married (1562) Elizabeth, 

daughter of Anthony Thornley, and had — 
1. Robert, son and heir, aged 22, 1585; 

married Fletcher and had — 

1. William of Arksey, aged 58 
in 1658; married Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Hector 
Cooper, and had ■ — 

1. John, aged 30 in 
166^ ; married Is- 

Pedigree of Bradford of Bradford. 353 

abel, daughter of 
Launcelot Roper. 

2. Robert, living 1665. 

3. Jane, living 1665. 

4. Dorothy, living 1665 ; 

married Thomas 

5. Elizabeth, living 1665. 

2. John. 

3. Anne. 

4. Frances ; married Giles Williamson. 

4. William. 

5. Isabel ; married Cornwall. 

6. Grace ; married Avery Copley. 

7. Elizabeth ; married Myghill Cover. 

8. Alice; married Nicholas Peck. 

3. Constance. 

4. Agnes ; married St. Paul. 

Paragraph XV. John Bradford inherited Heath Hall, and all the bulk of 
his father's estate, except that bequeathed to Bryan. He enumerated in an 
inventory, which forms part of his will, all his various properties, as follows • 
"Warmfield, Heth, Sharreston, Walton, Sandall, Wakefield, Bradford, 
Byngley, Baildon, Ferdiston, Aketon, Preston Jacklyn, Pomfret, Newsome- 
Grange, Auster (intended for Austerfield), Skellow, Burghwales, Ferybridge, 
Friston, Wilford, Lumby, Saxton, Scarthingwell, and in the City of York; 
also, two messuages in Boldhame. a close called Barrode, another called 
Bradford-Cliffe. and Robyurod ; one in Wilesdon ; one in Coken ; one called 
Magotynge in Manyngham. His wife was named Agnes. He died in Decem- 
ber, 1495; will dated April 1, 1495; proved January 21, 1496. (Testamenta 
Eboracca III, Vol. 53, p. 108, Snr. Soc. Pub.) He leaves instructions "to be 
buried in my parishe chirche of Warmfield in a chapell which is in beldynge 
ther in the north parte of the same affore one ymage of oure Lady to be sett 
opon the same syde. To the makynge of the body of the saide chirche XXs. 
To the parishe clerke for syngyne and ryngynge my soule knyll vid I will 
that every yere an abite be done by my prest Sir William Okes which I putt 
in thier, to synge for the soule of me. Agnes my wife, oure Childir, my 
fader, my moder, and my heires I will that if it fortune me to discease at 
Sallay wher I now am, I bequeath to the Abbot and convent ij oxen in 
recompense for the charge and cost thai have done me, and for to say a 
trentall of Masses called Saynt. Gregorie Trentall for my Soule. To Alice 
Watton, my doughtyr, XLs to help hir and hir childir. To Jane my doughtyr 
ij quhies. To every ot my servanntes beynge in mans taile xiijs. iiijd. The 
residue of my landes to William Bradford my cosyn and heire " [Mr. Surtees 
says the word "cosyn" in those days meant nephew or grandson; in the 
present case it meant the latter. — W. D.] " but if he vex troubell or interrupe 
any of the persones to whom any estate shall be made, then my feoffes to 
re-enter on all his landes. and retayne and kepe theme for hym. And also, 
if he so doo, then the sentaunce of Almighty God with my curse and malison, 



and his moders, and his grandame's descende and fall opon hym, and all his 
parte taken herein ; and if he do not contrary to this my will in noo poynte 
then the grete and holy blissings of Almighty God descende and fall opon 
hym, and his blode, which shall be lawfully gottyn of his body Sine-fine 
Yeven at the Abbay of oure Lady of Sallay." 

Mr. Bradford appears to have been on a pilgrimage to the famous Abbey 
of Our Lady of Sallay in Normandy when this will was made, which is a 
singular one, as he completely ignores his son and heir, John. His widow, 
Agnes, died in November, 1496, and letters of administration were granted 
to her son, " John Bradford of Heath Hall," December 5, 1496, thus showing 
that William Bradford, the heir of his grandfather, was already dead, under 
age and intestate. The children were — 

1. John. See No. 16. 

2. Alice; married Watton. 

3. Jane, died s. p. 

Paragraph XVI. John Bradford of Heath Hall, called "Jr.," to distinguish 
him from his father, who is called " Sr.," inherited Heath Hall as next-of-kin 
and heir-at-law of his eldest son, William, who predeceased him. This sec- 
ond John Bradford died July 1. 1506: will dated June 20; proved July 9, 1506. 
(Sur. Soc. Pub., Vol. 53, p. 109.) Mentions his wife Allison, son and heir 
John and grandsons John Thomas and William. He had, therefore — 

1. William, heir to his grandfather, but who died unmarried and 

intestate after December, 1495, and before December, 1496. 

2. John. See No. 17. 

Paragraph XVII. John Bradford 3d of Heath Hall, succeeded to Heath 

Hall. He married Elizabeth . He died in October, 15 16. Will dated 

June 20; proved November 2, 1316 {Sur. Soc. Pub.. Vol. 53, p. 109) mentions 
wife Elizabeth, son and heir John, sons Thomas and William (to the latter 
of whom he leaves his lands at Auster), and his daughter Johanna, wife of 
John Sheffield, and Beatrix, wife of Nicholas Tempest. His widow took 
the veil, as we learn in Vol. 45, p. 369, Sur. Soc. Pub.: " 1516, November 28, 
License to Richard Bishop of Negropont to veil Elizabeth, widow of John 
Bradford of Heath Hall par Warmfield." They had, therefore — 

1. John, 4th of Heath Hall: married Beatrix ; he died 8 Octo- 

ber 1337 (Genealogist, 2d Series. Vol. 10. p. [86). 

1. Robert, son and heir, aged 15. 

2. Beatrix, aged 9. 

2. Thomas, of whom no further mention is made. 

3. William. See No. 18. 

4. Johanna ; married John Sheffield, brother of Sir Robert Sheffield, 

created Baron Sheffield in 1547, and whose grandson became 
Earl of Mulgrave. 

5. Beatrix; married Nicholas Tempest of Holmeside. 

Paragraph XVIII. William Bradford, third son of John Bradford of 
Heath Hall, who inherited the lands of his father at Auster, County York, 
which is clearly identical with Austerfield, which lies in the extreme southern 
part of tlie West Riding York, \V 2 miles from Scrooby post over the line in 

Pedigree of Bradford of Bradford. 355 

Nottingham, where the Brewsters lived. We know nothing further of this 
William, but it is apparently evident that he was the father of another — 

Paragraph XIX. William Bradford of Auster or Austerfield, born prob- 
ably about 1530 or 1535, and who in 1575 is designated as " William Bradford 
Yeoman." He and John Hanson were the two only property owners in 
Austerfield at that date. The name of his wife is not given. He died June 
10, 1596. Styled " Yeoman " in will. The Bradfords of Heath Hall used for 
arms, "Argent, on a fesse sable, three stags' heads rased or." Crest, '"A stag's 
head erased or." He had issue (New Eng. Register 4, p. 39) — 

1. William. See No. 20. 

2. Thomas, born 1559; had a daughter — 

I. Margaret, baptized March 9, 1578. 

3. Robert, baptized 25 March 1561; buried April 23, 1609; married 

January 31, 1585, Alice Wingate, and had — 

1. Robert, born 1590; married Elizabeth Wright. She was 

buried June 6, 1673 (Miscellanea Genet Hen., 2d Series, 
Vol. 2, pp. 33i-32-33)> and had — 

1. Richard, mentioned in the will of his maternal 
uncle Robert Wright; had issue — 
1. John; married June 10, 1679, Mary Danbie, 
and had — 

1. Sara, baptized January 23, 1680. 

2. William, baptized April 29, 1683. 

2. Mary, under age in 1609. 

3. Elizabeth, under age in 1609. 

4. Margaret, under age in 1609. 

4. Elizabeth, baptized July 31, 1570; married, January 20, 1585. Joseph 

Paragraph XX. William Bradford (3d) of Austerfield, born, 1557; mar- 
ried, 1584, Alice, daughter of John Hanson, and died before his father in 
1591 ; buried July 15. Had issue — 

1. Margaret, baptized 8 March 1585, d. y. 

2. Alice, baptized 30 October 1587, d. y. 

3. William. (See No. 21.) 

Paragraph XXI. William Bradforth (4th) of Austerfield, was baptized 
March 19, 1589. Brought up by his uncle Robert. In 1609 he joined the Pil- 
grims in Leyden and married there 20 Nov., 1613, Dorothea May. They came 
over in the Mayflower in 1620, and Dorothea was drowned in -Plymouth Bay, 
Dec. 7, 1620. Had one son — 

1. John, born 1614: married Martha Bourne but dep. 1678. April 21, 
1621, Mr. Bradford was elected Governor in place of John Carver, 
and Aug. 14, 1623, he married Alice Carpenter, widow of Edward 
Southworth. The Governor died May 9, 1657. Mrs. Bradford 
died 26 March 1670. They had — 

1. William, born 17 June 1624; died July 20, 1704. He was 
Lieutenant-Governor of Plymouth; married, first, Alice 
daughter of Thomas Richards; she died Dec. 12, 1671, 

356 Rossiana. 

aged 44; married, secondly, the widow Wiswall ; mar- 
ried, thirdly, Mrs. Mary Ho'mes ncc Atwood, who died 
6 January, 1713. 

2. Mercy, born 1627, married Benj. Vermayes. 

3. Joseph, born 1630, married May 22d, 1664, Jael, daughter 

of Rev. Peter Hobart; she died in 1730, aged 88; either 
this Joseph or his son moved to Connecticut; date of 
death not known. 

Avenel Sires de Biard or Es Biard. 
(From "Roll of Battle Abbey," by the Duchess, of Cleveland, vol. Ill, p. 353.) 
Biarz, now Les Biards, is in the Canton of Isigny, Arrondissement of 
Mortaine, Normandy, about 17 miles west by north of Bayeux. And the 
Avenels were Hereditary Seneschals of the Counts of Mortaine. They wire 
descended from Harold Avenel, called Harold the Dane, a kinsman of Rollo. 
His descendant, Hugh Avenel of the Biarz, in 1030 granted the Church of 
Ste Marie de Bleme to Marmontier Abbey, with the consent of his son and 
heir Herve de Avenel de Biarz, whose son and heir in 1067 was Ligembcrt 
Avenel de Es Biarz, and his son " Osmellinus qui cognominahatur Avenellus," 
is mentioned in a charter of Robert de Say as early as 1060. This latter 
Avenel had six sons, the eldest of which, William de Avenel de Es Biarz, 
came to England in the train of the Count of Mortaine and fought at Leulae, 
but appears to have returned to Normandy. His sons were William Avenel, 
called " Avenel de Haddon " on account of being feoffed by Henry I of the 
great estate of Haddon in Derbyshire, and Robert Avenel, called "Avenelde 
Bradford " for the same reason in Northumberland. For Robert's line 
see page 1 of the Bradford Record : William Avenel of Haddon was the 
grandfather of Robert Avenel of Haddon, who in 1169 was witness to a 
donation to Lenton Priory and to the foundation charter of Welbeck Abbey. 
He was also a witness, as Robert Avenel de Biarz, to a charter granted to 
the Nuns at Mouton by the Count of Mortaine, dated at Tinchebray in 1 158. 
This line ended in an heiress, Alice Avenel, daughter of William Avenel, 
" King of the Peak " in Derbyshire, with Mont Meland, Gariz, Anvers, Rove- 
strat, etc., in Normandy, who married William de Vernon, youngest son of 
Warnre de Vernon, Fourth Feudal Baron of Shipbrooke, and carried Had- 
don into the Vernon Family. Haddon Hall has been a famous place for 

From younger sons of the First William Avenel of Haddon descended 
the Avenels of Bedford, Gloucester, Cambridge, Devon, Leicester, and the 
famous Scotch Line of Avenel, Lords of Eskdale in Mid-Lothian. 


THE Pumpelly family, mentioned in the Read pedigree, is of interest. 
The first of the name in this country was Jean Pompili, whose family 
came from Avignon and whose ancestors came there from Spoletto, 
Italy, in the train of Cardinal Abornoz. His son, Jean Pompili, was a sea 
captain at Plymouth and was knocked overboard by a boom and drowned a 
short time before the birth of his son, John Pumpely or Pompilie. His wife, 
who was a Miss Monroe, married again, a Rev. Mr. Glover. John Pumpely 
ran away from home at fifteen years. 1757, and enlisted in Captain John Lor- 
ing's company of His Majesty's foot as a drummer boy; he made the whole 
campaign of the French and Indian war. married Miss Eppen Hillebranz Mei- 
jer, a lady by birth, of Dutch extraction. He was made a sergeant for distin- 
guished bravery, carrying despatches to Fort William Henry through a hostile 
country. He was one of the Crown Point expedition, at one time a member 
of Rodgers' Rangers and a messmate and friend of Daniel Webster's father. 
He was a commissary under General Putnam at the time of the battle of 
Saratoga. He married secondly Hannah, daughter of Captain Samuel 
Bushnell, of Salisbury, Conn. He was superintendent of the Connecticut 
Iron Mine and furnace for casting cannon. He removed, in 1803, with his 
family to Broome county, New York, near Owego, where his son, Hon. James 
Pumpelly, had settled and had become a wealthy man. The latter part of his 
life he was a surveyor and farmer. After leaving the army for a time he 
was an architect. He died in 1819, aet. 92 years. 

He had by his first wife the following children: Bennett, Barnet, Elizabeth, 
John, Eppen and Samuel, and by his second wife he had James, Charles, 
Jerusha, Maria, Harriet, William and Harmon. 

The sons by his second wife, James, Charles, William and Harmon became 
very rich men for their day. Their fortunes were made very early in the 
19th century, and they became conspicuous for their hospitality, ability and 
kindliness. All of them married into old families. In Tioga county the 
Pumpelly family is by far the most prominent of the many county families 
of the local gentry. 

Descent of the Pumpelly Family from John Pumpelly. 

The annexed chart, containing the descent of the Pumpelly family from 
John Pumpely, of Connecticut, was prepared from a family tree drawn up 
by John H. Pumpelly, Esq., from one made by the author in the year 1878-9, 
under the direction of Harmon Pumpelly, Esq., President of the Albany 
Savings Bank. The Pumpelly pedigree last mentioned contained much 
matter not in the original tree, and which was secured by Mr. Pumpelly and 
myself after much writing and careful work. In the following narrative 
reference is had to the numbers used in the accompanying chart : 

358 Rossiana. 



was a soldier in the French and Indian wars and Com- 


in the American Revolution. He died in 1819, at 92 years. He 


first, Eppen Hillebranz Meijer, by whom he had — 


Bennett, who married E. Merrill, and had — 







( + ) 





Daniel, died young 


George, died young. 


Oreal, died young. 


Barnet, w 

ho served throughout the Revolution. 



died voting. 


John, who married Mary French, and had — 


Mary, died voting. 




Celia, died young. 


















Eppen (it Appy), married Seth Samson, and had- — 




















Samuel married Sarah True, and had — 






Rhoda Merrill. 


Allura Susana. 


Eppen, or Appy, 2d (Mrs. Merrill). 


Samuel Barnard, died unmarried. 




George, died young. 


John, came to Owego in 1844. 


Josiah Bonne}'. 



( 12.) 

Solon Dexter, died unmarried. 

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Pit in pel I y Family. 359 


John Pumpelly married, secondly. Hannah Bushnell, daughter of Captain 
Samuel Bushnell, of Salisbury, Conn. They had — 

1. Hon. James Pumpelly, born in Salisbury, Conn., 1775; died in 
Owego, N. Y., October 4, 1845. He was a member of the New 
York State Assembly in 1810, was President of the Board of 
Trustees of Owego, and first President of the Owego Bridge Co. 
He married Mrs. Mary Tinkham (born in Stockbridge, Mass.. 
May 11, 1777; died at Owego, June 4, i848),widoy of Dr. Samuel 
Tirikham and daughter of Colonel David Pixley, of the Revolution, 
deceased. They had — 

1. George James (born December 11, 1805; married Susan 
Isabella Pumpelly, April 24, 1832; died May 9, 1873). 
She died July 30, 1864. They had — 

1. James Kent (born April 25, 1833) married Elizabeth 

C. Beal, by whom he had — 

(1.) George James, born June 25, 1864; died 
April 24, 1873. 

2. Charles Frederick (born May 9, 1835). 

3. Josiah Collins (born August 16, 1839) married 

Mrs Winslow. 

4. George Brinckerhoff (born July 27, 1842) married 

, and had — 

(1.) William. 

(2.) George. 

(3.) Frederick Collins. 

5. Alary Susan (born, February 1, 1845) married 

A. Wordsworth Thompson. 

2. Lydia Abbey (born February 13, 1808), married Dr. Ezekiel 

Love joy. They had — 

1. James, married Powell, and had — 

(1.) Lydia A. 

(2.) Anna Fredericka, who married Dr. Rob- 
ert Watts Eastman. 

2. Frederick. 

3. Frederick Henry (born January 13, 1810), married Sarah 

Ann Hewitt, January 5, 1847; died May 15. 1867). She 
died July 27. 1881. They had — 

1. James Frederick (born November 2, 1847), married 

Maria Louisa Field, October 12, 1869. They 
had — 

(1.) Mary Josephine (born February 27, 1871). 

(2.) Laurence (born July 3, 1881). 

2. Fredericka H. (born May 10, 1849), married first, 

Edward J. Raymond, January 1, 1871 (he died 
October 11, 1883), and. secondly, Frank Wooster 
Elwood, April 7, 1885. By her first husband she 
had — 

(1.) Victoria R. (born July 28, 1872). 

360 Rossi a ii a. 

3. Gurdon H. (born June 30, 1851), married Kismissia 

B. Armstrong, December 24, 1879. They had — 
(1.) Frederick Armstrong (born January 28, 

4. Mary Eliza (born February 15, 1855; died January 

14, 1864). 

5. Sarah Antoinette (born January 6, 1861), married 
A. Ericsson Perkins, August 24, 1884. They had — 

(1.) Harold A. 
(2.) Spencer A. 


2. Hon. Charles Pumpelly (born in Salisbury, Conn., 1776) came to 
Owego, N. Y., with his father in 1803. He was member from 
Broome County in the Constitutional Convention of 1S21 ; member 
of the New York State Assembly in 1825 ; died in Owego in 1855. 
He married Frances Avery (born January 9, 1775) on September 
2, 1803. They had — 

1. John Charles (born October 28, 1804; died, unmarried 

March 9, 1830). 

2. Mary Ann (born December 31, 1806), married George 

Bacon. She died February 6, 1845. They had — 

(1.) Charles, who married ■ — , and had — 

(1.) Mary. 
(2.) Albert, married , and had — 

(1.) Jessie, married Dr. Krogstadt. 
(3.) Frances, married Ransom, and had — 

(I.) Sarah. 

3. Susan Isabella (born April 24, 1809), married her cousin, 

George James Pumpelly. She died July 30, 1864. 

4. Frances Eliza (born March 9, 181 1), married Hon. Joseph 

Solace Bosworth. She died March 30, 1879. They had — 
(1.) Frances Avery Virginia. 
(2.) Nathaniel Pumpelly. 

(3-) Josephine, married General Charles Yates. They 
had — 

(1.) Frances B. 

(2.) Stella, married Geurt Gansevoort 
(4.) Stella, married George Carleton See. They 
had — 

(1.) Josephine. 
(2.) Adele Merrick. 
(5.) George. 

(6.) Charles, married Julia Beekman. 
(7.) Mary, married John Saxe. They had — 

(1.) John Godfrey. 
(8.) Joseph, married Mary Wray. 

Pumpelly Family 


(9.) Frederick. 

(10.) Francis Howard. 

5. Catherine Ann (born February 28, 1813), married Hon. John 

Mason Parker. She died December 30, 1845. 

6. Harriet Amelia (born June 28, 1815), married